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other duties. God multiplies and en- vince the Directors that, in this proposal, larges our means of usefulness, our they have the hearty sympathy of their friends, and our opportunities ; He gives friends throughout the country. Within us increase where we did not expect it; three months nearly £11,000 have been and what is done in one direction is re- promised towards the object; and a conproduced, as it were, in another. A fident hope may be cherished that, by the church which disobeys her Lord's com- close of the year, additional funds will be mand to carry God's word to the Hea- realized adequate to its full accomplishthen, is not likely to persevere in the ment. The total annual income from work of building herself up among her ordinary sources is £72,996. 10s. 8d. ; own people, and it is quite certain that being an increase of £6,659. 2s. 8d. The never has the Church of England been so amount received from the Australian and powerful, so popular, so much respected, the Foreign Auxiliaries is £819. 58.; so much loved and honoured, as it has being less than the preceding year by been since her members have devoted £1,048. Is. 6d. The expenditure of the themselves earnestly to the extending her Society for ordinary purposes has been borders abroad. But, my Lord, I said £64,059. 138. 9d. ; being a decrease on that I should not detain you long. I that of the former year of £2,799. 15s. Id., felt that, in the peculiar circumstances in without involving any diminution of the which I was placed, it was not so much Society's operations. The preceding necessary for me to give exhortations statement is exclusive of the fund for the which many other persons present are establishment of new Missions in South much more competent to give than I am, Africa, amounting to £7,076, 6s. 5d., and as to make a declaration of principles, to that promised for the extension of Indian declare what are my hopes and intentions Missions, approaching the sum of £11,000. in taking this office upon me.
I felt that The number of the Society's ordained it was not so much an individual who Missionaries last reported was 152 ; and was asked to move the Resolution as an it is an unusual demand for gratitude, office, I shall, therefore, say nothing that, in the interval, death has not been more, unless it be to remind you, in a few permitted to diminish that number in a words, how sacred an office mine is, and single instance, while two additional brehow difficult and pressing are its claims thren, Messrs. Blake and Jones, have upon you as well as upon me, The been sent forth to strengthen the Misbishopric of Calcutta, as the centre of sionary band in India. In Tahiti, the Protestant Christianity in India, has very Rev. William Howe, amidst many obprecious memories associated with it, not structions, continues in charge of the only in the names of those who have Bible-depository and the press, and renactually held it-Heber, and Middleton, ders also most valuable services the and Wilson, who went to their rest too defence of the truth, and in animating early to be able to carry out their designs and sustaining the minds both of the - but all who have laboured in the Mis- native Pastors and their flocks. Though sionary field, Schwartz, and Buchanan, forbidden to commend the Gospel to the and Martyn, and others, who have left us native Christians, he regularly preaches to carry on their work which they 80 to the British and other foreigners located nobly began. Their memories appeal to at Papeetee. In the Society Islands, the us this day. But may we not go much political strife that in former years occafurther than this ? May we not say that sioned much pain and sorrow to our Misnot the memories of the just alone, but sionaries, has happily ceased, and the our Lord Jesus Christ, is appealing to us, condition and prospects of their several to whom the work has been committed ; churches are truly encouraging. The to us, who look up to Him for strength to Mission-churches of Hervey Islands concarry it on; to us, for whom He has lived tinue to present the same aspect of vitality and died; to us, whom He has taught by and beauty by which they have been disApostles ; to us, to whom He has de- tinguished in former years. The Rev. clared in His word that it is His will Aaron Buzacott has been compelled, by that all men should be saved, that men of severe and long-continued suffering, to all climates, and countries, and languages, retire from his beloved work in Raroshould be brought to a knowledge of the tonga. In the Samoan or Navigators' truth?
