was intrusted with more important commands. Flattering as this must have been to him, he still wished to be at the head of a corps of his own, that he might no longer be obliged to receive orders from men who were incapable of entering into his ideas, but be more at liberty to follow the impulses of his own genius. But if he would lead a corps, it was necessary he should first raise one. Schill was not a man to be deterred by difficulties and impediments. Scarcely had he formed the idea before he seriously set about putting it in execution. Fortune favoured him, as usual, in this undertaking. Having one night surprised the town of Massow, in Pomerania, he there made prisoners three colonels and some soldiers, and took a military chest, containing ten thousand CrOWns. This booty, having previously obtained the sanction of his sovereign, he employed in executing his favourite design. The dispersion of the greatest part of the Prussian army, in consequence of which, many of the soldiers were wandering about, without subsistence, and the general distress occasioned by the war, procured him plenty of followers: and the idea of serving under Schill, whose name was not pronounced but with admiration, was equally flattering to a patriotick and military spirit. Schill devoted his whole attention to the organization of this corps, which was alike distinguished for courage and intrepidity in danger, perseverance under difficulties, and implicit obedience to their leader, resulting from love to his person, and respect for his merits. His 9xploits with these brave fellows, have excited universal astonishment. He hung upon the rear of the French army, which he harassed

incessantly. He took a park of artil

lery of 40 pieces of cannon, and upwards of 20,000 muskets, set 9,000 Russians at liberty, and made marshal Victor prisoner. For the latter,

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to the bosom of his family. Schill likewise took from Buonaparte seven fine Arabian horses, presented to him by the Grand Seignior. Enraged at this loss, Buonaparte set a price of 100 Napoleon doors on Schill’s head. Schill gave himself little concern about the menaces of the French emperour, on whose head he, in his turn, set a price, and to show him how low he valued him, he offered but a very small sum. Buonaparte, who was very fond of his horses, sent to demand them of Schill, promising to pay him what they were worth. He sent a letter to him on the subject, addressed au Ca/iitaine des Brigands, Schill. The latter replied, that he was willing to send him back his horses, if he would replace on the Brandenberg gate, at Berlin, the triumphal car of which he had robbed it; but as to money, he had no occasion for any, as he should always find sufficient in the military chests of the French army, which he was sure of taking. This letter to Buonaparte he addressed as follows: .Au Colonel de tous les Brigands, mon honourable frere, .Washoleon. Buonaparte, who was grown a great epicure, was continually sending out couriers to buy up whatever was most rare and delicate for table. Schill found means to intercept these provisions, and took the greater pleasure in regaling himself with them, on account of the disappointment which Buonaparte would expcricnce. In February, 1807, the king promoted Schill to the rank of captain. In the April following, he repaired to Swedish Pomerania, to prepare the way for a corps of Prussians under Bluchet, which had landed at . Stralsund, and was joined by part of Schill's cavalry. Meanwhile the peace, concluded at Tilsit, frustrated the object of this expedition. On

his return, Schill was appointed major; and, as a mark, of publick gratitude, his corps, which was not disbanded, was permitted to bear his name, as well as that of the province in which it was stationed. It is impossible to describe the enthusiasm with which the hero, whose modesty was equalled only by his merits, was received at Berlin, whither he proceeded with the garrison of Colberg, on the departure of the French. The inhabitants of the metropolis vied with each other in paying him a publick tribute of esteem and admiration. On the conclusion of the peace, the king of Prussia formed, out of Schill’s cavalry, the second regiment of Brandenburg hussars, which was placed in garrison at Berlin. Here the major remained till the commencement of the late campaign against Austria, which again opened a field for the display of his extraordinary talents. We know not the precise nature of the object which he had in view in his subsequent operations, nor how far his conduct was sanctioned by his sovereign; but from what he actually accomplished, there seems little doubt that, had fortune spared his life, the north of Germany might, by his spirited example, have been encouraged to throw off the French yoke, and the whole continent might, at this moment, have exhibited a very different aspect from what it at present wears. Under the pretext of exercising his men, Schill left Berlin with 450 of his hussars, on the 28th of April, 1809. After the usual evolutions, he thus addressed them: “Fellow soldiers, we are already on our march to avenge our good king, his allies, our country, and every one of us, for the cruelties of the French. There is not an individual among our number but what is ready to sacrifice his life for the good cause.” The soldiers agreed to follow their comImander, who, commencing hostilities as soon as he had passed the

