« 前へ次へ »
The Greek physician, from whom the of being exposed all night houseless in the medals we bought here were principally mud, he ordered the Surudjees to bring obiained, entertained us, by giving an our baggage to his house, and bade us all account of the manner in which the medi-follow bim. This being done, we were cal profession is exercised among the received into an open inclosed court, while Turks " When a rich Turk," s:id he, a room was prepared for us.
As soon as “ is very ill, he sends for a physician; and we were conducted to this apartmeut, we however dangerous his disorder may be, a found the floor covered with clean mats, vegotiariou commences between the doc- and a blazing fire already kindled. The tor and his patient, as to the price of the owner of this dwelling was not rich; yet cure. The price is of course augmented in be caused a supper to be sent to us from proportion to the alarm excited by the his little churem, where it was prepared by malady. A bargain is then concluded his women. Of the sacrifice thus made to upon the following conditions: that half hospitality by a Moslem we were not yet the stipulated sum be paid down inne- fully aware. We were supplied wuh diately, and the whole sum if the patient every thing necessary to our comfort and recover. The physician then goes boldly repose ; and the next morning, when we to work, prescribing whatever he pleases. rose to depart, horses were waiting for us If bis patient die, be has already sccured a at the door. To our regret, as well as very ample fee; and if he recover, the surprise, when we tendered payment for case is still better.” It was formerly said our night's lodging and provisions, our bein Englund, that a large wig and a goldnevolent liost would accept of " nothing," headed cane were subrient to constitute a as he said, “but our good wishes;" aud physician; and it is literally true of Turkey, bidding us (Urlarula) a good journey! ibat a culpae anar a pelisse are the only re withdrew from our sight. Soon after quisites for the exercise of the profession. quitting this hospitable mansion, perceisAn English officer, who arrived in Con- liug that a volume of plants belonging to stuntinople during our first visit to that our berbary was missing, one of us recity, was accompanied by an Italian do turued in scarch of it; and found that the mestie', who had served him with fidelity, family, who had so kindly entertained us, but gave him warning the morning after had actually carried out and broken the their arrival, The officer, being loth to earthen vessels out of which we drank part iron a trusty servant, asked him the water; and were besides busily employed reason of this extraordinary conduct. “I in conipleting the ceremony of purification, have to complaint to ofier,” said the by funigating the mats, and scouring the Italian : “ but I can earu niore movey here room which they conceived to bave been by turning physician, and therefore must defiled by the presence of Christians. The wear a different dress." The next day he incovenience, therefore, and the loss, which presented himself to his former master in our visit to this liberal Moslem had occathe medical culpar and furnd robe, laugh- sioned in his family, will shew to what an ing heartily at his own metamorphosis: extent the viriue of hospitality is someand this man, before our return to the times carried among the Turks. capital, had dispatched as many of his fellow-preaiures as the most eminent prac
We are extremely sorry that Dr. C. titioner in Turkey.
has not erected the niost durable monuThe Turks are, certainly devoid of ment in his power, to this worthy disciarts, sciences, and what are termed li-ple of Mahomet, by mentioning his beral or gentlemanly studies; but, there name; it would have been no gratificaare aniong them men whose native im- tion to the Turk, it is true; but it polse of the heart, does epal honour to would have been a gratification to us. themselves, and to bumari nature : the Besides allowing the Turks the virtue of following is an instance :
hospitality, the author strongly insists on
their claims to sincerity and devotion, The rascally Surudjies who were with We presume pot to decide on the first, our bagage had already dismounted it, though we incline to the Dr.'s opinion; and were leaving us upon the bare earth; but, the second, we presume, is unqueswhen an old Turk, casually passing, and hearing sonie altercation between these tionable: it might even pass for exemnien and the Tehohodar, demanded the plary aniong professors of a much supecause of the dispute. Being intormed that rior religion. Our traveller is not the these men refused to proceed any farther, only one who has been struck with and that some poor Djuurs were in danger this appearance. Says Dr. C.