Islands, the restoration of peace has hap
pily been preserved, and our Missionaries LONDON MissIONARY SOCIETY. have been able to prosecute, without -Sketch of Report.— The answer already interruption, their various efforts for the given to the appeal for twenty Mission- social and religious improvement of the aries (for the East] is sufficient to con- people; and, notwithstanding occasions of sorrow and discouragement arising and co-operation in the enterprise. Their from the former degradation and the letter reached him just at the time he had peculiar habits of the natives, they are completed the translation of the Old Tescheered by the evident progress of their tament; and with all the ardour of youth churches in knowledge, enjoyment, and he started forthwith on a journey of nearly usefulness. The Missions of the Society, six hundred miles, that he might secure both in British Guiana and Jamaica, the countenance and support of Moselehave throughout the year afforded to katse, the Chief of the Matabele, for the their faithful Ministers occasion for de- establishment of a Mission among his vout thankfulness. Few instances have numerous people. Hong-Kong, from its mccurred in any of the churches demand- proximity to the scene of war, has been ing Christian discipline ; while, in seve- often in a state of excitement and alarm; ral instances, the accessions have been but, notwithstanding these hindrances, unusually numerous. The progress of the Rev. Dr. Legge and the Rev. John the congregations, and more especially of Chalmers have continued their unwearied the junior classes, in general intelligence labours in the respective branches of the and Scripture knowledge, has been evi- Mission; while Chin-Seen, the Pastor dent; and the prosperous state of the of the Chinese church, bas faithfully nuinerous schools affords sure ground for preached the Gospel, in season and out encouragement and hope. The aggregate of season, to his countrymen. At Amoy, contributions of these churches towards Messrs. A. and J. Stronach, Hirschberg, their own support amount to £7,540; and Lea, have again been favoured with and, although £500 properly belongs to manifold proofs of God's presence and the year preceding, the actual increase grace. During the year, 22 converts for 1857 exceeds £1,500. Although the have been added to the church, making Cape Colony suffered disorder and injury 193 since the establishment of the Misduring the last year from the influx of sion ten years since. The church of the many thousand starving Kaffirs, and American Mission in this city includes although this had been preceded by the 172 members, and that of the English disease which destroyed the greater part Presbyterian Mission, 53; making & of the cattle, yet the social condition of total of upwards of 400 Christian Chithe people has continued to improve.
The converts consist of various The reports from the Mission-stations, classes, and among them are several indiboth within and beyond the Colony, are viduals of high literary attainments. The cheering ; the churches, almost without Report then alluded to India. At Beexception, have received numerous addi- nares and Mirzapore Messrs. Buyers, tions, and vigorous exertions have been Kennedy, and Sherring were exposed to made to extend the blessings of the Gos- imminent danger from the mutinous pel to the Fingoes and other strangers Sepoys ; but God was their present help from the interior. The stations on the in time of trouble, and suffered not a bair frontier, including Peelton, Knapp's- of their heads to perish. The Directors Hope, and King William's Town, con- regret, however, to record that Mrs. sisting of enlightened and converted Buyers, whose devotion to her husband, Kaffirs, are examples of a people trans- and to the interests of the Mission, conformed from wild marauders, ferocious in strained her to remain at her post when their spirit and disgusting in their habits, others retired from the scene of danger, into peaceful and industrious Christian shortly after fell a victim to disease villagers. At the last Annual Meeting superinduced by labour and anxiety; but the Directors had the pleasure of report- her end was peace, and her character is ing that the translation of the entire embalmed in the memories and hearts of Scriptures into Sichuana, by the Rev. all who knew her. The defection of the Robert Moffatt, was then nearly com- Bengal army must be attributed to various pleted ; and later intelligence informed causes, both social and political, but in them that the work was finished. It is no degree to the influence of Missions ; scarcely possible to overrate the import- inasmuch as the Sepoy, whether Hindu ance of this great achievement. The or Mohammedan, was of all men the Sichuana, under certain modifications, is farthest removed from the approaches of the language of the interior of South the Christian teacher, On the other Africa. After repeated conference with hand, the native Christians remained Dr. Livingstone, the Directors lost no faithful to our Government, and, in its time in making known their intended support, exposed themselves to the inefforts in Central South Africa to their tense hatred of their Heathen countryfaithful friend and veteran Missionary men, to whose vengeance many of their Robert Moffatt, requesting his counsels number fell victims. The mutineers
went forth to battle trusting in the gods sent day than to secure for the children of of their country for strength and victory; the working classes an adequate training and shame, defeat, and death overwhelm and an education that will fit them for them. Already, as our Missionaries tell their after-life, and develop those faculties us, the haughty looks of the Heathen are which God has bestowed upon them. brought low, and they are more disposed And, perhaps, there is no way in which to bear of that kingdom into which none larger or more certain results can be obcan enter who does not seek admission as tained than in the pains that may be a little child.
