ページの画像
PDF
ePub

SER TOMAS Rowę, Merchant Tailor, These seem to have been all the Mayor 1568, built a convenient room in Chief Magistrates that in the course St. Paul Church-yard, to receive a number of auditors in sermon-time *. H was situated on the south side of the

Moon, addressing the Chief Magistrate Cross, is appears by his name there Frore where the sun doth seitle in his wain, fixed. He enclosed also this year, with

And yokes his horsos 10 his fiery car, a brick wall, a piece of grouud near

And in his course gives life to Ceres' corn ;

Even from the torrid zone behold I come, Bethlem, for a burying-place for such parishes in LONDON as wanted CHURCH

A stranger, strangely mounted, as you see,

Seated upon a lusty Luzarn's back,
YARDS +.
SIR Wetstone Dixie, Skimer, Mayor This emblein ihus in show significant.

To offer to your honour (goud my Lord!) lö85, is mentioned, as the inauguration

[Pointing to the Pageint, which erhi. of this Magistrate was rendered rc

bited a beautiful girl gorgeously apmarkable by the pageant that was ex.

parciled, who personified London.) hibited upon thu occasion, October 29

- The Moor continues Lo ! lovely LONDON, rich and fortunate, Fam'd thro the world for peace and happím.

ness,

Beautified thro'ly as her state requires, This was for the Nobility, &c. frequent. Is here advanc'd, and set in highest seat. ing the sermons at Paul's Cross, which were

First over her a princely trophy stands, preached in the open air. There were, it is Of beaten gold ; rich and royal arms, irue, covered galleries surrounding the area; Wheretu this London evermore bequeatlus but by their construction, as far as it can be

Service of honour and of loyalty. conjectured, we stareld suppose that they per props are well advised Magistrales, afforded but little shelter froin the weather,

That carefully attend her person still. These sermons were in many instances politi- The honest Franklin and the Husbandman cal, in others familiar: reproofs were here Lay down their sacks of corn at London's given, denunciations read, and sentences

feet, promulgated ; so that it is no wonder that

And bring such presents as the country the place was crowded, and a retiring room

yields. deemed a convenicuce.

The pleasant Thames, a sweet and dainty + This is a proof that any parts of the

nynap!!,

For London's good conveys, with gentle Ancient city of London were as closely built, ayd as crowded with houses, &c., as they are

stream,

And safe and easy passage, what she can, al present.

And keeps her leaping fisties in her lap. This pageant, as a trait of the manners

The soldier * and the sailor * frankly both of the times, is, in description, extremely

For London's aidd are all in readiness curious: it is absolutely theatrical, and has To venture out to fight by land and sca. a much larger portion of good sense in it

And this thrice reverend honourable dame, thrau nany pageants that are displayed in Science ti the sap of every commonwealth other places in this age. Whether it was

Surnam'u Neritanical or Liberal, written by the City Port, or a courtly author,

Is vow'd to honour LONDON with her skill. we do not now: but it is certainly value able, not only for the poetry, but because it This may serve as a specimen of the Piwn describes the flourishing state of the metro. logue to this J1 AS9th, which is considerably polis in the days of Elizabeth. It may be longer. The dramatis persone, represented said, that the ingenious author has made by the CHILDREN of the Pageant, are, Lon. a liberal ase of the poetical licence, and Dox, Mags AIMI'IY, LOYALTY, THE COUNdealt largely in fiction : but this we deny, TRY, THE THAMES, THE SOLDIER, TUI for two reasons; ist, becanse the very exhi SAILOR, SCIENCE, and first, second, third bition of such a splendid spectacle showed and fourth Nya Pals, who lave all appro the flourishing state of the city wherein it was priate speech assigued to them; so that displayed; and, 2d, because the historians the picge, as luas been observed, becomes and poets of the time (of the latter Spenser dramatic; and, while it displays the opuand Shak-peare, for instance, and Jonson lence of the city, also shows the drama in a shortly after,) bare corroborated and con · yery advance state. Sirined him. The pageant opens with a The French carried these spectacles to speech from a character apparelled in a a great excess, and, we think, anticipated Mourish habit, and mounted upon the back them; for upon the entry of Louis the Xith : of a LUZARN. (What kind of beast a Luzurn was we are yet to learn ; but there is in

* Pointing to them. die exordium something Miltonic.)

