hole, covering our face with a handker- necks of Egyptian mummies, and some chief, to keep out the dust, as we pushed large effigies of it may be seen in the in feet foremost, lying on our back. It British Museum, one of them being of was soon perfectly dark, and there was stone and about four feet long.-Leisure scarcely room for the body to pass, so Hour. narrow was the entrance. The dust was suffocating, and so was the heat ; but we NORWEGIAN CHURCH-GOING.-As glided down the inclined passage until, we approached the house of God, it was at the bottom, our feet rested on a harder evident that the people had already assubstance. This was the head of a sembled, from the number of horses crocodile, and, lighting a taper, which grazing in the woods near. The buildscarcely burned in the dank air, we dis- ing was octagon—a favourite shape in covered an extraordinary scene, which this country—and, as usual, of pine-logs shall be briefly described.

coloured, or discoloured, black by the The crocodile-pit is of an oblong weather. The same pine-logs appeared shape, perhaps two hundred feet in in the interior, only less dark in tint. length, and forty broad, and of a depth Though the building was large, and not known. The whole had been filled, provided with galleries, nearly every seat from the bottom to the ceiling, with was occupied. A motley assemblage was bodies of crocodiles, preserved by filling there. Norwegian bonders, in their grey them with creosote and spices, and by wadmal suits, sat on the south side of the wrapping large sheets of matting round church; on the north their wives and each carcase separately. These monster daughters, with the never-absent black mummies had been there piled, one over silk cap “lue," fastened under the chin, another, until their bodies reached the woollen dresses, fitting closely up to the roof; and it is calculated that the pits throat, and a kerchief of some bright silk contain more than thirty thousand car- passed twice round the neck, and tied in cases thus entombed.

a large knot behind the ears. Such are As the bodies dried, they shrunk a the spring, summer, autumn, and winter little, and thus a space was left between fashions of the people. Lower down the the top of the mass and the roof of the aisle and up in the galleries, were the pit. It was into this space that we had diminutive Laps, dressed in their summer come ; but it was not high enough to suit, a dingy flannel blouse, ornamented allow us to walk, scarcely even to creep. with edging and shoulder-straps of red As we scrainbled over the crocodiles, the and yellow. From their leathern belts whole contents of the pit shook, and rose depended large knives. Fin-women, too, and fell with a springy motion. Often were not wanting, conspicuous by their one of our feet, bursting through the caps, like truncated cones, adorned with covering of matting, went right into a gold and silver lace and bright-coloured body, which seemed to be full of black ribands. These tiny people contrasted dust; and sometimes there were intervals strangely with the bulkier Norwegians. between the carcases so deep, that the Here were the blue eyes and fair hair of light of our feeble taper could not show the descendants of the Vikings, with us the bottom. Many of the crocodiles countenances solemn and sedate. There were very small, being only a few feet the gleaming, deep-set orbs, high cheeklong, while others were of enormous size, bones, elf-locks, and scanty beards of the with their legs stretched out right and inferior race. Some of these intently left, and their horny feet still as hard as watched the service with a look of minif they had pressed the sand of the Nile gled curiosity and fanaticism; while only the day before.

others stared around

so wildly and Cats, dogs, cows, and birds innumera- fiercely, that one might fancy they would ble, were buried in a similar manner by draw their long knives, and set up a wild the ancient Egyptians, who worshipped war-whoop. Most of these Laps or Fins all those animals and many more. Even (they are called by both names) were a small beetle, called the “scarabæus," still nomads, living upon the fjeld was divinely honoured by these poor summer and winter.

Their encampPagans. This insect is still found in ments were on the adjoining mountain. Egypt, and deposits its eggs in a little Others were Sea-Fins, who, giving up a ball of earth, which the beetle then rolls wandering life, have settled down by the backwards with its hind feet to its nest. fjords, and taken to fishing, and cultiThe Egyptians seem to have made this vating patches of bog or rock. These action of the insect a symbol of a god last are inferior to the former in appearrolling the world into being. Models of ance, and are generally poorer and this beetle are frequently found round the worse off. In fact, they seldom thrive


away from the mountains. The instinct of Greenland, and the Labrador coast, each roaming is so strong upon them, that, span being some five hundred miles ; or after trying a settled life for a time, they to use one or two of the island-groups of suddenly pack up what they can carry, the Atlantic. In the route selected we and join their brethren on the fjeld. 1 have many advantages_convenient harhave myself seen more than one dwelling, bours at either terminus ; a depth of which it must have required much labour water at every point sufficient to place to build, entirely deserted. The number the wire beyond the reach of any surfaceof Laps in Norway at the last census in causes, such as ice or the anchor of any 1847 was 14,464,- The Oxonian in ship, yet not at an impracticable depth, Norway.