lu a room adjoining our apartment, some are many virtues common to the Turks Turks were engaged in their devotions; which would do honour to any nation ; aud and, whenever we have seen them so occu above all, that reverence for the Deity, pied, whether in the mosques, or in the which renters the taking of his name in public streets, or in private dwellings, we vain to be a thing unheard of aniong them; always regarded them with respect; for add to this, their private and their public however we may be disposed to revile the charities; their general temperance and Turkish religion, there is perhaps no Chris- sobriety; their donations for the repose tian but might find an example worthy of and the refreshment of travellers", and for his imitation in the behaviour of a Moslem the establishment of public baths and founduring his prayers. If we may judge oftains; their endowment for hospitals; their genuine piety by external appearances, the compassion for animals; the striet fidelity Mahomeluns are, of all people, the most withi which they fuifil their engagenients; sincere in their worship. They are never their liospitality; the attention shewn to seen to wander during their prayers, or to cleanliness in their frequent ablutions; and neglect them, or to utter a parcel of words many other of their characteristics, wbich by rote, with their thoughts intent upon forcibly contrast them with their neighother matters, like many of those persons bours; -and we shall be coustrained to who pretend to hold a better faith: their allow that there can harily be found a whole soul seens to be absorbed by the people, without the pale of Christianity, solemnity of the exercise, and their thoughts better disposed towards its most essential so perfectly abstracted from every earihly precepts. "That they have qualities which consideration, that it is impossible to be least deserve our approbation; and that hold them without participating the reve these are the most predominant, must be rence they manifestly feel. But this beha- attributed entirely to the want of that viour may be attributed to the very great" leaven,” which in “ leavening the whole stress laid by their Kuán upon the duties mass” bath not yet extended its influence of prayer. Mahomet called it The Pillar to this benighted people: for their ignoof Religion; and the Turks mawtain rance is so profounti, and it is so universal, that in this act of devotion, they ought to that they may be considered as generally be so intent and fixed, that no possible destitute of any intellectual attainment event can have power to divert their at whatsoever. The highest offices of the tention; not even the command of the Sul- state are administered by individuais taken tun himself, nor any alarm of fire or other from the dreams of society; and when adimminent peril. Jlow beautiful is the demitted to the friendly intercourse and couscription given by Busbequius of the whole versation of those among then who are Turkish army engaged in one solemn act the most looked up to, either on account of of public devotion! Yet Rycuul affirmell, their elevated rauki, or probity of characthat of all the uatious and religions he had ter, we were consirained to regard them known, the Turks were the most hypo- rather with affection than with steem; as critical. “ These are they," said he, “ who claiming the same degree of regiru, mine love to pray in the market place and in gled with pity, which is excited by the the corners of the streets, to lave praise of yoodness and simplicity of very benevolent, men; for it is observable with the Turks, but very illiterate, oid woneu. that where they find the most spectators, especially of Christians, to choose that
Nor does this evaporate in mere devoplace, how inconvenient soever, to spreadtion : we have seen that it took even first their handkerchief, and then begin Iutid Is wider protection ; and that, at their prayers.” We know not how to ac !10 triffiny pecuniary sacrifice ; besiile quiesce in the truth of these observations. this, the consideration of the Turks for We saw much of the Turks, and we had one
bruie animals is much to their praise : who was daily our companion; but, bating a little treachery as to the strict observante
we quote an instance, in which it cere of their fast, together with the dissolute tainly is not deficient. practices of their Dervishes, we would say generally, of the whole race, that the In sowie paris of the Empire there Turks are the last people upon earth who Khans for the receptiou of travellers. sinh deserve to be called 'hypocrites in their are so enciowed, that every nigh: the ynests religion. Rycaut wrote at a time when are entertained at frre cost with a core the prejudices against Moslems were very venient supper, be their number irore high, and when his own countrymen had less, according to the capacity of the t...so not lost the strong tiucture of fanaticism ing. See Rycaui's Ottoman Emre, po 107. they had acquired under Cromwell. There Lond. 1670.
to obviate the difficulty of asserubling the rate ratification of Cymru Paramount ; and whole population. “ There are three ways a law so ratified will be the law of every of enacting and coufiring those laws, country, territory, kingdom, court, place of which are obligatory out the country 10 worship and district; an equal in force geueral.
as if it had been coufirmed by a General
Assembly; and requires 10 appeal to the “ 1. By a General Assembly of Cypru
constitutional law of the country. Paramount, that is, a general assembly of the heads of cians, and families, and free constitutional law says, It hus had the one holders from all the listricts, territories, therefore it is established. For if no appeal
sent and consent of Camru Puranouni, end kingdoms, and departments of the Cymrs be made within the three years and tree For Cymru Paramount denotes but one
tays, it shall be held that country, and discountry, one nation And this court shall make, abrogate, or amend laws, according trict, clan, and allied clan, ra tify it, since as occasion shall require, by general opi- shall have thus been lawfully proclaimed
no one can plead ignorance of that which nion, judgment, and assent."
