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and, together with the other temples and buildings | three in breadth, from north to south.* The second annexed to it, comprehended all that space upon body was about a perch less in length and breadth
which the great cathedral church now stands, part than the first; the third as much less than the "I am but a gatherer and disposer of other men's of the greater knarket-place, and part likewise of second ; and the rest in proportion, so that upon
the streets and buildings around. Within the in- each body there remained a free space or plain
which formed a continuation with those built upon of the first stair-case, one could not mount the
Tepejacar. Over each of the four gates was an the secoud; nor the third, without going along the arsenal filled with a vast quantity of offensive and second plain, and so of the rest. This will be better defensive weapons, where the troops went when it understood by.consulting the plate, which is copied
was necessary, to be supplied with arms. The from that of the 'Anonymous Conqueror,t but cor
space within the walls was curiously paved with rected to the dimensions, from that author's own THE GREATER TEMPLE OF MEXICO.
such smooth and polished stones that the horses of description, and other historians.
slipping and tumbling down, to the middle was call the upper area, which was about forty three (From the History of Mexico,)
raised an immense solid building of greater length perches long, I and thirty-four broad, and was as BY ABBE D, FRANCESCO SAVERIO CLAVIGERO.
than breadth,t covered with square equal pieces of well paved as the great area below. . At the eastern
pavement. The building consisted of five bodies extremity of this plain were raised two towers to The Mexicans, and other nations of Anahuac, nearly equal in height, but differing in length and the heiglit of fifty-six feet, or nearly nine perches. like all civilized nations, had temples and places breadth; the highest being parrowest. The first allotted for the purposes of religion, where the peo- budy, or basis of the building, was more than fifty Sahagun gives to the first body upon every side ple assembled 10 worship their gods, and implore perches long from east to west, and about fortythree hundred and sixty Toledan feet
, and that is the their protection. They called the temple Teocalli,
measure of its length. Gomare gives it fifty brazas, that is, the house of God, and Teopan, the place of
which is the measure of its breadth. Three hundred God; wbich names they applied with greater pro- The Anonymous Conqueror says, that what was and sixty Toledan feet make three hundred and eight priety to the temples erected-in honour of the true within the wall was like a city. Gomara affirms, that Parisian, or a little more than fifty perches. Fifty God, after they embraced Christianity.
the wall was a very long bowshot in length upon every brazas, or estados make two hundred and fifty-seven The city and kingdom of Mexico began with the side. Torquemada, although agreeing with Gomara, Parisian feet, or about forty-two perches. building of the sanctuary of Huitzilopocbili, or circumference of the wall was above three thousand the Anonymous Conqueror, is to be found in the colin book viii. chap. 2, says afterwards in ch. xix. that the
+ A copy of the drawing of the temple made by the Mexitli, whence it has derived its name. That
paces, which is plainly a mistake. Dr. Hernandez, in lection of Jo. Ramusio ; and another in Father Kiredifice was then a miserable hut. Itzcoatl, the first his prolix description of the temple, preserved in ma- cher's work, entitled, Edipus Ægyptiacus. king and conqueror of that nation, after the taking nuscript in the library of the Escurial, and which of Azca pozalco, enlarged it. Montezuma I. his Father Nieremberg has made use of in his Natural
Sahagun, whose measures høve been adopted by Successor, built a new temple, which had some shew History, allows to the wall, of every side, two hundred Torquemada, allows no more than seventy Toledan of magnificence; and, at length Ahuitzoti-raised Toledan cubits, which is about eighty-six perches
feet square, which is about ten perches, to the upper and dedicated that immense temple which bis pre.
area; but it is impossible that five hundred Mexican decessor Tizoc had planned. This was the temple the Anonymous Conqueror, both in the description and the Spaniards, in such a narrow space; especially if we
+ Sahagun makes the temple perfectly square, but nobles, as Cortes asserts, could have stood to fight against which the Spaniards celebrated so highly after they in the figure which he has left us, represents it to have believe Bernard Diaz, who says, that four thousand bad destroyed it.
been of greater length than breadth, like those of Mexicans fortified themselves in that temple, and that This great temple occupied the centre of the city, | Teotihuacan which served as models for all the rest. numbers had got up before the nobles ascended.
