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rive at Schoenbrunn, that his own carriage broke down on the road, and madame Lannes’s carriage was directly offered and accepted to convey him to Buonaparte, whose recovery was doubtful, and who was actually reported to be dead Is it probable, after this positive fact, that the physician was going to the service of the army 2 would he have put madame Lannes, overwhelmed with the recent death of her husband, the marechal who lost his life at the battle of Asperne gained by the archduke Charles, to such inconvenience 2
“It was,indeed, the general opinion, that the disorder was occasioned by the result of that battle in which the Marechal duke of Montebello. [Lannes] with the flower of the imperial guard was nearly annihilated by the Austrians. For hours after this disastrous event, Buonaparte was in such a state of agitation of mind, that he was bereft of reason, and of course incapable of commanding. He recovered at the end of thirty six hours; but was strictly advised not to exercise his mind or body.
“The narrative I have laid before the publick are facts, and I pledge my existence to the truth of what I have stated. I fear it will never be seen in France, although it shall not be for want of pains; at least, even Buonaparte himself shall be put in possession of a few copies, and as the vapouring warriour does not understand a word of the language of the nation he is so irritated against, care will be taken to have these observations translated into French.”
We shall here inform Mr. Sturt, that he need not despair of mortify
not entirely unknown to us, a copy of colonel Titus’s “Killing no Murder,” translated into French, was laid on the desk of Buonaparte's most private cabinet, to which himself alone was understood to have access, merely to delight him. That it dropped from the clouds we do not say; from whence it did drop, it “would not be convenient,” as his phrase is, to explain. It vexed him horribly; and he long remembered it; for on its being copied into the Courier de Londres, he stanchly affirmed in the Moniteur that Pichegru had conducted the business. As he has not yet forgot it, we hereby inform him and Fauchet, and Boissy d'Anglas, and count Fontanes, that, to our own knowledge, Pichegru was innocent of the transaction. We trust our readers will not imagine that we correspond with the court of the Thuilleries, although we certainly do know some things which are transacted there; and the secret passages of that building have been trod by some of our friends. Is this the great man at whose footstool have bowed down the powers of Europe 2 We quit him with the sarcasm of the apocryphal Daniel, on the prostrate. Bel, and the
confounded Babylonians: “Lo, these
ing the Great Hero. By an agency are the Gods ye worship .
FROM THE BRITISH CRITIC K.
Travels of the Duke de Châtelet, in Portugal. Comprehending interesting Particulars relative to the Colonies; the Earthquake of Lisbon; the Marquis de Pombal, and the Court. The Manuscript revised, corrected, and enlarged, with Notes, on the present State of the Kingdom and Colonies of Portugal. By J. Fr. Burgoing, late Minister Plenipotentiary, from the French Republick, in Spain, Member of the National
Institute, and Author of the Modern State of Spain. Translated from the French, by John Joseph Stockdale. Illustrated with a Map of Portugal, and view of the Bay of
Lisbon. 2 vols. 8vo. 17s. 1809.
