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acute conjecture, no species of reading excite in the breast of an American no would be equally captivating to the other thoughts than the girth of their imagination, or equally pregnant with timber, and their distance from water instruction ; bui, unfortunately it carriage. The noble rivers that freshen happens, that physical and intellec- and fertilize the plains through which tual ability seldorn unite in the same in they pass, are contemplated, ouly as dividual. The soul of the philosopher, they offer facilities to future navigacareless of material things, often in- tion; the habits of the brute creation habits a tenement too crazy to bear are studied, to ensure their subjugaviolent removals ; in the peaceful secu- tion; and the varieties of the human rity of his elbow chair, he meditates on race, too often but little raised above the lapse of ages, or expatiates on the them, are marked in the same way, as wonders of futurity : but, for fucts, he mere vehicles of commerce, without the must confide in the observation of others; slightest feeling of sympathy for them -of adventurers, who possess bodily vi as fellow creatures, or a wish to ameliogour, with that dauntless courage which rate their coudition as men. courts hardships and dangers, and re One great reason of this cold and seljoices in the prospect of wilds before un- fish view of things in the Americans, is trodden. Such men will ford rivers, that they have no associations with the scale precipices, combat bears, and out-country, in which they are placed raface Indians ; but their mental powers ther by necessity than choice. They survey the forms of things only; the regard it neither with the pride of conmaterial world is all in all with them; quest, nor with the affection of nature; and on its present state, alone, do they —the very grandeur and solitude of the ever venture an opinion: hence their forests, proclaim that here their ancesnarratives may furnish food for reflectors were not coeval: the rude liberty of tion to others of a more contemplative the Aborigines forces upon them the turu, but rarely exhibit any trace of pro- conviction that they have merely wrestfound reflection in themselves ; and ed from savages territory sufficient for hence the very imperfect gratitication incipient civilization ; and they are imafforded ly them, even while the reader patient to become wealthy, because they sympathizes in the difficulties of their feel they have no other foundation enterprize, and feels his curiosity strong- for self-complacency, or for consequence ly excited by the objects it may present. among nations.
The American Settlers, like the in We have been led into these reflechabitants of all infant states, direct tions by the volume before us; which is their attention entirely to making the as fruitful in facts as it is barren of remost of their country. It is with na mark upon them: premises abound; tions as with individuals : wealth must conclusions are left to be drawn by those be procured, before the refinements who chuse to take the trouble. Howwhich give it all its value. The Ameri- ever, any account of an undertaking of cans are in the first state : hence we such magnitude as that of exploring unmay expect from their exertions active unknown countries, and penetrating surveys, exact calculations, and acute through trackless wilds, never before theories, in support of their visited by civilized man, must be inter. mercial interest; but abstract reflec- estivg. It is pleasing to see what resotions, philosophical remarks, or poetical | lution and activity can attain ; and those feelings, would at present be as useless who rnay themselves be habitually exand as troublesome appendages to their posed to danger, will take fresh courage reasoning faculties, as the toilette of a from every instance wherein great danEuropean lady would be to a Clatsopgers have been surmounted. The sagaciBeauty, who is admired in proportion ty, the promptness aud humanity of the as she can dig for roots, carry a load | leaders of this great enterprist cannot across mountains, or manage a canoe be too highly rated, any more than the amid rocks, rapids and sand bars. The patience and unanimity of those under waving forests that have stood for ages their command, during a route of 9,008
miles, and an absence from home of soon overtaken by liunger and fatigue, more than two years.
when happily the Great Spirit appeared Our readers have already seen the ab- and giving him a bow and arrow, shewed stract of this account is a letter from him how to kill and cook deer, and cover Captain Clarke to his brother, with himself with the skin. He then proceeded the Journal of Serjeant Gass, who was
to his original residence; but as he ap. the first to gratify the impatience of who inquired haughtily who he was, and
proached the river, he was met by a beaver, bis countryment, and whose narrative, hy what authority he came to disturb his equally faithful and dry, was an honest possession? The Osage answered, that the It presentation of facts. We then al- river was his own, for that he had once luded to emulation, excited by the ex
lived on its borders. As they stood dis. pedition of Sir Alex. Mackenzie, and to puting, the daughter of the beaver came, that, we ought to add, the desire of ex
and having by her entreaties reconciled ploring the capabilities of Louisiana, a
her father to ihis young stranger, it was country subsequently obtained by the proposed that the Osage should marry the American Government.