Eacb was divided into three bodies, of which the emancipation of old Spain, for which they The Spanish armies, however, were un. lower was of stone and lime, and the other two of both toiled; and if we are to give full credit able to cope with the numerous and veteran wood very well wrought sud painted. The in- to this account, it was no fault of Xavier's troops that Napoleon poured into the counferior body or basis of each were properly the that the revolution of 1820 had not taken try, and being defeated in every regular sanctuaries where, upon an altar of stone five effect in 1813.
encounter, they retreated before the French. feet high, were placed their tutelary idols. One
The extract forms the introductory chap. The Catalonian army, after being deof these two sanctuaries was consecrated to Huit- ter to the body of the work : and we re- feated at Belchite, a town to the southward zilopochtli, and the gods of war, and the other publish it not merely because it will not of Saragossa, fell back to Tortosa, while to Tezcallipoca. The other bodies were destined fail to prove interesting to the reader, but the French occupied the line extending in to tbe keeping of some things belonging to the the perusal of a small portion may lead to the direction of the southern frontier of worship, and the ashes of some kings and lords | a wish to possess the whole.
Arragon and Catalonia. who, through particular devotion, desired that
It was in this gloomy situation of affairs, to be done. The doors of both sanctuaries
that Xavier Mina formed a determination
EXTRACTS. were towards the west, and both the towers termi.
which had the most important effects, not dated in a very beautiful wooden cupola. There is December, 1789. He was the eldest son the whole war in Spain. He resolved to
Xavier Mina was born in the month of only upon his own fortune in life, but upon no author who bas described the internal disposition of a well born and respected proprietary pass through the line of the French posiand ornaments of the sanctuaries ; nor indeed the whose domains lay near the town of Mon- tion, and, gaining his native province of size of the towers ; 80 that what is represented in real, in the province or kingdom of Navarre. Navarre, to make its mountains and fastthe engraving is only delineated from conjecture. Breathing from his infancy the mountain nesses the theatre of his hostile operation However, we may venture to say without danger of air, he was accustomed to wander in val- to hang on the rear of the invaders, to inmistake, that the height of the building without the leys rich with the fruits of Southern Eu tercept their convoys and couriers, and cut lowers, was not less than nineteen perches, and rope, or to pursue the game which sought off their straggling detachments. with the lowers, exceeded twenty-eight. From that in their migrations every spring and autumn In an evening walk he first communicated height one might see the lake, the cities around, and a passage over the mountains and isthmus to a friend and kinsman his plans and a great part of the valley; and it has been affirmed of the Pyrenees. Thus nurtured and exer- schemes, and unfolded his hopes and fears, by eye-witnesses to be the finest prospect in the cised, the faculties expanded, and the hardy his strong enthusiam, and visions of glory. world.
qualities of the mind were matured in early. The sky was bright with the tints of a brilIn the upper area was the altar for the common
life. The bold and rugged scenery of liant sun-set, and, as the sun descended sacrifices, and in the lower that for the gladiatorial. mountains : the cheerful and buoyant feel below the horizon, his fancy drew the reBefore the two sanctnaries were two stone stoves of ings they excite, and the wild aspect of semblance to the glorious death of the hero the height of a man, and of the shape of our holy nature are well known to have a powerful who falls in the cause of his country. His
effect pyx, in whieh they preserved a constant fire, night
upon the formation of character. kinsman heard him to the end in silence, and day, with the utmost care ; fearing that if ever The early studies of Mina were made at and then pointed to a gibbet that stood it went out, they should suffer the most dreadful Pampeluna and at Saragossa. In 1808, at near,—“If you succeed, it will be great; punishment from heaven. In the other temples and the commencement of the resistance of the if you fail, there is your portion.” In reply religious buildings comprised within the inclosure Spaniards to the French invasion, he was a to his solicitation to be permitted to put his of the great wall, there were six bundred stoves, of student in the University of Saragossa. plans in execution, the Spanish General : the same size and figure, which in the night time, Then between eighteen and nineteen years told him it would only be throwing away when they used all to be burning, presented a very and when the massacre at Madrid, on the army.'" I do not (replied Mina) think. I
old, he felt the strong enthusiasm of the time, his life, as he would be cut off from the pleasing sight.