Prussian frontiers, took four officers, 350 soldiers, four pieces of cannon, and two pair of colours, and killed, with his own hand, the French general Vautier. Nine officers and 600 men were left on the field of battle. Schill, on his side, lost six of his bravest officers, and 100 men. This action was fought at Todendorf, near Magdeburg, on the opposite bank of the Elbe. A body of 500 men, both cavalry and infantry, secretly followed him from Berlin. With this reenforcement he made himself master of the little fortress of Domitz, in Mecklenburg, took 300 prisoners at Damgarten, on the frontiers of Swedish Pomerania, and killed 120 more. He put in requisition all the funds belonging to Jerome Buonaparte, and advanced with such rapidity to Stralsund, as to surprise that important place. On taking that city, he cut to pieces a French colonel, several officers, and eighty men, for firing on him and his troops, after they had surrendered at discretion. At Stralsund he found 450 pieces of cannon, and 2700 quintals of powder; and being thus supplied with ammunition, he immediately set 2000 peasants to work at the fortifications of the town. A considerable force of Dutch and Danish troops was, meanwhile, advancing to regain Stralsund.— Schill’s corps now amounted to 3200 men, including 1500 Pomeranian militia, who had been compelled to join it. The combined Dutch and Danes, amounting to 10,000 infantry 1000 cavalry, with thirty pieces of cannon, were commanded by general Gratien, who had under him the Danish general Ewald. The Danes arrived by water under the British flag, which deceived the major, who, having sent one of his officers to Heligoland, whence he had not yet returned, mistook them for British troops. On the 31st of May, the enemy advanced to the assault. Twice did the Dutch appear at the gate of Triebsec, and twice at the Kniper gate, with bayonets fixed, in order to force them. They at length accomplished their purpose, with the loss of a great number of men, and Schill killed six with his own hand. As soon as the enemy entered the town, a general massacre commenced. It continued four hours, when the major was shot through the head by a Dutch soldier. The gate of Franken was still occupied by his men. General Gratien ordered the massacre to cease, and it was agreed, that if two of Schill's officers, captain Rochow and another, should satisfy themselves respecting the death of their leader, the remainder of his corps should retire into Prussia. The major's body having been shown to these officers, they fulfilled their agreement the same night, and retired with their

arms and baggage. The head of the hero being previously cut off to be sent to Jerome Buonaparte, his corps was interred in the night of the first of June.

In this desperate conflict, the enemy lost the general of division, Carteret, colonels Barneburgh and Cisier, besides eighteen other officers, and 800 men killed; and 12 officers, and 600 men wounded. Schill’s corps lost its brave commander, six officers, and 400 men killed; five officers, and 300 men wounded; and l l officers, and 500 men taken prisoners. These eleven officers, and a great number of privates, were shot by the orders of Buonaparte.

Captain Rochow and several of Schill’s officers, who survived and escaped, are now in the British sefvice.



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only make these places their winter quarters. A general migration of them to the mountains of Provence and Dauphiné takes place in May, whence they return again in October and November. This migration is conducted with all the order and regularity of the march of an army. Several proprietors unite their flocks together for the journey, according to the extent of country which they are to occupy when they arrive on the mountains, some particular mark being impressed upon the animals of each proprietor, to distinguish them from those of his neighbour. The Inumber thus associated is commonly from ten to twenty thousand, though sometimes they have been carried as far as double the latter number. Among the shepherds that have the care of these flocks, one is elected among themselves as chief of the sogiety for the season, and all the

others submit entirely to his control; he is for the time an absolute sovereign. He regulates every thing relating to the march, and is treasurer for the company, the money for the expenses of the route being all lodged in his hands; he consequently pays for every thing. As a check upon him, another of the company is appointed secretary, irr. whose presence all payments are made, which he immediately enters in a book provided for the purpose: the rest of the shepherds form a. council to be consulted by the chief in any case of difficulty that may arise. To every thousand animals three shepherds are allowed, each. of whom has his attendant dog. In the centre of the army march a number of asses which carry the provisions and baggage, and this is always the station of the commander in chief. From these, his head quarters, he issues his orders through his aide-de-camp, and distributes the provisions; or if any of the compamy is negligent in the performance of his duty, or guilty of irregularity in any way, here the commander is always to be found ready to receive the complaint brought against him. If in the course of the journey any mischief should be done by the flocks to the countries through which they pass, a thing that cannot always be prevented, the chief examines into it, and pays the person who has received the injury the proper acknowledgment; he then examines minutely whether this has arisen from negligence on the part of the shepherds, or whether it was an unavoidable accident, and accordingly the sum paid is either levied on the offender, or placed to the account of the common stock. In the order of march, the goats always take the lead of the sheep. Some of the oldest he-goats have bells round their necks, the sound of which is followed by the rest of the flocks, and it seems to inspire them with spirits for the march. A great intelligence subsists between these veteran troops and their officers; at the command of the latter, the well disciplined animals either halt or move forwards; and when the band rises in the morning after the repose of the night, the moment they receive the order to proceed, they repair to their station in the foremost ranks with as much understanding and regularity as could be observed by the most intelligent human beings. If they come to a stream which must be passed, they will halt at the bank, and survey it with an appearance of apprehension, at

