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fering from the estimate of the Jews themselves. The most interesting things about « The Jews are the first foreign inhabi. these Jews are the time and manner of | tants. Their origin and the period at their arriving iu this country. We saw
which they arrived at this place is buried the copper plates mentioned by Dr. Bu in obscurity, at least we have not hitherto chanan. There can be no doubt but that
found among them any notable memorials the Jews were here as early as 490 or memorandums, which could properly of the Christian era. But beyond this
elucidate their arrival on this Coast, and all is darkness and uncertainty. They
thereby remove every doubt on that score." differ widely among themselves, and seem to possess no authentic accounts of the ON THE ISLAND OF MADAGASCAR : time or manner of their coming to In
(From Mr. Newell's Journal.) dia. It does not appear that many of the Wbite Jews understand Hebrew, though
“ The population of Madagascar is rated they all read printed Hebrew in their Sy at a million and a half; whether this estinagogue. We were told that none of the mate be correct or not, I was not able to Black Jews understood Hebrew, and that ascertain. I conversed with a gentleman, none of them are intelligent and well in
who had resided some time on the island ; formed mea. The White Jews all
and with another who had been cast away
agree in saying that the Black Jews are not of there, and had seen different parts of it, and Jewish descent. They say, that when
with several, who had touched at different the Jews first came to this country, they places on the coast. From the information bought Hindoo slaves, and that they cir- of these persons I collected the following cumcised them, and educated them in the particulars, in which they all agreed. Jewish religion. Eventually these Black
“ The people are divided into a great Jews became numerous, and the White many separate and independent tribes, Jews judging it expedient for several
which are subject to their respective chiefs; reasons, began to release the former, and to there is no union among them, do commou allow them to build separate synagogues,
chief; they are generally at war with each but they were not considered as qualified to other, and the prisoners
, which are taken perform the synagogue worship without in battle are either sold to slavery, or put to the superintendance of a White Jew,
death. Since the abolition of the which as we were informed, is the case to trade, they are generally put to death ; five
hundred have been known to be executed “ The White Jews still hold slaves whom
at ouce. they pointed out to us, and they certainly
“ There is no such thing as law or jus had the very likeness of the Black Jews. tice among these people. The stronger They allow the Black Jews no terms of bears rule. It is a common thing to make equality, and will not allow them to sit in prisoners of all white men who go among the Synagogue, except on the floor. On them. Several instances of this have re the other hand the Black Jews claim to cently occurred. themselves the most remote residence in
u The Madagascars are evidently of the the country, but we saw no evidence to negro race. They are not quite só black support such a claim. They certainly
as the negroes in America, but have nearly seem to have the exact countenance of the the same features, aud their heads are patives, and could not be distinguished covered with wool instead of hair. I have from them, as all other religious sects in
seen them frequently in the Isle of France, India, are distinguished, by their dress, some
“ There is no writteu language in Madamark on their face, or by something in the gascar, and no language that is common cut of the hair or beard; all of which are
to different tribes. There is a vast under the direction of their religion. So variety of dialects there, as in most savage far from this are the White Jews, that by
countries. their features and complexion, they are
“ The climate, in all parts of the island known as readily as the Englishman. which have been visited by Europeans, is Indeed, by common consent, a great part
extremely unwholesome. Of one hundred of the White Jews, (some say three-English officers and soldiers who were sent fourths) have emigrated from European
to Fort Dauphin, in the southern extremity states within two or three centuries past.
of the island, immediately after the capture of the Isle of France, not more than three
or four were alive at the end of a year. From the Cochin Register made in 1781, The interior of the island is said to be
under the direction of Arrian Moens, the healthy, but the sea coast is almost fatal te Dutch Governor at that time.