† Pointing & Science,

of the century had distinguished them- began, from its grand emporium, Lor. selves by adding to the beauty, the Don, to float its barks upon more adsplendor, or the convenience of the venturous keels than it hal hitherto city of London. Cut although the pos- launched upon the wide-extended ocean. sessors of the civic chair did not, in The spirit of the times is always this instance, take the lead, many of guideil by the spirit of the Monarchi; the aldermen, merchants, and opulent and that of Henry the Viith, after citizens, exerted theinselves in a man be had attained the throne, was by Der highly honourable to their cha- no means warlike. Ilis frugal, or raracters, and extremely advantageous ther bis avaricious propensities, under to the metropolis. Of the effects of the influence of uncommon sagacity, these exertions we shall presentiy have soon induced him to prefer peace to occasion to take notice; but must first war, for two reasons: the first was, recur to the date to which we have that he had no tasto for foreign acquibefore alverted, viz. 1475, to show the sitions; in these he saw that visionary cause that produced them.

and uncertain glory was always altende From this perial there scems to have ed with certain expense; and, secondly, been an einancipation of the civic mind; because from the obstruction of comin consequence of which, commerce, merce he contemplated a defalcation rising superior to rivalry, and relieved of revenue. So that in the beginning from fears, ratber than actual restraints, of his reign laying it down as a fixed

principle never to engage in any war

without an absolute necessity, he perinto Tournar, in tlic year 1463, the inost severed in it to the conclusion. This beautiful girl in the city descended from prudent resolution, though in its opethe top ofthe gale by a machine, and saluting ration the Moparch consulted his own the King, threw open her robe before her besoi, which displayed a heart, which part. those of his subjeets, was eventually of

ease and his own interest, rather than ed, and a large pienr ce lis issued forth. This she presented to the king, saying, “Sire, i amazing al vantage to the city of Lonain a virgin, and so is the cits, for it never

don ; and, in conjunction with the inwas taken *, nor ever turned against the fucuce of the political situation of Eu Kings of France, every one of its inhabitants rope, laid that foundation of commerhaving a fieur de lis in his heart +.” In cial permanence upon which the superall the entries of ille Kings of France, a structure of even our present trade is maid arrayed in white used to address them, erected. Cautious, regular *, patient, and

present the keys of the town. This was a and parsimonious, Henry the viith custom derived from the Germans, who possessed qualities that would certainly thought that there was something divine have been useful in the counting-house, in yoang virgins :. At the gate of Si. Denis, though he had not, in his disposition, (Paris, i many pieces in the nature of par liberality sufficient to have entitled him displayed in the entry of Ischeur de Bariere, to the appellation of a Royal MERQueen of Charles the VIth, was the most

CUANT. remarkable. Sir James Pemberton, Gold.

The circuinstance from which his sinith, Mayor 1611, made a splendid display, memory derives the greatest bonour, wirich was celebrated in a pamphlet called was his endeavouring to improve the Chryso-Thriumhos, the Triumphs of Gold; be architectural taste of the age, and his ing a description of the shows at bus in consequent exhibition of so pure a spcaugurarior., at the charge of the Coldsonitis, cimen of the best Gothic stile in his written by Anthony Mundey, Citizen and chapel at Westmiusier t, which, it must Draper ; inprinted by Willian Juggurd, Printer to the City. London's Jus Hono: gorium, we have before observed, was also

* This Monarch, it is said, kept a hook, published in the mayoralty in Sir George in which, like some court registers of which Whitmora, 1631 ; being a description of the

we have read, he noted down, with his own sandry triumphs, pageants, and shows, at hand, the qualities and characters of the his initiation. By Thomas Heywood.

persons whom he knew, in order that lie miult en ploy or reject them as occasion

seriell. A favourite monkey, set on, as it Tonrnay was, however, taken by Henry was idonght, by one of his Chamberlains, the VIllit, 24th September, 1514. Yet the one day destroyed this valuable rwand-cript'; gare stilt retained ihis inscription, " Thou at which the Kmg appeared excecdugly hast never lost thy virginity."

griere.l.-Bacon, p. 627. + Monstrelei; «Vok-İH p. 1

. 101.