as to time and place, whether in a sove“ The second is by a confederate Assem-reign dominion, an inferior kingdom, or bly of a country or territory. That is to separate governmeut; and the opportunity say, when the court of the government and power of opposing it, or suggesting of a country or territory unanimously de- amendment, has been given." sires a new law, or the amendment, or
“ There are three National Sessions by abrogation of a law; notice of it shall be privilege in the island of Britain. 1. The given, by proclamation, to all the courts Session of the Bards, which is the most anwithin the territories of Cymru Paramount, cient in dignity. 2. The Sessive of Counin order that such law may be amended, enacted, or abrogated, as it shall in justice law, consisting of a general assembly of
try and Lord. That is to say, a court of or reason be deemed requisite, Thus the process shall be carried on, through all the judges, and constitutional assessors And courts and clans, till their decision be s The Session of Union and Maintenance known, and their conimou as sent be ob- | That is to say, a session of country and tained, without opposition, and without ob- district, consisting of rulers, chiefs of clans jectiori. Wben this is obtained, the courts and men of wisdom, from country and dig and sessions shall be advertised, by procla-laws, to be observed in, or between, coca
trict, for the purpose of enacting geleral mation, of the time when the three years of notice shall terminate ; and the Confe- | try and distriet, or adjoining country, by derate Assembly shall meet at the end of ) and with the assent and conscut of country the three years. This is called GORSEDD and country, ruler and ruler, a ud the agree GyFallwy, and it shall go on through all ment of privilege and privilege, for the the governments, and its decision be equir biud all parties. No weapon is to appear
sake of peace and justice. And this shall valent to that of the general assembly of drawn in these sessions, or within their Cymru Paramount."
limits, or during their continuance." Triad “ The third mode of enacting or abroga- 59. p. 280. ting a law, by the full authority of country and clan, is by provisional proclamation
Now, we ask, what could be the naand advertisement of it, until there be a
ture of the law, and what the state of Confederate Assembly. That is to say, society, when three years might be althat whatever be the intention as to a law, lowed to elapse between the proposition it is necessary in order to ratify such inten- of a public regulation and the enactment tion, that it be publicly proclaimed, for one of it, by universal consent? What reyear and a day, by cry of country and dis- semblance has this slow process to the trict, in every court and place of worship; telegraphic dispatch necessary on many every fair, and market, and every other regular meetiug of country and district, until points submitted to a British parliament the decision of every court, country, and of our own day? district be obtained, together with such Neither is it clear, that the right of amendments, or corrections, as may be ap; sanctioning by a vote any law intended proved of by country and district, and to be cominon, was possessed by every there is no farther opposition. And when this is know, it is again to be proclaimed, individual without exception; for we att as before, for one year and a day; until told, by the same authority, (the Anci. the time of a confederate Assembly; the ent Triads) that “ every Welshman bad proclamation continuing in all for the space a right to a freehold possession of fito of three years. Thus it will be a confede acres of land.”
number of priests is so small, says Mon- I ..... They are excceedingly noisome, and tague Burgoyne, Esq. that they have it neglected; so that, it is the most offensive in their power to pay very little atten- part of my profession to visit the poor in tion to the condition of ihe (Catholie)
Is it your opinion that the scavengers, or pour; but, in justice to them, I must
persons who shou'd inspect the streets, say, they work extremely hard in ato do not suficiently discharge their duty ?-tending ihe sick and dying.” The Ro- I am afraid the scavengers are seldom to man Catholic clergy are worn down be found in those streets : one thing I with fatigue,” says Mr. Butler. They have sometimes remarked there, was, that are a “very small nun ber,” says their human beings, hogs, asses, and dogs, were Vicar Apostolir, Dr. Poynter. And yet,
associated in the same habitation ; and ander this paucity of assistance, that great beaps of dirt, in different quarters, Church refuses to entrust her own laity other reason of their ill health is this, that
may be found piled up in the streets. Anwith any branch of religious instruction, some of the lower habitations have neither by which the children of this very laity windows nor chimnies nor foors, and are might be edified! While thousands are so dark that I can scarcely see there at perishing, both body and soul, for lack mid-day without a candle. I have actually of knowledge, the Church refuses con- gone into a ground-floor bed-room, and sent! In full view of their miseries, and could not find my patient without the under the contemplation of these accu
light of a candle. mulated evils, conscious of what would that iufectious complaints prevail through
Dr. Adams has observed in his book, correct them, knowing well the remedy out the vear in the parish of St. Giles, for these inexpressible calamities, con has that fact come under your knowledge ? vinced of what is necessary to remove I have no doubt of the fact being so : this gross scandal from her community, and have often found that the great obthe Church-cruel step-mother! denies stacle to my curing surgical diseases is the her sanction to the labours of love, anong i!l state of health arising mostly from her own sons!
filthiness, the people being sometimes coThe reader will not credit this. He
vered with vermin, bas heard the Church of Rome condemn- decline attending patients in St. Giles's ?