2d of May, shook all Spain, and the cry of am cut off, so long as I can find á path for
vengeance was heard from the Ebro to the my horse.” Finally, he left Tortosa with XAVIER MINA.
Guadiana, he abandoned his studies, joined twelve men, and passing with skill through the army in the north of Spain, as a volun- the line occupied by the French army, ar
teer, and was present at the battles of At-rived in Navarre. Of those iwelve one is (From the Philadelphia Union.)
cornes, Maria, and Belchite. The events at present a Lieutenant; another has re
of that period are still in our remembrance; tired with nine wounds; the rest fell in batThe failure of Mina's attempt to free the general rising of the Spanish nation, tle. Mexico in 1816 is well known: and the and the heroism of the Spanish people, The first essay of Mina was upon a small murderous scenes in which his romantic suddenly awakening from a slumber which guard of about a dozen French; he attacked career was closed, was described by some had bound them since the days of Charles them with about twenty men, and captured officers who escaped the unsparing massacre the Fifth.
them without much resistance. The next of his little army. But, so far as we know, Irritated at the capture of his armies, attempt was on a party of thirty men. The there has neither been published any circum- Napoleon at this time began to pour fresh Spaniards, having about the same number, stantial narrative of the expedition, nor any troops into Spain, and it became more im- lay concealed behind a stone wall, and rose complete developement of the internal state portant than ever for the Spaniards to have and fired upon the enemy. Some of them of society, nor institutions, in that portion of a communication with France as the means defended themselves bravely; a tall grena. South America. The extract we are about of procuring intelligence. The gallant dier fired at Mina with a deliberate aim, to give, is, however, from a work now in young Mina undertook the enterprize, and and, taking shelter behind a tree, encouthe course of publication, that purports to availing himself of his knowledge of the raged his party; but the Spaniards leaping supply much of this information; drawn up country, the peasantry, and the passes of the wall, rushed on, and sotiled the combat by the Commissary General of the expedi- the mountains, he executed it with complete with their sabres. This successful begintion, with some additional notes and re- success : establishing a secret means of ning produced most important results. The marks by Mr. Wm. D. Robinson, who fol. communication with the provinces of France spirits of the peasantry were roused; many lowed the liberating army, and has recently adjacent to the Pyrenees, by which much successful adventures took place the escaped from the prison of Cadiz. Espoz valuable information of what was passing in French foraging parties were cut to pieces; y Mina, the uncle of Xavier here men- France was obtained for the Spanish Ge- their convoys attacked and plundered, and tioned, is now reaping the fruits of that nerals.
their couriers intercepted.
When the Spanish Government had scarcely finished EXTRAORDINARY RUSSIAN FESTIVAL.