The political purposes of this " perturbed
spirit" are very evident. He and his ad-
for purposes intentionally salutary !! painting from mere spite
Yongroo Pomoh. Their country devil paint him devilish white :
The Kolloh, or Devil, of the Bulloms. and it has been remarked, that, however The accounts of Yongroo Pomoh (says imperfect, or immoral, any nation may be, Mr. Nyländer) begin this year with the it never approves of a Devil in its own
burying of Nensukoh. Jikeness, or of the same colour, or, even, ap
The Bullom Country is divided into a proaching resemblance. White men painted by a Sukoh, or Head-man. The head of
great many parts, each of which is governblack devils: black men paint white de- all these Sukohs is Bay, the King. On his vilş; and we can scarcely imagine the ter-) acceptance of the title and authority of the for attendant on this simple idea of change King of the Country, he chooses a Nensuof colour. Parke tells us in his first Tra-koh and a Nengbaunah, as his assistants in vels in Africa, that, in some places, when by the people as Kings : they sometimes
ruling the country. All three are respected he entered a tent, the women and children call them the first, secoud, and third King. ran away crying, and hid themselves. For They are stationed in different places; this they had sufficient cause, if they had yet at such a distance, that, in two or three been taught to endow the Devil with days' time, they may all meet at the king's
place. All the Sukobs, or Head-men, are whiteness, as his peculiar distinction. In accountable to them for any Palavers, and a different quarter Captains Lewis and they report it to the King. If there be any Clarke relate, that the North American great Palaver, such as respecting murder Indian Chiefs, would scarcely believe that
or withcraft, these must be settled before
the King, at Yongroo. the Negro Servant of Capt. Clarke was of
Should any of these three Kings die, the a truly natural colour, and not painted black. I inhabitants of his residence are permitted
to plunder in every place they choose, till through the day, are at the dance at night. another Head-man is appointed in the place If any are missed, he is permitted to enter of the deceased. Sometimes they cannot the houses, and to drive them out by force; immediately fill up his place with a good and he is a faithful servant of the Devil. man: then the widowy, or the eldest Some people stay ont in the fields through daughter, puts ou men's clothes, and is the night, to enjoy a little rest after their considered as Head-man of the vacant daily fatigue. place: yet the pluudering goes on.
The Kolloh-man is naked, has washed eye-witness myself to their destroying a himself over with white clay, and has number of plantain-trees, and catching of fringes of packing-mats or plantain-leaves fowls, &c. where they passed through. To round his waist, knees, and ancles. To prevent such mischief being done at the give notice of his coming, he rings a bell, Settlement, I applied to the King for pro- which is fixed inside of the cap or basket. tection. During the time, from the death He has a switch in his hand, to sbew his to the burial of Nensukoli, the inhabitants authority. If any person pass by his abode, from the neighbouring places brought their which is near the public road, he sings'out, fowls and sheep to me for protection. At “ Ee!" with one tone. If people meet him the same time, another Head-man died in the road, they must either hide them. and two great Head-men being now killed, selves, or else go back; otherwise be catches as was supposed, by some witches, the them, and carries them to his place, and KOLLOH was very much grieved at it, and keeps them there for a few days, teaching came out of his recess to dance and cry them something of his arts, which the peofor the loss of the Heads of the country, and ple keep very secret. He makes them to drive out all young people to dance at swear; and tells them, if they discover the nights and to cry with him, or to lament secrets, the Kollou knows it, and makes the loss of these Head-men by drinking their bellies swell, and they are dead the palm-wine and honey-wine, which is pre- moment they divulge any thing of the pared almost through the whole country, secresy. and brought together to the place of the After any of the people (chiefly children cry, which lasted here about two months. of ten or twelve years, sometimes young
Kollon is the name of a great spirit, men) have been taught in the in ysteries of who is supposed to reside in the neighbour- KOLLON, they engage in his service, and go hood of Yongroo. lle never comes out about with their teacher, beating on a of the woods, except on such mournful small turtle-shell, and singing. occasions as these: or, if a person has been
He came also to visit me, standing before baried without his relations making a cry the children all running to hide themselves.
the door, and sang out his long “ Ee!" for him, then the kollOy, who has intercourse with the departed spirits, feels him I asked what it meant; and was told thas self so much hurt, that lie is obliged to this was the Devil, and, as the great leave his abode at nights, and to go to the Head-men of the country were dead, he
was much troubled about it, and came out houses of those relations, to rouse them and to trouble them every night, till they pro
of the woods to make cry for thein; and cure rum and palm-wine, &c. and have a
now he came to give me service. I said, good drink, and dance publickly, in re
“ I accept of no Devil's services: I am membrance of their departed friend.
come to drive him out of this country.” The Kollon is made of bamboo-sticks, derers, who used to disturb the natives
These Kolloh-people are a set of planin the forth of an oval basket, about three
When the Sierra-Leous feet long, and so deep that it goes over the man's shoulders. It is covered with a dered them of every thing.
