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large population, at a great distance, nourable House that it may be at composed of various races professing once and for ever discarded ; and various religions, and many of them
that the Government of India may bigoted and fanatical in a high de- henceforth be conducted with an gree. But they rely on the justice avowed regard
to the supreme of their cause. They disclaim both authority of the King of kings, and persecution and partiality. They to the laws which He has enjoined sincerely deprecate all attempts at upon mankind. proselytism on the part of the Your petitioners further pray, Government. But they deprecate that, as the consequence of such no less a line of conduct which indi-, public and national recognition of cates to the natives of India that the “one True God, and Jesus their British rulers regard all reli- Christ whom He hath sent,” all the gions as alike true, and are utterly people of India may be perfectly indifferent, if not actually opposed, free to embrace the Christian relito the spread of Christianity among gion if they will, without incurring them.
any loss or disability from the action And your petitioners rely further of the Government by so doing. on the fact, that the profession of That the holy Scriptures may not neutrality has failed to secure the merely be accessible in the libraries confidence and conciliate the esteem of Government educational instituof the people of India. It has made tions, but may be freely taught (as many of them jealous and distrust- in South Ceylon) to those who are ful, and at length has given occasion willing to learn them, as part of to some to rise in a fierce revolt their daily instruction. which, if it be now at an end, has That the profession of Christianity not been quelled without & vast may no longer be a disqualification expenditure of blood and treasure. either for civil or military service ; Had the Government of India done but that, in choosing its servants, its duty to its subjects, and to the the Government may be guided Great King of nations, it would not solely by considerations of fitness have been suspected of a design to and ability. make Christians by fraud, and the That the support of idol-temples, Sepoy rebellion would have wanted with the large numbers of idle and the pretext on which it broke out. unchaste persons attendant on them,
And, above all, believing that the and of Mohammedan mosques, may safety of an empire lies not so much in future be left to the free-will in armies and fleets as in the Divine offerings of those who frequent such protection, your petitioners venture places of Worship, and not be proto hope that the Most High, who vided from public funds, or adminisruleth in the kingdoms of men, will tered by officers of the Government; favourably regard à people who, and, generally, that no portion of the having humbled themselves before revenues of these establishments may Him for past unfaithfulness, are be allowed to come into the Indian seeking to amend their doings, and Treasury : your petitioners deeming would certainly vouchsafe to them all profit derived from such sources His almighty protection.
to be in the highest degree criminal The principle of neutrality, being and pernicious. in itself unjustifiable, and having That all such rites and public thus, after a long trial, been found processions, exhibitions, or other incapable of a complete and consist- ceremonies of worship as are flaent application, your petitioners grantly opposed to the rules of therefore humbly pray Your Ho common humanity or decency, may
VOL. IV.-FIFTH SERIES.
be discouraged, and as far as possible posed upon it, so that the faith prosuppressed, in future.*
fessed by the Sovereign and ParliaAnd generally that, in any mea ment of these realms may have free sures affecting the future govern course in that most valuable and ment of India which may be now important dependency, and may brought under the consideration of eventually confer upon the millions Parliament, Your Honourable House of India the same inestimable blesswill be pleased to provide effectually ings which it has conferred upon for the emancipation of the Christian Britain. religion from those disabilities which And your petitioners will ever law or custom may have there im- pray.
SHANGHAI,At a distance of three The English settlement at Shanghai is miles, in the grey twilight, Shanghai situate upon a bend of this river Wang looks like a distant view of Woolwich. Poo. Its boundaries are its fortifications. The tall spars of the “ Pique” frigate, · On one side the Soo-choo river, which the English and American steamers of comes down from the great city Soo-choo, war, and a fleet of merchant-vessels, give (the Birmingham of China,) and falls an air of life and bustle to the waters of into the Wang Poo, forms its limits. this noble tributary to the Yang-tse- On the other side, the Yang-kang-pang Kiang. Higher up, where a turn in the canal shuts it from the settlement allotted river gives an inland appearance, we see a to the French. This French allotment multitudinous mass of junk-masts, just extends up to the walls of the Chinese as from Greenwich and Woolwich we see city of Shanghai. the
spars of the ships that crowd our The frontage upon the Wang Poo, docks. All tells of a large commerce between the Soo-choo river and the canal, requiring a strong protection. In this is nearly a mile in length, and the settleindistinct light the “hongs” of the ment extends backwards about half a European settlement loom like the ship- mile. This space is divided into squares slips at Deptford or Woolwich. It is by six roads at right angles with the only upon a near approach that they river, and three parallel to it; and in resolve themselves into fine finished these squares are the residences and buildings, some columned like Grecian godownes of the commercial houses, each temples, some square and massive like in its surrounding plot of ornamented Italian palaces, but all declaratory that ground. In the rear of all is the Shangthe res angusta domi is a woe unknown hai race-course. to Englishmen in China.