Antiquities. their rejoicing for the first success of Mina, they were again surprised when he sent Towards the end of the year 1739, the Empress
TO THE EDITOR OF THE GLASGOW them a large body of prisoners, with a Catherine gave a comical entertainment. Prince Gal
CHRONICLE. Lieutenant-Colonel; and, at another time, litzin was the occasion of it: though about 40 years seven hundred prisoners, with a quantity of of age, and even having a son serving in the army, SIR,-- In levelling the ground for the Rev. Dr. Dick's military equipments, stores and money. in the rank of lieutenant, he was made at once new church in Albion-street, about 250 to 300 complete
The French were not passive spectators page and buffoon of the court, by way of punish- human skeletons have been found in good preservation, of these chivalrous exploits. Upwards of ment fur bis having changed his religion. His first embedded in fine loam, about 6 feet from the surface, thirty individuals nearly or remotely con- wife being dead, the Empress told him he ought to of the ground. They were uniformly placed with the nected with Mina's family, were suddenly marry again, and that she would be at the expense head to the west and the feet to the east: in some cases arrested and sent into France. Among the of the wedding. He accepted the proposal ; and, the body lay on one side. There was no instance of relatives of Mina, thus torn from their pitched upon a girl of low life, acquainted the more than one in a grave, nor any bones but those be. country, was an accomplished young lady, Empress of his choice, and claimed her promise. longing to the body. There was one instance where the object of his early attachment. rated from each other, time and the waves a mind at the same time, to see how many diffe-crimination of rank or condition. There are no children's Sepa- The Empress, in giving this entertainment, had three bodies lay by the side of each other : no vestige of a
coffin or clothing is to be seen, nor is there the least dis. of an adverse fortune, bore them still far-rent kinds of inhabitants there were in ber vast bones, nor those of half-grown persons, nor the bones of ther asunder, and the tender affections, the doininions. Accordingly, she caused orders to be any other animal found among them. Every skull had sport of events, sunk and were lost for despatched to the governors of the provinces to a case of excellent teeth, both in the upper and unever. Repeated expeditions were undertaken
send up to Petersburgh scveral persons of both der jaw; and although I examined at least fifty of
sexes. These being arrived, they, at the expense them, I could not discover any traces of tooth-ache, to destroy Mina, but the affections of every of the court, were new-dresser, each
in the habit
of and many of them were so young as to want the dentes peasant being with him, and having correct his respective country. M.Walinsky was appointed sapientiae
. Are we not to infer from this that they were intelligence of every movement, he was enabled not only tó baffle and elude his manager of the arrangements for this wedding, young persons, in the vigour of life ? One skull had a enemy, but frequently to come on them and winter was the season chosen for the celebra- cleft in the forehead, four inches long. These bones
owe their preservation to the close nature of the red unexpected, defeating and destroying his tion of it. The Empress, to make it the more com
mud in which they were found; and it is remarkpursuers. When he found the forces op. pletely extraordinary, had a house built wholly of
able, that although there is two feet of rich soil above posed to him too numerous to be openly ice: it consisted of two chambers, in which every this mud, there is no visible trace of it down to these resisted, he appointed a place of rendezvous, thing of furniture, even the bed-place for the new-bodies, so that the graves must have been made previous dispersed his band, and, separating, eluded married couple, was to be of ice. There were four to the formation or deposition of the black soil. The pursuit. The armed mountaineers retired small cannon and two mortars made of the same bones are all of an age, that is, they are all in the same to their homes or to secret recesses, and matter. The cannon were fired several times with state of preservation, and seem to have been buried all there waited till their leader gave the sig- an ounce of powder in each, without bursting; and at one time. nal
, when there appeared to spring from little wooden grenades were thrown out of the We are informed in one of the histories of Sir Wil. the earth, like the men of Cadmus, a legion mortars, without their being damaged.