young beaver, and share with ber family
the enjoynient of the river. The Osage Soon after the acquisition of Louisi- readily consented, and from this happy ana by the United States, Captains Lewis union there soon came the village and the and Clarke set out on their destination nation of the Wasbasha, or Osages, who to explore the Missouri aud the Missi- have ever since preserved a pious reve. sippi, in May 18, 1804.
rence for their ancestors, abstaining from The party consisted of nine young men, that avima!, they killed a brother of the
the chase of the beaver, because in killing from Kentucky, fourteen watermen, an in: Osage. Of late years however since the terpreter and hunter, and a black servant trade with the Whites has rendered beaver belonging to Captain Clarke-all these, skins more valuable, 'the sanctity of these except the last, were enlisted to serve as privates during the expedition, and three and the poor animals have, nearly lost all
maternal relatives has visibly diminished, serjeants were appointed from amongst privileges of kindred. them by the Captains.
In this arrangement scientific disco A special object of Captain Lewis's Feries were unprovided for; and in- mission was, to endeavour to gain the deed the perils of the route were suffi- confidence of the Indian tribes; to incient to engross the mental faculties form them of the change in the governof the most refecting of the party. Pro- ment of Louisiana ; and to assure them vided with all necessary
of the goodwill and protection of the themselves, and suitable presents for United States and their “Great Father," the Indians, they embarked on board of the President. Those tribes which were three boats, and proceeded on their ad- ignorant of the use of spiritunus liventurous expedition.
quors, wcre found kind, generous, and The first Indian settiement they ar
honest ; those, on the contrary, who rived at was the Osages ; of whose ori
were most addicted to it, were brutal, gin we shall give an account for the be- crafty, aud violent. The Riccaros, on nefit of certain of our poets, who de whisky being offered to them, refused light in drawing incidents from mytho- Father should present them with a liquor
they were surprised their logical sources.
which would make them fools." According to universal belief the founder
On another occasion the same people of the nation was a snail passing a quiet existence along the banks of the Osage, observed to a French trader,” that 'no till a bigh flood swept him down to thie.
man could be their friend who tried to Missouri and left him exposed on the shore. lead them into such follies.”. The AsThe heat of the sun at length ripened him siniboins, on the contrary, are so pas. into a man, but with the change of his na sionately fond of their“ Great Father's ture he had not forgotten his native seats pilk," as they designate spirituous lion the Osage, towards which he imme. quors, that they form their chief indiately bent his way. He was however ducement to trade with the British. Un.. Lit. Pan. Vol. II.
der the baneful influence of intoxication, 7. Lit Pan. Vol. V. p 684.
their camps become the scene of the
most brutal excesses, and so far from exertions and fatigue, in others, were considering it as disgraceful, the women still more trying ; frequently obliged to and children are invited to partake in drag the boats along by ropes on the its effects, and the men pique them- banks, or to carry them over-land, to selves on the number of times that their scale precipices, where a false step must skill and industry, as hunters, have have hurried them into eternity, to enabled them to procure the dangerous sleep, or rather to become drowsy, upon exchange of kegs of rum for their dried the earth, drenched in rain, and be and pounded meat, grease, and the skins numbed with cold, often uncertain of of wolves, and foxes :-Surely, that po- their route, or of procuring subsistence. licy--for humanity is out of the question for a single day; ---obliged to be on in commercial dealings,-must be short their guard against any sudden attack sighted, which seeks to gain a temporary from the Indians, or accidental renadvantage over a people, by injuring counters from ferocious animals,—they their moral character, their domestic still sustained their spirits, with a resoa habits, and their bodily health ! lution which certainly contributed not a The passage up the Missouri was very
little to get them through their diffie tedious, on account of the windings in culties. Au Indian woınan, the wife of its course, as well as the fatigue of going their interpreter, instigated by that constantly against the current, and the principle of curiosity which is said to be innumerable obstacles presented to the inherent in the daughters of Eve, whatboats from shoals, sand-bars, rapids, and ever be their complexion, accompanied projecting rocks. In one place, they them, with an infant at her breast
, on were obliged to make a circuit of about their hazardous and fatiguing route, in eighteen miles to bring them to a point, the hope of seeing the “great water" which, overland, lay only at a distance ---shared in all their privations, and of nine hundred and seventy-four yards. made herself very useful by her knowa At night they drew their boats on shore ledge of a large tract of the country and encamped on the banks of the river. through which they had to pass. This Various fruits were found on the shores woman manifested a most honourable --gooseberries, raspberries, plums, cur- and affecting sensibility, on unexpectrants, grapes, and some berries, much edly meeting with her kindred, and the in request among the Indians. The friends of her youth, from whom she had country, though only thinly wooded, been long separated by the chance of abounded with game, in which term our