+ Henry the Ilih, it has freqnently Tacitus, cap &

been obscrved, had few expeusave propeda

be observed, was founded in the year its beauty consists more in the work150?; a period when this fascinating manship than either in the plan or species of building was in its meridian. elevation. We think that elegance and it is impossible to behold this vcnerable art pervades and combines all these Yestige of ancient genius without a.Imi- parts, and that it is one of those happy ration : yet, it has been said, perhaps efforts of taste and true proportion,

which, as the late Sir William Chambers

observed of a part of the ancient Soinersities ; but he seems to have taken some plea- set House, always produces einotions of sure in architectural improvements, and occasionally to have sparedi neither pains nor

pleasure, though we cannot technically expense in the indulgence of this laudable

define the source from which they are predilection.

derived *. It is a curious circumstance, that he built At the beginning of the reign of three houses for that sect of Franciscans Henry the vilith, a period which must, called Correntuals, and three others for an in its course, be noted for dilapidation other sect of them called Observants, which rather than erection, a most extrathe l'andalic taste of his son destroyed. lle ordinary operation in fiscal arrangealso, upon an enlarged and more magnificentment took place upon the publicatiou plan, rebuilt Baynard's Castle, and enlarged the of a proclaination, encouraging those palace at Greenwich, which he named Plu

who had been oppressed by the Miniscentia. Upon his chapel at Westminster he is said to have (accor ling to some histo

ters of the late King to make their rians) expended fourteen thousand pounds *; complaints, not so much with a view of according to others

, twenty thousand pounds. obtaining satisfaction as Revenge. This Perhaps truth may lie betwist the two ex bulletin, as it would now perhaps be tremes: however, it certainly cost a large called, was levelled at those iwo Minissain for those days. This magnificent build. ters, EDMUND Dudley and Richard ing was erected on the site of a chapel built Expson; both of whom, although they by Henry the IIId, and of a tavern which had offices in the city, resided in Westhad been long distinguished by the sign of minster t. the White Rose, the cognizance of the house of York. Whether he chose this particular spot for the pleasure of destroying this, one of the last restiges of the family, is un

* The tomb of Henry the VIIth, perfected certain." The Red Rose tavern, wbich was

by his executors, is said to have cox: a thou. opposite, remained for ages after; indeed sand pounds, which, as money went then, it is said, that the Ship public-house, and

might be thought a sumptuous monument, some other wouden buildings, which have (Herbert, p. 2.) Yet this was exclusive of latolv bren taken down to make room for the

the sculptures in brass, which are extremely new Gothic screen to the House of Commons, beautiful, and were executed during the lio were part of this famous tavern. If we can

of the Monarch, by an Italian who had been get over the length of time, there certaily disciple to Donato, or Donatella, who formed was nothing, either in their exterior or inte

the gates of a church in Florence (casts troin rior architecture, to contradict the assertion.

which are in the Royal Academy.) These The three houses seemed to have been one

Michael Angelo said were worthy to be mansion, and in the centre one (ile Slip) the gates of Paradise. there was actually many symptoms of its

† The house of Dudley, it has been ascese having been long dedicated to conviviality; tained, was near the west gate of the Abbey, or, if we advert to the days of York and

upon the spot where several ancient buildings, Lancaster's disputed sway," we should rather

one of which was lately occupied by the say, to party.

Clerk to the Dean and Chapter, now stand : The chapel at Windsor also owes its rise to

he was of a respectable fanily, and eninent Ilenry the VIlth. The palace of the Savoy; for his literary attainments. Empson's house, built in the reign of Henry the IIId, and

in West.cinster, was probably a part withe which is the only metropolitan vestige of the

Exchequer; another that he hart in the city castellated taste of architecture remaining,

was cailed the Performse, in Fleet-steci, il he appropriated to the purposes of an hos

the parish of St. Bride's $. Dudle'a was a pital, for which it was much itler. A gene

man ot learning and an encourager of literasal view of the Savoy froin the River

ture: be is said to have had a printing-press Thames, and of the Savoy Hospital in the

in the Almonry. While in confinement, be Suraud, with the Chapei, have been pub

wrote a piece called “The Tree of the Come dested by the Antiquarian Society.

monwealth," which is still in manuscript. * It has been conjectured by an able calcylator, that such a building would now cost This house was given tu Wolsey by least five tiiucs that'ściu.