being at the shoalest several hundred

feet, and in mid-Atlantic not materially THE SOUNDINGS FOR THE AT

two miles. During a thousand LANTIC TELEGRAPH.-Years ago peo- miles of its course, the gradual depression ple asked, Cui bono 2 when thousands of the ocean-bed does not exceed five were expended on expeditions the only hundred fathoms. On either side lie returns of which were a handful of shells Ireland and Newfoundland, the breastand a few casts of the deep-sea lead ; yet works of either continent, approaching it is on the accuracy of these returns that within seventeen hundred miles, and the project is now being hazarded. The forming the natural terminus of its route. bottom of the sea has been carefully sur- Trinity-Bay is its western head, and veyed and mapped, with all its variety of Valentia-Bay, on the south-western point mountain and prairie-land, its telegraphic of Ireland, its eastern. This, then is the plateau, and its deep hollows, where no bed on which the telegraphic cable is to lead has ever found bottom. The soil, lie, an unbroken prairie-land, extending too, from the bottom has been brought from continent to continent. Let us now up and analysed, and has revealed many see the nature of this bed, curious phenomena pertaining to these Specimens of the bottom, when subsunless depths. The ocean-bed of the jected to a powerful glass, exhibit delicate North Atlantic is a curious study ; in shells and infusoria, fragile as if carved some parts furrowed by currents, in others in eggshell, and yet as perfect in all their presenting banks, the accumulations, per- delicate formation as any of the more haps, of the débris of these ocean-rivers durable works of nature. The least attriduring countless ages. To the west, the tion would crumble all this to powder. Gulf Stream pours along in a bed from The inference is, that all agitation of one mile to a mile and a half in depth. winds and currents is confined to the To the east of this, and south of the surface, and that at these sunless depths Great Banks, is a basin, eight or ten the great mass of water remains in almost degrees square, where the bottom attains a quiescent state; and that the telegraphic a greater depression than perhaps the wire, if once laid in safety, would lie for highest peaks of the Andes or Himalaya, ever beyond the reach of harm, sinking -six miles of line have failed to reach among and covered by these fleecy partithe bottom. Taking a profile of the cles. All this may be incorrect; but we Atlantic basin in our own latitude, we have strong reasons for the supposition. find a far greater depression than any If so, can it ever be laid in safety ? mountain-elevation on our own continent. Some abortive efforts at deep-sea soundFour or five Alleghanies would have to ings furnish curious data for our belief in be piled on each other, and on them its practicability. Miles of a small iron added Fremont's peak, before their point wire, not thicker than a child's little would show itself above the surface. finger, were actually laid at the bottom of Between the Azores and the mouth of the ocean, and recovered unbroken, at a the Tagus this decreases to about three considerably greater depth than any found miles. Further north there is an appa- on the plateau. The modus operandi of rent decrease of depth, with increasing laying the cable was here performed with regularity of bottom, though it is pro- a wire of but a fractional part of the blematical whether this is not owing to strength and fitness of that proposed. the greater accuracy with which these The wire laid by the British in the observations have been conducted. This Black Sea was, however, not of greater apparent rise has been called the “Tele- size or strength than this. The experigraphic Plateau.” This appears to be ment of laying the wire is performed in the natural route for the Transatlantic deep-sea sounding whenever a wire is Telegraph. Other plans have been pro- substituted for the ordinary soundingposed_one a northing circuit, between line. With the depth known, with the the several points of Scotland, Iceland, character of the bottom known, with a cable as plastic as rope, yet with a tena- forth a screaming set of notes like our city capable of sustaining four miles of blackbird when disturbed, then concludes its length in air, and almost any extent with what the natives say is “pula, in water, with four of the finest ships in pula,” (rain, rain,) but more like “weep, the world for laying it, and aided by the weep, weep. Then we have the loud dearly-bought experience gained in the cry of francolins, the “pumpuru, pumsubmersion of half-a-dozen other lines, puru” of turtle-doves, and the “chiken, we have every reason for our belief that chiken, chik, churr, churr," of the honeythe Atlantic Telegraph will be a success. guide. Occasionally, near villages, we -New-York Times.