war; a sensibility which appears the travellers include brown and white bears
more amiable, in one who had previously and beavers, which, added to the pro- been but slightly excited, except by her duce of the river, and more bulky con- appetite, or her passion for ornaments. tributions from the herds of buffa On setting out at seven o'clock Cap. loes, grazing on the plains, left the tain Clarke with Chaboneau and his wife, party no reason to complain of their walked on shore, but they had not gone fare in the beginning of their route ;
more than a mile before Captain Clarke but, as they advanced towards their saw Sacajawea, who was with her busintended winter-settlement among the dance, and shew every mark of the most
band, one hundred yards a-head, begin to Mandans, they began to find provisions extravagant joy, turning round to him, and scarce: by the time they reached the pointing to several Indians, whom he now Shoshonees, they were compelled to kill saw advancing on horseback, sucking her their horses for food; and the further fingers at the same time, to indicate thry proceeded, the more serious their that they were of her native tribe. Ag difficulties became. To the flesh of the they advanced, Captain Clarke discovered dog they soon reconciled themselves, among them Drewyer dressed like an and preferred it to that of the otter; bui Indian, from whom he learnt the situation a diet of roots, berries, aud dried fish, forming the circuit, he went toward the
of the party. While the boats were per. visibly affected their health and spirits. forks with the Indians, who, as they went Much as they suffered from hunger, in along, sang aloud with the greatest apsome parts of their route, their bodily pearance of delight. We soon drew near
to the camp, and just as we approached it, tages which such acquisition gives them a woman made her way through the crowd over enemies destitute of equal power. towards Sacajawea, and recognizing each In a country where possession of the other, they embraced with the most tender finest parts of it must be gained by affection. The meeting of these two young force, and retained by incessant vigiwomen had in it something peculiarly lance, where exceeding poverty renders which their feelings were expressed, but the most trifling superiority an object of from the real interest of their situation. envy, it may easily be imagined that a They had been companions in childhood, continued warfare must be carried on: in the war with the Mionetarees they had has one tribe more horses than another ? both been taken prisoners in the same bat
--the poorer endeavours to equalize contle, they had shared and softened the ri- ditions by stealing some of them;-does gours of their captiviiy, till one of them a party go a hunting, and leave their had escaped from the Minnetarees, with village unguarded ?-it is entered in their acarce a hope of ever seeing her friend absence; and what they gain in game, telieved from the hands of her enemies. While Sacajawea
was renewing among the they lose in corn. These petty outrages, women the friendships of former days, Cap- of course, call for retaliation; and as the taiu Clarke went ou, and was received by remembrance of injury never dies with Captain Lewis and the Chief, who after Indians, no wonder that their numthe first embraces and salutations were bers decrease under the influence of perover, conducted him to a sort of circular petual warfare. Personal bravery being tent or shade of willows. Here he was the quality of most value to them is that seated on a white robe; and the Chief im which is most immediately rewarded by mediately tied in his hair six small shells, distinction : He who gives any remarkresembling pearls, an ornament highly va. Jued by these people, who procure
able proof of it is made a chief; and in the course of trade from the sea coast.-- after every new achievement, he has a The mocassins of the whole party were
right to assume a new nane, indicative then taken off, and after much ceremony of the nature of it; as in Europe it is the smoking begau. After this, the con- allowed to augment coats of arms with ference was to be opened, and glad of bearings from a conquered enemy. The an opportunity of being able to converse chiefs do not, however, graft the new more intelligibly, Sacajawea was sent for; name upon the old one, after the fashion she came into the tent, sat down, and was of the Welsh :-in that case, addressing beginning to interpret, when in the person them would exercise to the utmost the of Cameahwait, she recognized her brother : she instantly jumped up, and ran
powers both of lungs and memory; as and embraced him, throwing over him her the reader pay perceive from the followblanket, and weeping profusely: the chief ing list of appellations :- Pawnawneahe was himself moved, though not in the same pahbe (Struck by the Pawnee), a name prodegree. After some conversation between bably taken up in remembrance of some them, she resumed her seat, and attempted hereditary feud; Aweawechuche (Half to interpret for us, but ber vew situation Man), indicative of the modesty of the seemed to overpower her, and she was bearer, who being complimented on his frequently interrupted by her tears.