Henry the VIlluh.

If such an invitation was now held the VIIIth exhibited of that sanguinary out against any Commissioners or Colo and capricious disposition which was aflectors of Taxes, we can, from expe- terward so conspicuous, and which was rience of the disputes which their attended with such important consequennecessary exertions so frequently engen- ces to the metropolis, to the country, der, very easily conceive the consequence, and to Europe. A taste for show, splenComplaints poured into the Court from dor, and an ostentatious display of inagevery quarter of the metropolis, where- nificence, was in his inind equally prein it appears that their operations or doininant. This, as the young Monarch extortions had cither becn more con was the glass in which the youth of spicuous, or more keenly felt, than England viewed themselves, soon disin the country.

But none of those persed all the frugal ideas that the could be substantiated; and these Mi- avaricious habits and example of his nisters would have been convicted of father had elicited among the people* ; nothing but a faithful, though perhaps and as it afforded him the means of rigorous, discharge of their duty, had annihilating, with respect to his own not two sacrifices to the clamour that expenses and domestic arrangement, he had raised, been deemed ik'cessary by every trace of royal prudence, so the the Monarch: therefore, after several profusion of the Court banished parrespites, they were, in 1510, executed simony froin the City. upon a charge which, had it been true, But although Henry the Villth was ought rather to have consigued them to at this time, to the greatest excess, Bethlem *.

fond of external magnificence; though This event we bave thought proper to his attendant nobles, his officers of state, notice, as it was the first trait that Henry his gentlemen, bis domestics, and his

guards, were clad in habits the most splendid, and the higher order of them

adorned with jewels, and other grna• It is difficult to conceive how ductile ments, the most superb and costly; the human imagination is to times and cir- yet his palace at Westminster was neicumstances; but still it seems to us more iber remarkable for external pomp, difficult to stretch the statute 23 Edw. III. nor interual convenience. Judging from to meet, or, more correctly speaking, to

the few yeștiges that the fire bad, and create, the case of these unfortunate men. “ They were charged, as appears in their indictments upon record, of a conspiracy against the King and State; of suinmoning, during the late King's illness, certain of their friends

* Lord Herbert, and all other historians, to he ready in arıns at an hour's warning, mounting to 1,801,0001

. t, in specie, in secret

agree, that Henry the vilth leit a sum a. and upon the King's death to haster to London ; whence it was inferred by the places of his palace at Richmond, or which he jury, that they either intended to seize

alone kept the keys. " This," says that the King's person, or

to destroy him."

noble Lord!, " was doubtless a greater sum TIerbert, p. 4.--These sagacious gentlemen

than any king of this realm before had in his seem, in their zeal to condenan, to have for coffers, and such as miglit be thought effeca gotten two things: first

, that to seize the per- tively quadruple to so much in this age,” son of the young Monarch, surrounded by his (i, e. the age of Charles the Ild;) which guards, his courtiers, and, at that time, idol computation of his Lordship is extremely ized by the people, would have been rather

moderate, if we reflect upon the rate of a service of danger; to have destroyed him, living at that time, when the usual price by any means in their power, impossible ;

of wheat (anno 1501) was but 5s. 8d. and, secondly, that both Dudley and Empson (., l. 83. Od. of our money,) per quarter, had sense enough to know that they were

and ale not quite 3d. per gallon, obnoxious to the people, and that, in the event of the death of their protector, Henry the VITM, their lives were in much greater of Other authors have estimated this treadanger than that of the new Monarch, and sure so high as 5,300,0001.; a som which, that their houses stood a good chance of considering the value of money in those being plundered. To protect those, and their days, and iaxing the parsimony of the King property, were unquestionably the reasons 10° its utmost beight, and the national opuwhy they summoned their friands; though lence as most extensive, is absolutely inthis act of caution was tortured into the shape credible. Sir William Petty, after the imof constructive treason, if the term shape portations of the precious metals from Spain can be applied to any thing so unsubstant

and Portugal, estimated the whole nouey of tial.