taken for the promotion and furtherance
of this elementary education. Now this Baptist MissIONARY SOCIETY. subject of the education of the poorer -The Report stated that the total receipts classes is one upon which, we know, for the past year had amounted there exists a very great variety of opinion. £22,916. 108. 10d. ; being an increase of Indeed, of late years, the attempts that £1,479. Ils. 4d, over the amount col- have been made to legislate on the sublected in the previous year. The total ject have failed from the extreme variety expenditure, for the same period, had and diversity, the continual opposition been £23,593. 13s. 8d. ; leaving a balance and conflict, of opinion. While all acagainst the Society of £932. 188. 9d., knowledge the importance and necessity which the Committee hoped would soon of the object, persons have endeavoured be met; and they were pleased to be able to attain it in different ways; though, I to state that the contributions for widows think, I accurately state the present posiand orphans had considerably increased. tion of affairs when I say, that, by almost The Report then entered at great length universal consent,—the exceptions being into the evil of the mutiny in India, and but very few individuals here and there, the detrimental effect it had had on Mis- people have agreed that the origination sionary enterprise in that empire. Some and management of elementary education of the Missionaries had fallen victims to shall be left to those religious educational the thirst for English blood, and many bodies who have shown their right to deal others had suffered more or less in various with it by the zeal and energy with which respects. The Report then contrasted the they have undertaken it, and by the condition of the people of India at the manner in which they have occupied the time when Dr. Carey, the first Baptist ground. Parliament has shown its willMissionary, landed there, with their ingness to take any measures within its existing condition; and having referred to power to promote education. The readithe great progress of Missionary efforts in ness with which it will devote the public India, went on to state that when the funds to this purpose is shown by the mutiny was quelled, a new field would be rapid increase of the money annually opened for Missionaries, and the greatest voted in the House of Commons. In the blessings and success awaited them. The present year no less a sum than £663,000 word of God had been translated in all will be spent in assisting education. I languages for the benefit of the people, think that parties in the House of Comand upwards of 2,000,000 copies of the mons, and, I believe, all parties in the holy Scriptures had issued from the Mis- country, are agreed, that, in the present sionary press, and other religious books posture of affairs at least, the proper proin countless numbers had been circulated, vince of the State is to give aid to the Upwards of 1,200 men, Europeans and voluntary efforts of the existing educanatives, were daily employed in preaching tional Societies; and that that aid shall the Gospel, while the schools contained be given by grants of money to promote at least 80,000 children.