Company had people here, they have plunpiece of net, and stuck all round with porcupine-quills on the nose. The mouth and
It shall be my labour to banish, not only postrils stand wide open. It is frightful to this representative of the Devil, but the look at. Children, women, and old people, Devil himself, from the Buliom Shore. He ren and scream at its appearance.
has great power in this benighted spot; A certain man pretends to have some
and resists our labours, both in private and very intimate intercourse with this Beel- in public. May we be enabled to conquer, zebub; and therefore is called by the spi- through Him who has ull power in heiven rit to take the Kollon on his head, and to
and in earth! go about with it, to see that the dances, Mr. Nyländer accompanied this Narradrinkings, and howlings, are carried on tive with a sketch of the KOLLO!, from regularly through the whole night; and which the amesed representation has been that all the young people, who are at work designed.
In the year 1800
10,000 No. II.
. 90,000 In our last Number we inserted a portion This statement the committee have no of our Intelligence from America: we now
reason to doubt; nor have they any to add other documents, political and moral. cinct statement of the capital which is em
question the truth of the following suc. We are extremely sorry to observe that ployed, of the labour which it commands, Morals and Religion are reported to be ex. and of the products of that labour :ceedingly defective. The subject is partly
Capital 40,000,000 dollars. introduced in the present article. The Males employed, from
the age of 17 and view taken of it, by some of the more in
10,000 telligent among the Americans, is unu
Women and female sually perplexing, and painful. We shall children
66,000 give further extracts from our correspond- Boys nnder i7 years of
24,000 ence in following numbers.
Wages of one hundred
thousand persons, REPORT OF THE COMMITTEE OF COMMERCE
averaging 150 dol-
15,000,000 dollars. House of Representatives of the United States, Cotton wool manufacFeb. 13, 1816.
tured, 90,000 bales, ... Prior to the years 1806 and 1807, esta
amounting to. 27,000,000lbs. blishments for manufacturing cotton wool Number of yards of had not been attempted, but in a few in
cotton of various
kinds stances, and on a limited scale. Their
81,000,000 rise and progress are attributable to em.
Cost, per yard, averagbarrassments to which commerce was sub.
ing 30 cents 24,000,000 dollars jected, which embarrassments originated The rise and progress of such establishin causes not within the controul of human ments can excite no wouder. The induceprudence.
ments of industry in a free government While coinmerce flourished, the trade are numerous and inviting. Effects are which had been carried on with the con- always in unison with their causes. These tinent of Europe, with the East Indies, inducements cousist in the certainty and and with the colonies of Spain and France, security which every citizen enjoys of exeoriched our enterprising merchants; the ercising exclusive dominion over the creabenefits of which were sensibly felt by the tions of his genius, and the products of agriculturists, whose wealth and industry bis labour; in procuring from his native were increased and extended. When ex- soil, at all times, with facility, the raw maternal commerce was suspended, the ca terials that are required; and in the libepitalists throughout the Union became ral encouragement that will be accorded solicitous to give activity to their capital. by griculturists to those who, by their A portion of it, it is believed, was directed labour, keep up a constant and increasing to the improvement of agriculture; and demand for the produce of agriculture. not an inconsiderable portion of it, as it appears, was likewise employed in erecting
Every State will participate in those adestablishments for manufacturing cotton vantages. The resources of each will be wool. To make this statement as satisfac sections of the union will, according to
explored, opened, and enlarged. Different iory as possible-to give it all the certainty that it is susceptible of attaining the habits of the people, and the nature of
their position, the climate, the population, the following facts are respectfully, sub- the soil, strike into that line of industry mitted to the consideration of the House. which is best adapted to their interest and They show the rapid progress which has the good of the whole; an active and free been made in a few years, and evidently intercourse, promoted and facilitated by the ability to carry them ou with certainty roads and canals will ensue; prejudices, of success, should a just and liberal policy which are generated by distance, and the regard them as objects deserving encou
want of inducements to approach each ragement.