England at only six milions.

upon the

improtements have, left * ; of which the prominent traits than cither convenitwo chambers of the Court of Exche ence or comfort. guer are instances; the windows of the Indeed it is stated, even with regard interior of which still retain, in stained to donestie architecture, that till late glass, the embloms of the House of Tu- in this King's reign, there were few dort. We should rather have imagined brick buildings, and fewer of stone, in then a part of the residence of one of the metropolis, or in England, exceptthe Kings of the Saxon heptarchy, than ing the palaces of the first nobility, of the most opulent Monarch in Eu. cathedral and parish churches, and the rope at the beginning of the sixteenth greater monasteries*; the rest were century, How is it possible to imagine, either the mod wall teneinents of the or rather to connect in the imagina- cottagers, lesser farmers, traders, and

lion, the royal chambers of a young villagers, the tiinber and lath building, | and ostentatious Prince, having, for cof cities and towns, or houses erected

example, the chimney as wide, and still with strong oaken posts, bricked less adorned, than that of the kitchen of knoged, ii'c. interlaced with bricks a carrier's inn, situated in one corner of and mortar, of such substantial dura. a large and irregular shaped rool, while tion as (“ secure them but frvin fire") over ihe anti-chamber, as is yet to be seen, would enable their to stand several a heavy and cumbrous roof is supported hundred years ; of which we have,esei? by oak pillars, rude as those that are in our own times, some instances rosaid to have formed the aisles of the maining, both in the city and suburbs of open-toppred temples dedicated to Tuor Londoii. and WODEN; or the stone and lime With respect to the particular apWhited walls, with the still remaining pearance of the metropolis in the days seats worked into them, the clumsy gal- of Henry the Filth, it has been deJery, and the various other inconveni- scribed by Captain Groset, ences which abound, and are actually authority of “no less a person than the How to be traced, with that grandeur famous sir Tho. More, some time Lord and state that we know, from the most Chancellor of England, who,” he says, authentic documents, the court of Henry “conccaling his native city under the the Villth exhibited, and in which he name of Amaurote, the chief city in his endeavoured to emulate the chivalrous imaginary isle of Utopia, in that ingeextravagance and romantie ideas of Ed- nious book of his writing; his descripward the IIld; a Monarch whose cha- tion of which Amaurote doth in every racter, at least in the early period of his particular thing mentioned so exactly life, seems to have made a deep im- square and correspond with the City of pression upon his mind ? yet such was, London, that,” he continues, “ I make in this instance, the state of royal archi- little doubt that writer did thereby mean tecture. Perhaps we might extend this the same place, and by repeating whereobservation to all the public buildings, of from him we exactly learn what even to the churches, of that period ; in which, as well as in other fabrics, splendor and magnificence were more

Many of the smaller monasteries, which

were, therefore, properly termed houses • The greater part of this palace was were of wood : these were, by the statute destroyed by fire in the year 1:12. In this 27 Ifen. VIII, confiscatent. The title to this contiagration tell the famous clock-house, staiute is curious, viz. All mouasteries given and many appendages of the ancient pie. to the King whose lands were not two Part of the walls toward the Cotton Gardens hundred pounds a-vcar." The preamble were a few years since to be seen; and in tlie states, as a reason for this gift, “ Forasmucha front, that building which ranged with the as manifest syune, vicious, carnal, and aboExchequer Court, and stretched kait over minable living, is dayly used and committed, St. Margaret's-street, and which was, at the in such litide abbeys, priories, and other recommand of his Majesty, pulled down to higioos houses of Wonky, Canons, and Nuns, widen the app wach to the Parl cat be it cnacted." --- In the act for the diasoHouses, was a vestige of the old palace. lution of the greater abbeys, 31 Hen. VIII,

+ Tradition states, that the l'rincess, aller- though there was probably much more reaward Queen Ekzabeth, once resided in this son for it, there is no coinplaint of sin, place, and that this apartment was her hed. no hints at evil doings, in the preamble. chamber. To which we can hardly give cre These sell in consequenco of the weight oë dit, as the building innst have been in a dila their own revenues. pidased start in the title of Queen Alay. ; * Antiquarian Repertory, Vol. I, p. 279.

« 前へ次へ »