liam Wallace, that in year 1300, (that is 520 years ago) of soldiers. Mina himself, with a select On the wedding-day that the feast was to be cele. our immortal countryman, with his uncle Adam Wal. band, the nucleus of his army, retired to brated, all the guests were assembled in the court. lace, and Boswell, of Auchinleck, with 300 cavalry, the mountains. A hill near his father's yard of Walinsky: thence the procession set out: Percy and Bishop Beak, with 1000 men, whom they
marched from Ayr, and on the same day attacked Earl mansion was his principal retreat. He was and passed before the Imperial palace, and through found drawn up in the order of battle on ground near familiar with its fastnesses and solitary re- the principal streets of the town. There was a where the College now stands, that he killed Earl Percy treats, and the neglected flocks of his own great train, consisting of more than 300 persons. with his own hand, 700 of his men were also slain, and family furnished him and his brave compa- The new-married couple were placed upon an ele the remainder pursued by Wallace to the castle of Bothnions with food. When he determined on phant, in a great cage. The guests two and two, well: here again he fell in with a new party of the Engstriking a blow, he gathered his forces like
were in a sledge drawn by all kinds of beasts, as lish, whom he also attacked and beat. the tempest on the mountain top, then he rein-deer, dogs, oxen, goats, hogo, &c. Some were
From what has been before mentioned, it would apdescended in terror and swept the province mounted on camels. After the procession hnd gone pear that these skeletons ate the remains of Earl Perey's to the very gates of Pampeluna. Thus was began the Spanish insurrection
the round prescribed, it was brought into the duke men who fell in this battle; and in confirmation of this in the province of Navarre. From this of Courland's riding-house, where a flooring of conjecture, three bodies were found under similar cir
cumstances in College-street, when laying some of the period, bands of Guerillas were organized planks had been laid for the purpose, and where large water pipes ; that ground, like Mr. Rattray's garthroughout the country, and thus com
there was a diquer prepared for them on several den, never having been built upon or turned up. menced that system which was the great
tables; each was treated according to the manner It would oblige some of your readers if any of your means of keeping up the spirit of desperate
of cookery in his own country. After the repast, ingenious correspondents could throw some light on this animosity, and, eventually, the means of there was a ball; each nation had its own music, subject, through the mediuma of your paper. delivering Spain from her invader. The and its own way of dancing. When the ball was
I am, Sir, &c.
A CITIZEN. success of Mina ran through the country over, the bridegroom and bride were conducted into with a powerful stimulus on the minds of the house of ice, where they were put into.a disthe people, and he soon raised a respectable mully cold bed, with guards posted at the door,
TO THE EDITOR. dìvision of troops, whose numbers were in that they might not get out before morning. crtased by the peasantry, when it was contemplated to strike a blow. The central Sir Thos. Gresham, who built the Royal Exchange,
SIR,—The following expenses of the materials for Junta at Seville conferred upon him the was the son of a poor woman, who left him in a field, a dinner given by William Mingay, Esq. Mayor of title of Colonel, and soon after, the dignity, ing a boy to the place where he lay, his life was pre.
when an infant; but the chirping of a grashopper lead- Norwich, at which he feasted the Duke of Nor. of Commandant General of the Army of served. From this circumstance the future merchant folk, &c. the Lords, Knights, and Gentry of the Navarre. The Junta of Arragon also ap- took the grasshopper for his crest; and hence the cause county, in the year 1561, the beginning of the reiga
of that insect being placed over the Royal Exchange. pointed him Commandant General of Upper
of Queen Elizabeth; compared with what the ex
A Society of Men of Letters is at present occupied in Arragon.
laying, in the South of France, the foundation of a town, penses would at this day amount, will perhaps be (To be concluded in our next.)
in which the only language spoken shall be Latin ! amusing to some of your readers, And if you, Mr.
My blithesome love! my bosom's pride!
Wha's opening graces charm mine ee;
My heart shall ever be wi' thee.
Or sit beneath our fav’rite tree,
I lov'd to win a smile frae thee.
And sob the billows o' the Dee,
And breathe a fervent prayer for thee.
Soon, soon would'st thou return to me; But vain is sorrow,-fare thee weel !
I shall, sweet maid, remember thee.
CHIT CHAT AT A COUNTRY BALL.
Says the Captain so fine, as he handed Miss down,
THE BEAUTIES OF
“ Ludimus effigiem belli.”............. VIDA.
Editor, can sparę room in one of the corners (occa. sionally) in your Mirror, you shall hear further. Yours, &c. T.W, E.
£ s. d. 8 Stone of Beef, 141b. to the stone...... 0 5 4 2 Collars of Brawn..................... 0 1 4 4 Geese,...
0 1 4 8 Pints of Butter,..
Poetry. A fore quarter of Veal............
0 0 10 A bind do. do....
0 1 0
TO THE OCEAN. 1 Leg of Mutton......