NOTWITHSTANDING the interest which Portugal has of late years excited, and still continues to excite among us, we have no complete work descriptive of that country. Link's Travels were, in many
instances, exceptionable, and Portugal formed but a small portion of his work. Murphy's State of Portugal, though a curious performance, was principally employed on architectural subjects. The Picture of Lisbon, as
far as it goes, has much merit, but though a great many years have passed since the ci-devant duke de Châtelet visited Portugal, allowing for the prejudices and misrepresentations of a Frenchman, particularly as directed against this country, this work altogether is entitled to superiour attention. The duke had great advantages from his rank, character, and profession of the same religion, which procured him easy access, where national jealousy excluded strangers generally, and protestants in particular. He was well known to the marquis de Pombal, one of the greatest characters which Portugal ever produced. The work is comprised in two volumes, which have been arranged, systematized, and commented upon in additional notes, by M. Burgoing, who was minister in Spain from the French republick, and author of the Modern State of Spain. The first volume, after describing the author's arrival at Lisbon, and reception at court, represents, in ten succeeding chapters, the climate and origin of the kingdom of Portugal, its geographical description, constitution and laws, religion, manners, and customs, colonies, population, commerce, and agriculture. There is not in the whole of this volume a more interesting portion than the description of the marquis de Pombal in his retirement, which is, accordingly inserted for the reader's amusement. “In one of the excursions which I made into the interiour of Portugal, I paid a visit to the marquis de Pombal. I had a particular recommendation to him, and was, therefore, received with the utmost polite. ness. I knew this minister, by reputation, and was desirous of being personally acquainted with him. On my arrival at the village, from which he takes his title, I wrote from my inn, requesting to be informed at what hour I might wait upon him, with the letters which I had for him. I went, for this purpose, at ten the next morning, and was introduced into the cottage of this great man. He has now a habitation more suitable to his rank; but, at
the period of my visit, he was in a very small house, and slept in an apartment, the walls of which had been recently plastered. “In point of manners, no person can be more agreeable, or more easy, than M. de Pombal. He asked me a thousand questions, and affected total ignorance of what Was i. in Europe. He requested me to inform him of the present state of affairs. He even questioned me on the subject of Portugal, and asked concerning the state of Lisbon. He inquired, what motive, or what accident, had brought me to such an obscure corner of the earth. * Accustomed,” I replied, “from my youth to travel, I always visit the interiour of the countries which I traverse, without confining myself to the principal cities, and seaports, where there is nothing new to be observed. Besides, I was desirous of becoming acquainted with a man, who had made such extraordinary efforts to promote the welfare of his country.” We entered, by degrees, into conversation. He invited me to spend a week with him, and kept me that day to dinner and supper. I expressed my astonishment at the state in which I had found Lisbon, considering the short time that had elapsed since the calamity which had befallen it. He replied, that he then thought no more of that subject; that he was an old man, and wished for repose; but that if Providence had pleased to prolong the life of the king, his master, he would have exerted himself with the same zeal to accomplish the enterprise which he had only just begun, and that he should, undoubtedly, have laid the foundation of a palace for the king. He described the magnificent plan which he had adopted for that edifice. Seated on an eminence, contiguous to Belem, it would have overlooked the city and the sea, and have been surrounded with a large park, enclosed with high walls, against which, at suitable distances, were to have been erected the palaces of the principal nobility belonging to the court, and residences for persons officially attached to it. “M. de Pombal has brought with him a great number of books, and spends most of his time in reading, or having them read to him. They are all French. He speaks our language with the fluency of a native and is equally conversant with German, English, and Italian. He never mentioned his worthy master without emotion. “He honoured me,” said he, “with his confidence. To lose my king, and my friend, is a trial too severe for me to endure. To me, the sun's rays appear, shorn of their lustre, and nothing can ever make me
Pombal, and we spoke, for some time, in her native language. The repast was short, or, at least, appeared so to me. The heat was excessive; and, on rising from table, each retired to take a short repose. I availed myself of this opportunity to examine the place where this illustrious couple resides. It is not disagreeable, as it had been described to me at Lisbon. in a neighbouring eminence, the ruins of an ancient castle form an extremely picturesque object. The water is excellent. On seaving the habitation of the marquis I found at his door above two hundred persons, to whom the servants were distributing bread and soup. In this manner he gains a great number of partisans who extol him even in his disgrace; and he seemed to me to be beloved by all the inhabitants of the place. After a walk of two hours, I returned to M. de Pombal's, and found him in the midst of his books. We resumed our conversation. He inquired if I had seen the ceremony of the queen's coronation. I guessed his reason for asking, and replied that I had, and that I thought it was performed with great pomp and magnificence. He asked if I had noticed all the ineffectual efforts made, on this occasion by his enemies, to accomplish his destruction. He even questioned me respecting the manner in which the people had conducted themselves. I told him what I knew; and added that this circumstance was an additional triumph for him, since it proved the impotence as much as the animosity of his enemies. On this he said with an extreme vivacity, which highly becomes not, decently, appear at the head of the persecuting party. What course did they pursue 2 They selected some of their creatures, who, in the disguise of barbers, seamen, cooks, &c. ran about, in the publick places, calumniating me, and painting my character in the most odious colours. The people, easily misled, seconded a resentment, which they were told they ought to share. They hated me, because they were taught that it was right so to do. Several persons whom you know,” added he, ‘in order to injure me, ran about for whole days, in this disguise, among the populace, and invented calumnies, which they propagated as incontestable truths. For the rest, whatever I did, was by the orders of my master. I have nothing to reproach myself with. I am particularly accused of cruelty; but I was compelled to be severe. When I announced the commands of the king, and people disdained to attend to them, it was then necessary to have recourse to force; prisons and dungeons were the only means that I could discover, to tame this blind and ignorant people.”