have a kind of mocking-bird, imitating

the calls of domestic fowls. These SINGING-BIRDS IN THE TROPICS. African birds have not been wanting in - The birds of the Tropics have been song, they have only lacked poets to sing described as generally wanting in power their praises, which ours have had from of song. I was decidedly of opinion that the time of Aristophanes downwards. this was not applicable to many parts in Ours have both a classic and a modern Loanda, though birds there are remarka- interest to enhance their fame. In hot bly scarce. Here the chorus, or body of dry weather, or at midday, when the sun song, was not much smaller in volume is fierce, all are still: let, however, a good than it is in England. It was not so shower fall, and all burst forth at once harmonious, and sounded always as if the into merry lays and loving courtship. birds were singing in a foreign tone. The early mornings and the cool evenings Some resemble the lark, and, indeed, are their favourite times for singing. there are several of that family; two There are comparatively few with gaudy have notes not unlike those of the thrush. plumage, being totally unlike, in this One brought the chaffinch to my mind, respect, the birds of the Brazils. The and another the robin; but their songs majority have decidedly a sober dress, are intermixed with several curious abrupt though collectors, having generally senotes unlike anything English. One lected the gaudiest as the most valuable, utters deliberately, “peek, pak, pok ; have conveyed the idea that the birds of another has a single note like a stroke on the Tropics for the most part possess a violin-string. The mokwa reza gives gorgeous plumage.—Dr. Livingstone.







My dream is o'er: the light hath broken O! Island-altar of my faith,
On Tophet's brink, where wild I Witness the

vows my soul that stray,

swell, And Jesus to my heart hath spoken, I'll love those millions unto death ! I must away!

Farewell, my Home, farewell ! Companions mine, for you I yearn ;

But, if ye love the tempter's spell, I dare not linger, nor return;

Thy work is done : this morn portendeth Farewell, my mates, farewell !

By solemn gleams my dying day, The Master for His servant sendeth,

I must away! My spirit is stirr'd: one star is shining These sheep-I leave them in the wold ! O'er realms, beyond my Saviour's But, with the Shepherd when I dwell, sway,

They'll sooner follow to the fold, Where millions for my bliss are pin

Farewell, my flock, farewell ! ing,

ALEC. I must away!

[ocr errors]




amounted to 4,753 copies. Spain still

remained an inaccessible region to the BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE friends of Bible-distribution. In SwitSociety.-Sketch of Report presented zerland and Northern Italy the labours of at the Anniversary Meering.-- The nar- the agents had been continued, and the rative of foreign operations commenced, circulation was 35,369 volumes. Sardinia as usual, with France. The circulation continued to be a most promising field of of the past year, in that country, was labour, and the circulation amounted to 85,886 copies ; and the spiritual results 13,607 copies, which exceeded that of the surpassed those of any former period. previous year by about 2,000. Monsieur In Belgium, a civil war was threatened Madiai, the agent of Nice, gave an enat the commencement of the year, in con- couraging account of the estimation in sequence of the growing encroachments which the Scriptures were there held. of the Church of Rome ; but this danger In Malta and Greece the issues amounted had passed over, and the issues exceeded to 8,398. In Turkey there were many those of previous years by 8,028 volumes. evidences of a spirit of inquiry among the In Holland, the issues amounted to Moslems, and the prospects were encou23,233, exceeding those of the previous raging. The issues from the depôt at year by 2,500.

Regret was expressed Constantinople, inclusive of 2,761 copies that, in that country, the Scriptures had circulated by colportage in Bulgaria, ceased to be the basis of instruction in amounted to 25,280; being an increase of the Government schools. The rapid ex- 7,768. Under the head of India, it was tension of the circulation in Germany had observed that the Committee hau opened attracted the attention of the Committee a special fund, the necessity of which was throughout the year. Germany had re- evident from the fact that extraordinary ceived from the Society during the year, efforts were about to be made by the at the great centres of action, Berlin, various Missionary Societies. The agCologne, and Frankfort, 296,607 copies gregate circulation in India up to the of the Scriptures; being an excess of present time was not more than 2,500,000, 101,245 over the circulation of the pre- and these were chiefly portions of the

The agent at Frankfort had Scriptures. The issues of the year at visited Baden, Wurtemberg, and other Calcutta were 39,528 copies. Mention parts of Germany, and had drawn most was made of the death of the late Bishop favourable conclusions with regard to the Wilson, who, it was said, as a last token prospects of the work. In Denmark there of his attachment to the Bible Society, had been an increased circulation. In bequeathed to it the sum of £100. The Sweden, the increased circulation of the Society station at Agra was involved in previous year, instead of satisfying the the general destruction, and the depôt was appetite for the Scriptures, had only a blackened ruin; but the destruction stimulated an increased demand. The had not extended to the zeal, faith, and Bible had formed a centre of attraction to hope of those who were engaged in proall classes, from the Baron to the peasant, moting the circulation of God's word in from the General to the soldier, and from that part of India. At Madras, the the Bishop to the village-schoolmaster. issues of the year amounted to 68,679 The circulation of last year was 86,562. copies. As regarded China, it was Norway continued to receive considerable stated, in the next place, that though supplies; and these amounted, within the Canton and Hong-Kong had during the year, to 19,416 copies. The Committee past year afforded little scope for the regretted that, owing to the obstructions circulation of the Scriptures, the work which still existed, Russia occupied a had prospered at Shanghai and Amoy. brief space in their Report; but they hoped From Australia there had been remitted this state of things would not continue during the year £5,144, of which £1,130 long. During the year, 12,290 copies had been sent as a free contribution to had been circulated at St. Petersburg. the Society's funds. 15,000 copies of the At Odessa, the restrictions imposed dur- Scriptures had been despatched thither ing the war had not yet been relaxed, and from London. The issues of the British the people were placed beyond the pale of colonies of North America amounted the Scriptures. The German colonies on within the year to 60,000 copies. Under the Sea of Azoff continued to receive the the head “ Domestic” mention was made word of God, and the issues there of the presentation of a Bible through

vious year.