0 3 Loin of ditto and Shoulder of Veal....0 1 · A Breast and Coat of Mutton
0 0 7
(From the Marcian Colonna ; a Poem.} 6 Plovers....
0 1 0
BY BARRY CORNWALL. 4 Brace of Partridges,
0 2 0 4 Couple of Rabbits
0 1 8 O Thou vast Ocean! ever sounding Sea! 2 Guinea Pigs ......
0 1 0 Thou symbol of a drear immensity ; 4 Couple of Hens ...
0 2 0
Thou thing that windest round the solid world, 2 Bushels of Flour..
1 6 16 Loavés of White Bread...
Like a huge animal, which, downward hurl'd
0 0 4 2 Couple of Mallards......
From the black clouds, lies weltering and alone,
0 1 0 34 Eggs.....
0 1 0
Lashing and writhing till its strength be gone! 18 Loaves of Wheaten Bread
0 09 Thy voice is like the thunder, and thy sleep 3 Ditto of Mislen Ditto..
0 0 3 Is as a giant's slumber, loud and deep. 1 Barrel of Double Beer, .......
Thou speakest in the East and in the West 1 Ditto of Small Ditto
At once; and on thy heavily laden breast 1 Quarter of Wood....
. 1 2 2
Fleets come and go, and shapes, that have nor life
Nor motion, yet are moved, and meet in strife.
0 0 7
The earth hath nought of this : no chance nor change Sweet Water and Perfumes,..
0 0 4 Ruffles its surface, and no spirits dare 16 Oranges..
0 0 2 Give answer to the tempest-waken air; * 2 Gallons White Wine and Claret.. 0 2 0 But o'er its wastes the weakly tenants range 1 Quart of Sack....
At will, and wound its bosom as they go; 1 Ditto of Malmsey
Ever the same, it hath no ebb, no flow; 1 Ditto of Bustard.
But in their stated rounds the seasons come, 1 Ditto of Muscadine....
And pass like visions to their viewless home,
Looks ever bright with leaves and blossoming,
Dies in his stormy manhood; and the skies “ Maister Mayor of Norwich, --And it please your Thou only, terrible Ocean! hast a power,
Weep, and flowers sicken, when the Summer flies. worship, you have feasted us like a King : God bless A will, a voice; and in thy wrathful hour, the Queen's Grace! We have fed pleutifully, and when thou dost lift thine anger to the clouds, now whilome I can speak plain English, I heartily A fearful and magnificent beauty shrouds thank you, Majster Mayor, and so do we all. Thy broad green forehead. If thy waves be driven Answer, boys, answer.— Your beer is pleasant and Backwards and forwards by the shifting wind, potent, and will soon catch us by the caput, and How quickly dost thou thy great strength unbind, stop our manners. And so, huzza ! for the Queen's And stretch thine arms, and war at once with Heaven! Majestie's Grace and all her bonny-browed Maids of Thou trackless and immeasurable Main ! Honour. Huzza ! for Master Mayor, and our good On thee no record ever lived again dame Mayoress, his Noble Grace, there he is, God To meet the hand that writ it; line nor lead save him! and all this jolly company.
To all our
Hath ever fathomed thy profoundest deeps. friends, sound country, who have a penny in their Where haply the huge monster swells and sleeps, purse, and an English heart in their bodies, to keep can move the mighty ocean into storm.
King of his watery limit, who, 'tis said, out Spanish Dons, and Papists with their faggots to Oh! wonderful thou art, great element! burn our whiskers.-Shove it about-twirl your cap. And fearful in thy spleeny humours bent, cases-handle your jugs—and huzza! for Maister And lovely in repose: thy summer form Mayor, and his brethren their Worships.
Is beautiful ; and when thy silver waves
Marking the sun-light at the evening hour,
The White undertake to checkmate with the Pawn 74 in Five Moves, without taking the black Pawn 7-6
METHOD OP KEEPING CHEESE.
3 2 1 WHITE.