amends for the loss which I have sustained.” While he spoke, tears fell from his eyes. In vain I endeavoured to change the conversation; he was continually recurring to the same subject. “At any rate,’ continued he, “I shall be happy here. You see this cottage. It is not mine; I only rent it. The man who is accused of having thought only of himself, has not even built himself a habitation on his estate.” Then, pointing to a spacious, new edifice: “That,” said he, ‘is a magazine belonging to the city. I had it erected to contain corn, with which it is filled. Still, like Sully I shall live more happily in my retirement than at court, and among the great. I have been permitted to take my books with me, and there is very little else that I should wish for.” He had scarcely finished these words when madame de Pombal entered. He was pleased to present me to her. She still retains a portion of her charms, and dresses with great art and taste. She certainly is not deficientin understanding; but she has neither her husband's fortitude, nor strength of mind to endure her situation. During the prosperity of the marquis, she had the grandees and the people at her feet, and her house was a sort of court. Men, when they called to see her, knelt to kiss her hand, according to the practice of the country. Her vanity, flattered with so many marks of respect, cannot familiarize itself to the seclusion, to which her husband's disgrace has doomed her. Forsaken by all, and buried in the solitude of an obscure village, she has no other satisfaction than what she derives from the company of her children, who, sometimes, come to spend a fortnight with her. A German by birth, she has all the pride of the great families of her nation, and secretly grieves on account of her exile, after having moved in such an exalted sphere. These sentiments she strove to conceal from me; but they were too powerful to be repressed. After conversing about ten minutes, her eyes overflowed with tears. “This is but natural in her sex,” said the marquis: ‘to comforther is an additional occupation for me; but, by following my example, she will soon learn to bear her reverse with fortitude.’ Dinner was announced immediately afterwards. “Come,” said he, “and partake the frugal meal of a hermit.” Instead of the frugal meal which he taught me to expect, I found a well furnished table: nothing that indicated any change of fortune, or that even bore the stamp of dejection. There was nobody except us three. The conversation was very lively. I talked about Germany to madane de
him: ‘People advance a paradox, who
pretend to interpret the sentiments of the people; who are represented as detesting me. It is impossible; my actions, my conduct, all assure me of the contrary. The people cannot hate me, and I will tell you why. What was the Portuguese forty years ago, and what is he now Have I not rendered him independent of his neighbours ? Have I not every where established arts, trades, and manufac. tures Have I not, besides, caused one third of the city of Lisbon to be rebuilt? Have I not revived industry, and diffused wealth among the artizans ? No;'with all the claims which, I think I possess upon the gratitude of the people, I consider them too just to have ever entertained a wish to destroy me; neither did they. I will tell you who were the authors of all that you may have seen and heard at the coronation. The nobles, who persisted in the insolent pretensions, which I endeavoured to annihilate, employed all possible means to effect my ruin; but they could
“In this manner I spent five days, in the most interesting conversations with this great statesman. He was pleased to communicate to me much information, and many of his own reflections respecting Portugal. I have availed myself of both in the course of this work.” Note by the Author. p. 172.
The second volume is employed upon the army, navy, imports and finances, science and literature, arts and manufactures, and finally, the policy of Portugal.
The state of the arts, of science, and of literature, are, we fear, not much improved in Portugal since ths duke de Châtelet visited it. They have no painters, sculptors, nor architects. Their dramatick authors are of the lowest order. Their mathematical knowledge contemptible. Yet, nevertheless Portugal has academies for the cultivation of all these sciences. How can it be believed that Portugal produced the first navigators of the world, first established settlements on the coast of Guinea, doubled the tremendous cape of Storms? &c. &c. &c.