heroic achievements, replied, that he This interview took place near the was only half a map; Manbucksheahextreme navigable point of the Missouri; okeuh (Seeing Snake); Mahpahpapuwe have, therefore, noticed it somewhatrapassatoo (Horned Weasel). --- Little out of course ; and will resume our ob- Thief, Little Wolf, and other dimiolla servations on the route with more regard tives have, we suppose, the same reto the order of time.
ference to qualities as the name of Lit. All the meetings for conference on the tle John, the famed companion of Robin part of the Indians, end in protestations Hood, had to stature. Other names of poverty, and begging for powder and appear still more whinysical in their sig. ball. It is no wonder that they should nification, such as Old worrun at a disa eagerly seize every opportunity to gain tance, Cherry on a bush, White Buffulo possession of fire arms, or ammunition, robe unfolded, Butjale medicine, Little when wo cousider the immense advan-wolf medicine, &c. The word medicine
among some of the Indians signifies a but being received as it falls by the irre. superior being, or comforter: a philo- gular and somewhat projecting rocks belogist might search for the cause of a
low, forms a splendid prospect of perfectly
white foam, two hundred yarda in length, similarity of expression in our translation
and eighty in perpendicular elevation. of the Bible, • A faithful friend is the
This spray is dissipated into a thousand medicine of life.'
shapes, sometimes Aying up in columns The discovery of the falls of the
of fifteen or twenty feet, which are then Missouri is so important a feature in the oppressed by larger masses of the white undertaking, and was the occasion of foam, on all which the sun impresses the such rejoicing to the whole party, who brightest colours of the rainbow. As it were just before almost overcome with rises from the fall, it beats with fury against the accumulating fatigues of their route, a ledge of rocks which extends across the and lost in conjecture as to the right di- river at one huudred and Gfty yards from rection of it, that we doubt not our readers
For many miles below this fall the will sympathize in the feelings of Cap: river is one continued succession of rapids tain Lewis, when the sound of the fall and cascades; just under one of them is a of water first broke on his ear:- there little island in the middle of the river, js so little enthusiasm in the whole nar well covered with timber. Here, on a rative, that we are glad to select an cottonwood tree, an eagle had fixed its event important in itself, and awakening nest, and seemed the undisputed mistress that admiration and awe, in the minds of a spot, to contest whose dominion nei
ther man nor beast would venture across of the beholders, which the works of an
the gulfs that surround it, and which is Almighty hand, on so graud a scale, further secured by the inist rising from the must excite even in the most unreflect
The fatigues of the men in the neighIn this direction, Captain Lewis had bourhood of the falls were considerably gone about two miles, when his ears were saluted with the agreeable sound of a fall their canoes over the rapids : continu
increased by the difficulty of conveying of water, and as he advanced, a spray which seemed driven by the high south- ally in the water, going against a strong west wind, arose above the plain like a current, their feet severely cut by column of smoke, and vanished in an in-stones, and fragments of rock ;-by land stant. Towards this point he directed his they suffered as much from the prickly steps, and the noise increasing as he appear, and the sharp points of earth, left proached, soon became too tremendous to by the trampling of the buffalo in the be mistaken for any thing but the great raios ;-loaded with burdens as heavy falls of the Missouri. Having travelled seven miles after first hearing the sound,
as they could carry, limping with the he reached the falls about twelve o'clock:
soreness of their feet, unable to stand the bills as he approached were dificult for more than a few minutes, on account of access, and two hundred feet high. of the heat, they were frequently comDown these he hurried with impatience, pelled to halt and rest : -at almost every and seating himself on some rocks under stepping place, they fell, and were the centre of the falls, enjoyed the sublime asleep in an instant; yet they were spectacle of this stupendous object, which ready to go on again at the word of since the creation had been lavishing its command, not only without murmuring, magnificence upon the desert, unknown to but with cheerfuluess. civilization.
The river immediately at its cascade To so many positive inconveniences is three hundred yards wide, and is pressed were often added accidents sufficiently in by a perpendicular cliff on the left, appalling, even in description, to shake which rises to about one hundred feet, and the nerves of such of our readers as may extends up the stream for a miles on the right the bluff is also perpendicular for contemplation of danger. One time in
never have been exposed to the actual ninety or a hundred yards from the left erossing a narrow pass on the banks of cliff, the water falls in one smooth even
the river, after heavy rains, which had sheet, over a precipice of at least eighty rendered them so slippery as scarcely feet. The remaining part of the river pre- to afford footing, Captain Lewis slipped'; cipitates itself with a more rapid current, and but for recovering bimself by mean