6 5 4
....748 ....8-7 ....8-5
4 King ....8-6
repairing the waste, supplying the accession of new merable ramifications as fine as hairs ; so that every
substance, and distributing to every part of our frame part of the organization contributes to bring the atCIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. the nourishment whicb ic requires.
mosphere and the blood as nearly as possible in a state The foregoing outline affords a general idea of the of contact: thereby manifesting the necessity of air to
circulation of the blood, so far as it is connected with the healthful constitution of this latter fluid.
From the variety of important purposes answered by reference to RESPIRATION, it will be necessary to take the blood in its course through the body, it must be The discovery of the circulation of the blood by Dr. a more particular review of this function. The heart evident that the health and vigour of our system Harvey, in 1628, forms an important era in the annals is a double organ ; it is, as we have already mentioned, mainly depend on the purity of this vital fluid; and of medical science; it has contributed, in an emioent divided into two cavities, each of which is the centre this most essential object is no less accomplished by degree, to the improvement of the healing art, and has of a particular and distinct circulation,
respiration than it is by digestion. As air and aliment unfolded one of the most beautiful systems of provi.
The blood distributed by the aorta from the left contribute so eminently to the formation and constitudential arrangement in the entire department of or cavity of the heart, is brought back again by the veins, tion of the blood, the healthy condition of the animal ganized nature.
not to the left cavity, from whence it set out, but to frame depends, in a great measure, on a conjoint supThe blood may be considered as the fountain of life; the right cavity. Another large artery, called the ply of these two essentials in a state of purity. it circulaces through our system by means of two sets
PULMONARY ARTERY, arises from the right cavity. of vessels, which, from their respective offices, are This artery is distributed solely through the lungs, enable the stomach to recruit the waste of the sangui
If a due portion of wholesome food be necessary to called arteries and veins. The heart is the centre and where it becomes subdivided into extremely minute ferous system--a due supply of pure air is equally nethe great moving power of the circulation. The ar- branches. By means of this artery the blood is pro cessary to enable the lungs to assist and perfect the teries and veins are hollow, cylindrical tubes, which pelled from the right cavity of the heart through the operations of the stomach. If the digestive organs pervade almost every part of the body, and which lungs, and having been there exposed to the influence convert food into chyle-respiration converts chyle into strve as channels through which the blood is constantly of the air, which we are constantly respiring, it is blood and while the former are engaged in replenishcirculating. The external appearance of the heart is conveyed, by the PULMONARY YEINS, to the left cavity ing the mass of the circulation with fresh supplies, the familiar to every one: its internal structure and eco
of the heart, to be again circulated through the general the lungs are employed in the equally essential offices nomy are so extremely beautiful, and evince in so
system. many points the admirable contrivance of the Supreme
of freeing it from its impurities, and in fitting it for
The importance of the lungs, and of respiration, is the sustension of health and life. Architect, that we conceive we shall perform an ac- rendered more evident through this admirable meceptable service to our readers, by rendering it the chanism, by which the blood, having run one course the stomach is, not unhappily, described by the poet in
The circulation of the blood, and its connection with subject of a future essay. The object of the present through the body, to administer to its various functions, one will be fully answered, by stating generally, that is then circulated through the lungs, to be fitted to per
the fullowing words : the heart is divided, by means of a strong muscular form a sccond circulation.
The blood, the fountain whence the spirits flow, partition, into two cavities, which, from their respec
The gen'rous stream that waters ev'ry part, We will form a more accurate estimate of the great tive situations, are called the right and left cavities of
And motion, vigour, and warm life conveys ibe heart. A large artery, called the AORTA, arises extent of the action which the inspired air exerts on
To ev'ry particle thai moves or lives, frorn the left cavity of the heart; in its progress this by nature for its exercise, both in the rapidity of the the blood, from reviewing the ample provision made
This vital Auid, thro' unnumber'd tubes artery divides itself into innumerable branches, through circulation and in the structure and economy of the
Pour'd by the heart, and to the heart again which the blood is conveyed to every part of our sys. lungs. The number of arcerial pulsations varies in
Refunded-scourg'd for ever round and round, tem. The blood thus distributed from the heart, by different individuals, and varies also in the same per
Enraged with heat and toil at last forgets the arteries, is recurned to this organ by the veins.