We have received much satisfaction and information from these volumes, and are obliged to Mr. Stockdale for translating them. The performance is highly creditable to him; the style is always easy, often elegant; and has much the appearance of an original work.
Memoires de Physique et de Chimie, de la Societé d’Arcueil. Tom. 2. 8vo. pp. 500. Paris, 1809.
WE resume, with much satisfac
tion, our account of the labours of
this new and active association. The present volume appears to rise considerably in importance above the former. To the list of members is now joined the name of Malus, whose communications must be deemed peculiarly valuable. The society appears duly to appreciate this recent acquisition; and we are charmed with the dawning prospect of having the more recondite properties of light at last detected and satisfactorily explained. In estimating the progress of sciVoI. Iv. y
entifick discovery, it is expedient, not only to mark the successive steps by which it is carried on, but to notice the doubts and imperfections which often affect even the most improved departments of knowledge. Our selections from this volume shall be confined to such papers as excite material interest, or will afford room for some discussion. Researches on the Resshiration of Fishes. By MM. Provençal and Humboldt. In our last number, we noticed some interesting observations which M. Biot was led incidentally to make
respecting the nature of the gas contained in the air bladder of fishes. The general results have been since confirmed by M. Laroche, an able naturalist, who was lately joined to the commission for extending the measurement of a degree of the meridian to the Balearick Isles. It now seems fully ascertained, that those fishes which inhabit at great depths in the ocean, have a much larger share of oxygen lodged in their air bladder. Yet the small portion of air obtained from the water drawn from such depths, is found to be scarcely so pure as the common standard of the atmosphere. The steep shores of Yviza and Formentera presented these philosophers with an opportunity of determining, whether extreme mechanical compression be capable of effecting combinations among the clementary gases, similar to those which the energy of electrical influence can produce. Oxygen and azote, in the proportions which compose the nitrick acid; oxygen and hydrogen, in the proportion that forms water; and the mixture of hydrogen and azote that generates ammonia, were all severally introduced into strong tubes, and confined by mercury; but, though let down in the sea to the depth of 150 fathoms, and therefore subjected to a pressure of thirty atmospheres, they showed no alteration whatever. The experiments of Provençal And Humboldt, to which our attention is now directed, were undertaken for the express purpose of investigating the mode of the respiration of fishes, and were prosecuted with scrupulous attention and ela, borate care during the space of seven months. The first point was to determine the nature and proportion of the gas contained in river water. From repeated trials, it appeared, that at the temperature of 10 degrees centigrade, or 50° of Fahrenheit, the water of the Seine
yields, by ebullition, over mercury or through distilled water, about the thirty-sixth part of its bulk of a gas which has nearly the same purity as atmospherick air, but alloyed with from six to ten per cent. of carbonick acid. These facts served as the basis of the subsequent observations. Small river fish, chiefly tench, were introduced into huge bell-glasses, filled with the water of the Seine, and placed over a surface of mercury. In the space of a few hours, the fishes thus confined became visibly languid, but were always withdrawn before they appeared quite exhausted and about to expire. A certain measure of this water, in which the respiration had taken place, being subjected to a process of boiling, the gas then extricated was examined and compared with the usual products. Of the numerous experiments performed, we will cite only a single example. Seven tench were put into a balloon holding above sixty English pints of river water, and they remained alive eight hours and a half. Of this water, 2582 centimeters, or 816 2-3 English cubick inches, gave, on boiling, a volume of gas equal to 453 centimeters, at 10 degrees of the centigrade scale; and these 453 parts were found to contain 290 of azote, 153 of carbonick acid, and only 10 of oxygen. But the same quantity of water drawn fresh from the Seine would have held 347 parts of azote, 21 of carbonick acid, and 156 of oxygen. Those small fishes must, therefore, have consumed 145 parts of oxygen, and 57 of azote, and produced 132 parts of carbonick acid. It hence appears that, though extremely limited in its extent, the breathing of fishes is, with regard to its effects, on the whole, very similar to that of the warmblooded animals. They can support life, even after the oxygen is so much attenuated, as not to exceed in bulk the five thousanth part of the containing