the building of new schools, or the repair and improvement of existing ones; by
aiding the better payment of well qualiWESLEYAN EDUCATION.-Speech fied masters ; by the payment of the of the Right Hon. W. F. Cowper, M.P., stipends of pupil-teachers ; by securing, at the Fourth Annual Meeting.-Ladies or at least promoting, the regularity of and Gentlemen, the question which we attendance on the part of the children by have met to consider is, undoubtedly, one means of capitation-grants; by aiding of the most important of all those great the purchase of such books as are necessubjects which are earnestly calling for sary for school-work; by means of inthe attention of people in the present day, spection ; and by collecting reports of the whether we consider its object, or the experience which has been gained in means by which this object may be at- different parts of the country, and pretained. I think it will be admitted, that senting that experience to others, that there is nothing more urgent in the pre- they may profit by what other people
have done ; by giving advice; and by all usually allotted to the children of the that superintendence and assistance which working classes, is one which it seems a central authority can give : but that the almost impossible to grapple with by any State shall not interfere in any degree compulsory method, or by any peculiar with the local management. It seems to contrivance. It would seem, I think, as me, as I have said, by almost universal if the most feasible mode of extending the admission, to be agreed, that that duty very short period allowed for children's which the religious educational bodies education, is by lengthening that educahave assumed to themselves, of watching tion at the two ends,—by having more over, assisting, and promoting the ele- effective and complete infant-schools bementary education of the poor, shall be a fore the children come into the ordinary duty not merely self-assumed by them, day-schools; and, on the other hand, probut a duty acknowledged to rest upon viding effective night-schools for adults, them. Under these circumstances, there- after the time when they leave the ordifore, it behoves every religious community nary day-schools. I think there are very to occupy to the fullest extent of which it many of the Wesleyan schools that might is capable the ground that properly be- be really improved in regard to the infantlongs to it; and I am happy to observe, schools. There are many of them that from the experience that I have had of have no separate infant-schools; but the working of the different communities, many, if they could not have an infantthat the Wesleyan body have been in no school attached, might yet have within wise backward in discharging their duty. their walls a separate class for infants ; The Wesleyan body have been particu- for, when the infants are intermingled larly zealous and active of late in erecting with the older children, they cannot but new buildings, and in improving existing produce confusion and disorder. The schools ; and this fact is illustrated by infants cannot be kept quiet, and under comparing the amount of public grants methodical arrangement; they neither which have been received by different learn themselves, nor do they allow the educational bodies in the year 1857 with learning of the other children to go on the preceding year 1856 ; for, upon com- harmoniously ; and the result is evidently paring the increase of grants which each much confusion that might otherwise be body has obtained in these two years, I avoided. And, certainly, if the demands find that the increase obtained the of labour are to diminish the amount of Wesleyan body is the largest of all. In time which is given for the proper educathe year 1857, schools in connexion with tion of children, we must endeavour to the Wesleyan body received grants to the begin that education earlier, and we must amount of £32,000, having, in 1856, re- endeavour to make the infant teaching ceived grants to the amount of £22,000, more rapid and more effective, so as to -being an increase of £10,000 in one give more tuition in a more limited time, year; and that is a larger proportionate if we cannot have the time that we should increase than any other of the denomina- desire. Then with regard to the nighttions has claimed and received. The schools, I think a greater degree of attenInspectors appointed by the Privy Coun- tion might be successfully paid to them. cil have borne full and ample testimony Indeed, I cannot help thinking that we to the efforts that have been made, and should do well to direct much more of our the success that has attended those efforts, teaching power, much more of our interin support of the Wesleyan schools. One est, much more of our sympathy, toward of the Inspectors, Mr. Laurie, has pointed these night-schools. If anyone wants to out as a school which deserves particular devote himself to a really noble and effiattention, and which may be held up as a cient work, I do not think there is any model, a school at Goxhill in Lincoln- field from which so large a harvest might shire, under a master of the name of be reaped, and where so much good might Hopwood ; and in the mining districts of be done, as in a well-organized arrangeSouth Staffordshire, and in Lancashire, ment for these night-schools. Now, there are schools in which very great and suc- are many people who could afford to give cessful efforts have been made by persons one night or two nights in a week. Many connected with this Society. The same of those, for instance, who, in so laudable evils that have been