Its balmy nature ; virulent and thin The ARTERIES convey the blood from the heart to mind, the state of the health, and other causes, may son at different periods of life. The passions of the
It grows; and now, but that a thousand gates all parts of the body. The veins convey this fluid accelerate or retard the niotion of the blood.
Are open to its flight, it would destroy from all parts of the body to the heart. The ARTERIES
The part it cherish'd and repair'd before. increase in sumber, and decrease in size, in their proWe may state generally the number of arterial
Besides the flexible and render tubes gress from the heart, till, ultimately divided into an pulsations as seventy-five per minute, during which
Melt in the mildest most nectarious tide innemerable series of minute branches, they terminate period the heart also contracts seventy-five times,
That rip'ning nature rolls, as in the stream in, and pour their contents into the veins. The veins and at each cor:traction ic pours its contents into
Its crumb'ling banks. But what the vital force collect the blood by their extreme branches, which the arteries. The quantity of blood discharged by
of plastic fluids hourly batters down, increase in size, and decrease in number, till they ul- each contraction of the beart, and the total amount of
That very force those plastic particles timately constitate two great trunks, which terminare this Muid circulating in the system, are questions of
Rebuild; so mucable the state of man. in, and pour their contents into the heart; to which extremely difficult solution. It must be evident too,
For this the watchful appetite was given, the blood returns as to its source, and from whence that the amount is liable to considerable variation from
Daily with fresh materials to repair it is again circulated and diffused.
difference in age, sex, constitution, structure, and otber This unavoidable expense of life, The blood is the great vital current from which all causes. If we estimate the quantity of blood dis
This necessary waste of flesh and blood. our secretions are elaborated, and from which the charged from the left cavity of the heart by each con
Hence the concoctive powers with various art, fluid, as well as the solid parts of our bodies, the bones traction at two ounces and a half, the cocal amount of
Subdue the cruder aliments to chyle, as well as the muscles, derive the principles of their the circulating fluid at 50 pounds, and the contractions
The chyle to blood, the foamy purple tide formation, growth and renovation. of the heart at 75 per minute, ic follows ebat the entire
To liquors which through finer arteries The office of the stomach is to recruit the mass
mass of the blood passes through the heart 23 times in To different parts their winding course pursue, of the circulation with fresh supplies, to enable it to an hour, or that it describes one circuit through the body
To try new changes and new forms put on. continue the performance of the important purposes
in less than three minutes. The whole volume of the for which it is designed. The nutritive portion of the blood therefore passes through the lungs 552 times in the course of the day, to be subjected to the influence
Scientific Records. food which we consume, is, by the action of the stomnach and other organs, converted into a milky-like of the air which we constantly respire. fluid, called chyle. This chyle is poured into the The structure of the lungs is extremely well calculated blood, to which it becomes assimilated by the function to facilitate the exercise of the chemical affinity which of respiration, and then it forms a homogenous part of prevails between the air and the blood. The men- has discovered there a manuscript of the Roman history
Mr. Jacks, librarian to the Royal Library at Bamberg, the general circulation.
brane which lines the cavities of the lungs is thinner of Eutropius, which was probably brought from Rome Thus the nutriment which we derive from our food than the finest cambric, and if disengaged from its by the Emperor Henry, the founder of the Bishopric of becomes, by the operation of a variety of agencies, evolutions and extended, it would cover a space Bamberg. The MS. is more complete than any of the ultimately converted into blood; while this vital and equal to the whole external surface of the body. On best editions hitherto published of this author, and very
likely to correct a number of false readings. Professor sanguine stream, pursuing its uninterrupted course this delicate and extensive membrane, the branches of Goeller, of Cologne, had previously discovered in the through an innumerable series of vessels, is incessantly the pulmonary artery and veins are spread out in innu- Royal Library a MS. of Livy.