other, and reciprocate benefits, will be reBales of cotton manufactured in manu-moved; information will be extended; the facturing establishments :
union will acquire strength and solidity
and the Constitution of the United States, By trading on our own capital, collisions and that of each State, will be regarded as with other nations, if they be not entirely fountains from which flow numerous done away, will be greatly diminished. streams of public and private prosperity. This natural order of things exhibits the
Each Government moving in its appro- commencement of a new epoch, which priate orbit, performing with ability its promises peace, security, and repose, by a separate functions, will be endeared to the firm and steady reliance on the produce of hearts of a good and grateful people. agriculture, on the treasures that are em
The States that are most disposed to ma bosomed in the earth, on the genius and nufactures as regular occupations will draw ingenuity of our manufacturers and mefrom the agricultural states all the raw chanics, and on the intelligence and ens materials which they want, and not an in- terprise of our merchants. considerable portion also of the necessaries
The government, possessing the intelli of life; while the latter will, in addition gence and the art of improving the resources. to the benefits they already enjoy, always of the nation, will increase its efficient powcommand, in peace or in war, at moderate
ers, and, enjoying the confidence of those prices, every species of manufacture that whom it has made happy, will oppose to tho their wants may require. Should they be assailant of the nation's rights the true, the inclined to manufacture for themselves, only invincible ægis— the unity of wil they can do so with success, because they and strength. Causes producing war will have all the means in their power to erect be few. Should war take place, its calaand to extend, at pleasure, manufacturing mitous consequences will be mitigated, and establishments. Our wants being supplied the expenses and burdens of such a state by our own ingenuity and industry, expor of things will fall with a weight less op tation of specie, to pay for foreign manufac- pressive and injurious on the nation. The tures, will cease.
expenditures of the last war were greatly The value of American produce at this increased by a dependence on foreigo supo time exported will not enable the importers plies. The prices incident to such a de to pay for the foreign manufacture im: pendence will always be high. ported. Whenever the two accounts shall be fairly stated, the balance against the
Tlad not our nascent manufacturing es United States will be found to be many
tablishments increased the quantity of millions of dollars. Such is the state of commodities at that time in demand, the things, that the change must be to the expenditures would have been much advantage of the United States. The pre- greater, and consequences the most fatal cious metals will be attracted to them; the ani disastrous, alarming even in contendiffusion of which, in a regular and ovi- plation, would have been the fate of this
uation. form current, through the great arteries and
The experience of veins of the body politic, will give to each teaches a lesson never to be forgotten, and member health and vigour.
points emphatically to the remedy. А In proportion as the commerce of the wise government should heed its adma United States depends on agriculture and nitions, or the independence of this uation manufactures as a common basis, will it will be exposed to the "shafts of fortune." increase, and become independent of those The committee keeping in view the inrevolutions and fluctuations which the am terests of the nation, cannot refrain from bition and jealousy of foreign governments stating, that cotton fabrics imported from are too apt to produce. Our navigation ludia, interfere not less with that encou. will be quickened; and, supported as it ragement to which agriculture is justly will be by internal resources, never before entitled, than they do with that which at the command of any nation, will ad- ought reasonably to be accorded to the vance to the extent of those resources. manufacturers of cotton wool.
The raw New channels of trade to enterprise, no material of which they are made is the less important than productive, are open. growth of India, and of a quality inferior ing, which can be secured only by a wise to our own. and prudent policy, appreciating their ad The fabrics themselves, in point of du. vantages.
ration and use, are likewise inferior to the If want of foresight should neglect the substantial fabrics of American manufac, cultivation and improvement of them, ture. Although the Indian cotton fabrics the opportune moment may be lost, per can be sold for a lower price than the haps for centuries, and the energies of the American, yet the difference in the texnation be thereby prevented from deve- ture is so much in favour of tbe American, loping themselves, and from making the that the latter may be safely cousidered as boon which is proffered our own.