the President of the Society (the Earl of of sums received at home and abroad on Shaftesbury) to the Princess Royal of account of the Society's Missions amountEngland on the occasion of her marriage ed to more than £160,000. The number with Prince Frederick William of Prussia, of the Society's stations is 138, as comand it was stated that the sacred volume pared with 136 last year. Number of was most graciously received by Her Clergymen-English, 128; foreigners, Royal Highness.

50 ; natives and East Indians, 47 ; total, The following is a general summary 225. European laymen, schoolmasters, of the receipts, expenditure, and lay agents, printers, &c., 42; European issues :

female Teachers (exclusive of MissionThe receipts of the year ending March aries' wives), 13; native and country. 31st, 1858, have exceeded those of any born Catechists and Teachers of all preceding year (excluding the special classes, 2,077. funds). The amount applicable to the The Bishop Designate of Calcutta general purposes of the Society is proposed the following Resolution :£79,040. 165. 2d., and the amount re- " That while this Society recognises ceived for Bibles and Testaments its sacred obligations towards its Mis. £70,267. 10s. Ild.; making the total sions in Africa, China, and other lands, receipts from the ordinary sources of where the Lord has signally owned and income £149,308. 7s. Id., being £11,551. blessed its labours, yet it regards India, 12s. 2d, more than in any former year. under the restored supremacy of British

To the above must be added the sum rule, as possessing a special claim upon of £1,379. 138. 7d. for the Chinese New- its enlarged exertions and expenditure Testament Fund, and £1,886. 2s. 10d. for the conversion of its various tribes to for the Special Fund for India; making the faith of Christ." a grand total of £152,574. 3s. 6d.

It is iny earnest desire, (he continued,) The issues of the Society for the year that the representatives of this Society in

as follows :-From the depôt at the diocese of Calcutta, and myself, home, 976,563 ; from the depôts abroad, should each, in our respective spheres, 625,624 ; total, 1,602,187 copies ; being co-operate cordially and loyally in this an increase of 84,329 copies over those of one great work of preaching Christ to the the preceding year.

Heathen. But, my Lord, it will not The total issues of the Society now suffice that this work go on in India amount to 33,983,946 copies.

only : the Church in England, as well as The ordinary payments have amounted the Church abroad, must feel and appreto £146,563. 58. Id., and the payments ciate its greatness, and devote itself on account of the Jubilee and Chinese heartily to its advancement. And here, New-Testament Funds to £6,613. 198. I trust, I may so far yield to the impulse 7d.; making the total expenditure of the of a warm private friendship of many year to amount to £153,177. 48. 8d., years' standing, as to reciprocate the kind being £4,136. 108. 11d. more than in any words in which the Right Rev. Prelate former year.

The Society is under en- who has spoken commended me to your gagements to the extent of £83,818. prayers, by saying how happy I feel that, 178. 4d.

in quitting England, I leave the first and

the most important of our home bishopCHURCH MissionARY SOCIETY.- rics in the hands of one who is preThe Rev. J. Venn read the Report, which eminently imbued with the spirit of selfdetailed at great length the operations of sacrifice for Christ. He, at least, will the Society, and announced a large increase never countenance the unhappy delusion of receipts, in comparison with former which some persons now express, that, years. The total ordinary income (in- because there are thousands of persons cluding a donation of £10,000 given by a living in various parts of this country, single individual at the last Annual and more especially in this diocese, in a Meeting) amounted to £130,766. This state of virtual Heathenism, therefore we amount was exclusive of the sum of ought to delay or neglect the duty of £24,717, which, up to the 31st of March carrying Christianity to the actual Healast, had been raised as a special fund for then, or that the extension of Christianity India. The ordinary expenditure amount- in England is retarded by the means ed to £129,321 ; leaving a balance in which are adopted, and the money that is hand of £1,444. The local funds raised spent, in diffusing it in India. On the in the Missions, and expended there upon contrary, he feels, as I am sure all present the operations of the Society, but inde- feel, that while we are discharging our pendently of the general fund, were esti- duty faithfully, and earnestly, and wisely, mated at £9,915; so that the grand total God is blessing us in the discharge of

« 前へ次へ »