Have you ever known professional men ed for bigotry, for intoleravce, fer su I have known medical men who refused perstition, perhaps, and for blindness; to go into the interior parts of St. Giles's ? but, that she should, by choice, see her from personal fear, and because of the children beggars, thieves, prostitutes, filthy state of the habitations I believe criminals of the worst order; corroded that is commou with medical men in the with diseases, and the terror even of me- neighbourhood. dical men; rather than see thein under
What do they apprehend ?- Partly they other than clerical management, the are afraid of catching infectious diseases, comfort and support of their parents, annoved in their atiendance by the ill be
and partly from apprehending they will be patterns of industry, and social life, re
haviour of the lower orders. ligious in the best sense of the term, re
Mr. Blair coinplains that the Catholic spectable ili the world, and heirs of a
priests obstructed all endeavours at iinhappy immortality—the reader will not credit this. We proceed, therefore, to rated by that of Montagu Burgoyne,
provement. His evidence is corrobo. produce the evidence. We have said, E-q. who, however, was
not deterred perishing both body and soul.” Let from visiting such schools as the CathoMr. Blair, as a professional man, speak lics have established. his experience on the bodily sufferings
In of these most deplorable objects of com
visits to those schools, did you your
find that the children were in a miserable passion.
state?-Very much so: the greater proThe Catholic poor are so numerous, portion of them diseased more than any that every floor, and every chamber of children lever saw; humours, lamenesses, every Moor, is closely inbabited, several ricketty, certainly the effects of vegligence beds are frequently seen in oue room, and in infaucy: and though they bave increas. several persous in one bed..... They are ed so much in number, the number that very sickly when crowded close together dies is very great. It is a disgrace to this.
second thoughts, would not wish should | whether he be an in, or an out, whether return, as it would throw the whole a peer, or a commoner, whether wishpower of representation into the bands ing for place and pension, or already of those persons, or bodies, who were enjoying his share of the loaves and rich enough 10 pay for it; and thus fishes, the iniquity, is equal without diswealth would be the criterion of right! tinction of person.
Now, we would not be understood to We have already dated this book palliate the crime of corruption in the about the beginning of the French Re. choice of representatives; but we de- volution : it was then comprized in two precate a remedy which way prove volumes; it is now much enlarged, ar.d worse than the disease. Let it be re- greatly improved by introducing saricollected, that the privilege of choosing ous particulars from the Population members of parliament has not secured Returns; such as, the number of tbe those boroughs, marked by our author people, their employments, their praas rotten, from decay; that the absence portionate poor-rate, &c. 'I brse aduiof that privilege has not prevented tions shew the relative population of places not lolig ago mere deserts, or vil-counties and places ; and not their lages, scarcely honoured with a name, magnitude merely, but also their strength from becoming great towns, equal to and importance. cities: that if these places had enjoyed These volumes afford matter for eye the right of election, they would never rious speculation : for instance-How bave been chosen by their creutors for many counties, having formerly witthe scenes of their industry; and that, if nessed the evils of obstinately contested they were uow endowed with that right, elections, have agreed to choose members they would soon, in all probability, be supported by differeut interests? Peso reduced to their original state of desert, haps, on examination, it would be found or insignificance, and become as rotten, that full two-thirds of the counties in in their turn, as those which are so ve- England have taken refuge in comprohemently impugned by Mr. Oldfield. mise. Now we cannot say, with Mr. D.
But, Mr. Oldfield, in his fury for re- therefore they are not represented, at formation is guilty of gross partiality;
all : for, we venture to assert, that if for, if an onfortunate borough is under they choose wise and moderate mea the controul of Lord A. who supports and no other should be chostathe present Ministry, the author em
that they will rarely embrace extremes, ploys the whole energy of his style to uuless on violent party questions. They brand it with the foulest epithets cha- will
, if men of sense, consider theniracteristic of slavery and corruption : selves as sent by their constituents te while another, which is equally under the Grand Council of the nation to give the controul of Lord B. who is in present advice, to assign reasons for their ade opposition, passes uncensured; and vice given, and to promote the interests some places formerly enthralled by of their country, at large ; not those of Lord. c. (a courtier) have been it a narrow party, intent only on power, seems, restored to liberty, by the
and willing to sacrifice the whole condominant influence of Lord D. (a pa
munity to the despicable interests of a trist.) Now, this restoration to liberty, factious portioa of it. by whatever name a partizan, invoking This we say of county members; and the freedom of elertion, may please to call much the same may be said of members it, is in our view, neither more nor less returned by bodies corporate, in consethan a change of tyrant : but, a change quence of compromise. We look not at of tyrant is not ihe same thing as a the party ; we look at the men : if they deliverance from tyranny.
be honest, intelligent, virtuous, in good We say, whatever nobleman-no mat- repute among their constituents, they ter for bis party-interferes in a popular will do their country justice: and for election, the guilt is exactly the same: that justice the nation is obliged to them: end whoever commits an election fraud, can greater bonour be desired: If they