the same time as if calculating its breadth exactly with their eye; but, the moment the word of command is given they plunge in without further hesitation, and are followed by the rest of the flock, for all cross by swimming. At night, when the flocks lie down to sleep, the shepherds and dogs still continue on the watch, relieving each other at stated intervals, that all may in their turn enjoy some repose; but it is taken only lying on the ground; they never quit the flock. From three to four weeks are commonly occupied in performing the journey. When arrived at the mountains, each shepherd has his particular district allotted him by the commander in chief, from which he never permits his flock to stray and encroach upon the territory of his neighbour; and during the whole time of their stay the shepherds live almost entirely on bread and goats’ milk, sleeping upon the ground in the open air. In October and November they return again to their plains, travelling in the same order, but still the shepherd never inhabits a house. He goes to the cottage at which his wife and family live to take his meals, but sleeps in his sheepfold, in a hut made of reeds and clay, upon a mat spread on the ground. Yet hard as this life may appear, these people become so much attached to it, that they never wish to quit it; nay they seem to have a repugnance to the idea of any other. They early in life look aged and weather beaten, but commonly enjoy the most perfect state of health, and life to a great age.



[From the History of the Inquisitions.]

IN the year 1702, Don Estevan de Xeres, a rich inhabitant of Mexico, quitted America in order to reside in Spain, from which he had been

absent since his infancy, and at the same time brought with him a considerable part of his fortune. He was now about fifty-four years of ageSome residents obliged the captain of the vessel in which Estevan had taken his passage to put into Lisbon. The avarice of the landlord of the house wherein our traveller lodged, was inflamed at the sight of the great riches which Estevan possessed, and he burned with desire to appropriate, at least, some part to himself; but how was this object to be accomplished 2 To accuse him before the inquisition was, indeed, a sure method of plundering Estevan of his treasures; but then the holy office would confiscate them, and thus become the only gainer. He at length thought, that, in the interval between the seizure of his person, and the arrival of the commissioners to confiscate his goods, he should be able to secrete something of value, and run no risk of being brought to any account upon the subject. He therefore determined on this plan. This wretch had a son, as abandoned to all virtue as himself, who had made many travels in America. He was of profligate morals and embarrassed circumstances. In his travels he had resided, for some time, in Mexico; Don Estevan was not entirely unknown to him; it would be possible to make it appear that a violent passion for an Indian beauty had prevailed on him to gratify his mistress and her friends by some acts of adoration towards the sun. The father was to add, to this information, that Don Estevan, since his arrival in Lisbon, had neglected to attend the churches; that he continued every day, for some hours, shut up in his own apartment, in order, probably, to follow, without restraint, his idolatrous devotions; that this suspicion was farther confirmed by some little figures, of a strange form, which he had brought with him, which he kept constantly in his chamber, and which he had strictly commanded the servants of the House not to touch or to disarrange. The two wretches repaired to the rmesa of the holy office, and deliverVaj. Iv. 2 L

ed in their information. It was well received. The riches of the stranger had, during some days, been universally talked of in Lisbon, and the opportunity of seizing upon them was much too favourable to be lost. The next day, late in the evening, Estevan was arrested as he descended from his coach to enter his lodgings. Estevan fortunately had, among the number of his domesticks, a young negro of about four and twenty years of age, whom he had educated from his infancy, and the faithful youth, by his extreme intelligence, his capacity, and his exemplary conduct, but above all, by his inviolable attachment and affection, which resembled the strongest filial piety, had abundantly repaid the kindness which he had shown, and the confidence which he placed in him. Zamora, for this was his name,' was present when his master was arrested. He knew enough of the Portuguese and Spanish manners to suspect the occasion, but, in order to ascertain the fact, he followed at a distance, the familiars who conducted his benefactor. He saw them enter the gates of the inquisition; and from that moment he formed the resolution of saving his life, or of perishing in the attempt. His first reflection was, that without money he could not hope for success. He therefore flew back to his master’s lodging, being acquainted with the spot where the most valuable effects were deposited, from the perfect confidence which was placed in his honesty. He therefore instantly ascended to the apartment, and seized a small chest filled with diamonds, together with a pocket book which contained the most valuable notes. He remembered, that since their arrival in Lisbon, he attended his master, more thar once, to the house of the French consul, with whom he had appeared to be on terms of strict friendship. The consul, s rprised at the spirit and fidelity of the young stranger,

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