found to exist in all a manner, devote their Sunday to teachother parts of the country, which impede ing, might be able to give up a weekthe exertions that are made to improve evening for some of these schools ; and if schools, have also been felt in those really efficient teaching can be brought to schools of which we are to hear this bear upon schools that will receive perevening. That one great hindrance which sons of a more advanced age than are in arises from the very short period of time the ordinary schools, we miglit at last hope to see something like an efficient with all those who are carnest about education given in this land. For, what education, to endeavour to convey to the is now done is by no means satisfactory parents of children a sense of the great in the education of the working classes. importance to those children of their One can only view it as the beginning, being sent to school. But one cause as the basis upon which a superstructure which, I think, has occasioned much of mught to be laid Many persons who the indifference of the parents to the have promoted night-schools have failed schools is, that they often see that the because they did not make the teaching education given in the schools is not just just that which is desired. When we of the useful and practical character which bring children, by the orders of their they perceive to be really advantageous to parents, into a school, we may settle for their children A good deal of mistake them what they are to learn ; but when oertainly does often occur in the manner He have an evening or a night school, to in which education is given to children. which persons who are their own masters We sometimes see, in an agricultural and their own mistresses are to come, we village, that the son of an agricultural must suit the teaching to the desire of labourer is brought into a school, and, if those who are to learn. Therefore, the his father allows him to remain there for primary condition is, that the tuition a long time, he becomes very expert in given in those schools shall be, not that arithmetic; he writes a very good band : which the teachers think desirable, but his faculties are sharpened; he gets a that which happens to suit those who are great deal of general knowledge ; and, by to be taught. I would commend, to the time he leaves the school, he entirely anyone who is endeavouring to establish repudiates the notion that he is to follow aight-schools, the example that was set the same occupation as his father. He by the Council of King's College in says, “Why am I, who have so much London, who, when they wished to es- knowledge of bookkeeping; who have tablish evening-classes, before they deter- such a power of penmanship; such a mined what they should teach, opened a power of composition ; who am fit to be book wherein the learners were to write clerk in a railway-office; who am fit, down the sabjects in which they desired perhaps, if I could get there, to be a instruction. And when it was found out railway-director ;-why am I to go back what people wished to leam, the teaching to be a ploughman, to cart manure, and was suited to the leamer, It often do the ordinary operation of a farm ?". happens that persons do not desire to I have known many young men in that learn just that which we think would be condition, who, unfortunately for them, the most suitable for them; but, give by this sharpening and development of them time, and, as they grow, they find their mental faculties, were quite unsuited perhaps, that the topics which they pre- for the only occupation in life that they ferred at the beginning were not those had any chance of following; for if, from that yield the greatest return, or are the being the sons of labourers, they do not most satisfactory, and afterwards they happen to have much influence, and have will come to other branches of learning not the power of becoming clerks, they which are more useful, and will give are dissatisfied with being labourers ; them a more complete return.
they wander about in the hope that, some practical point, it is of great importance day or other, they shall find somebody to that in night-schools there should not be appoint them as clerks ; they do not get too great an admixture of persons of dif- appointments; they are unhappy; they ferent advances in knowledge, or of differ- want to go to Australia, or they fall under ent ages. There must, in short, be a the temptations which are constantly good classification, or the whole system assailing those who have no settled, no will fail
. Many of those which have not proper, occupation in life. If such a boy succeeded, have been marred by the fact, as that I have supposed, instead of being that in the same classes people were put educated for a sphere to which he could who were not evenly matched : some who not succeed in rising, had been educated were older were discouraged at finding solely with a view to that position of life themselves surpassed by the younger, into which he was born, a very different while some of the younger were apt to be result would have followed. If, in short, a little too assuming, and to think they his mind had been directed to those usecould lead when they ought rather to ful occupations which he might follow; follow. Another cause of the great de- if the elementary information that had ficiency of scholars in our schools must been given to him had been directed to be admitted to arise from the indifference observation of the laws of nature, the of parents. It should be a great object, growth of plants, and the mastering of all VOL. IV.-FIFTH SERIES.