If I have succeeded in conveying to
* On this subject the interests of public morals in England compel all writers to
But surely no pretence of religion can justify the parading of the grossest obscenity in the streets ; nor should the dread of interference with the native worship lead us to be parties to the corruption of the numerous Europeans now resident in India, or of the still greater numbers who will assuredly be found there ere long. On the character of some processions, see Duff's “India, and Indian Missions,” p. 222, et seq.
Some of these cruel exhibitions have been partially put down by local authorities without any evil result ; for example, the churruck poojah, or swinging-festival.
Among the public practices of a cruel character which, in the opinion of many judicious persons, might be easily put down, is that of carrying the sick to the banks of the Ganges to die. The end of many lives is thus doubtless accelerated, especially where the mud and water of the river are applied to the head and face as a religious rite. So notorious is the effect, and often the intention also, of this observance, that residents in India do not hesitate to speak of it as murder; the ghat- (that is, landingplace) murders, is a term in common use.
the reader any notion of this place, he foot high. In another month the flowers will recognise it in the present mainstay will be out, and a fortnight later the and the future hope of our trade with yellow pods of which the nankeen cloth China. Almost yesterday the site of this is made will form and burst, and all the handsome Anglo-Chinese city was paddy- population will turn out to pluck them. fields and cotton-grounds. In 1856, 309 The old women will sit under the eaves British ships, of the tonnage 92,943 tons, of their cottages cleaning and winding, unloaded on the quays. Imports from the which, indeed, is their normal education whole world to the amount of £3,010,511 all the year through; the able-bodied passed through the Custom House; and, part of the family, having cleared their in addition to these, opium value of leguminous crop, will plough up the £4,624,305 passed through this portal to ground, and either prepare it for wheat, the interior of China. Yet, notwith or, if the situation is favourable, will standing this amount of legal and illegal bank up the land, and let in the water to imports, a further importation, £4,287,990 prepare for rice. The wheat is off the in hard bullion, was requisite to settle ground in May or June, and the cotton is the balance of trade with Europe and again sown.-Special Correspondent of America, and to pay for the enormous
“ Times." amount of tea and silk which China sent down to Shanghai, and Shanghai dis DR. KANE, THE AMERICAN TRAtributed to Europe, America, and Aus VELLER.--To Dr. Kane the world was tralia......
little more than a garden, intersected by Beyond the limits of the European ornamental waters. It had its wildersettlement, the rich alluvial plain on nesses, such as Lord Bacon says are which Shanghai stands extends for twenty proper to gardens ; but the tight-footed miles without a hillock. We must ad- Pennsylvanian rambled from one zone to mire the fertility of the soil, and the another, as though he had been the uniindustry of the people ; but there all our versal landlord. If he spent the summer gratifications must end. The roads are months in Greenland, his winter was devious footpaths, and the courses of comforted by the sun of Sumatra ; when traffic are dikes and drains falling rapidly he had interested himself in the barbarism to ruin. When the fierceness of the sun of Sennaar, he compared it with the oldis a little moderated, I walk about these fashioned civilization of Persia. The fenny tracks, as they wind more tortuously wandering Cartaphilus was than the footways in the marshes between sudden in his flights across the globe. Erith and Greenhithe. They all tell of Before attaining the age of thirty, Kane better days. They are strongly paved had visited Madeira, Brazil, Ceylon, with rough blocks of grarite or of lime- Luzon, China and its islands, Borneo, stone, fortunately too solid to need repair. Sumatra, Persia, Nubia, Sennaar, Greece, Small drains are crossed upon slabs of Mexico, the West Indies, Nova-Scotia, stone of many tons weight, and wider Newfoundland, and West Greenland : he water-courses are crossed by bridges of had been upon the equator in the Oriental stone built to last centuries. But where Archipelago, and he had reached the present or constant care is required, we utmost limits of geographical research in see the evidences of a decrepit Govern Lancaster Sound. With the sunny side ment and an unsettled society. Reeds of Europe he was familiar, with Spanish and bamboos choke the water-courses : oil, with Portuguese wine, with German some have become dry which were navi beer, with Italian palaces: he had chatted gable five years ago. Here we
with the archers of the Tyrol : he had upon the site of the Imperialist camp. received learned salutations in Paris : The canal which formed its defence in London had delighted to honour his great front is now a swamp. The peasant still and intrepid exertions : in the Nile retains his habits of industry. The land Valley he had climbed up to the chin of is parcelled out into little patches of Memnon ; in Luzon, dived into an unexcotton; and as the plant must be sown plored crater, and bathed in a forbidden wide, the interstices are filled with beans, asphaltic lake. Yet this was no man of or by some vegetable that will find a iron, no lithe Hercules exulting in health market in Shanghai. Cotton (yellow and and physical buoyancy. At twenty-one, white) is the general crop ; but it is not feeling himself doomed to a painful life, all cotton. There are patches of maize, he resolved never to marry : upon enterpurple gingals, and leguminous plants of ing the naval service he avowed himself many kinds; but the staple of the district subject to “ chronic rheumatism and is cotton. At present [August 7th, 1857] cardiac disturbance :” in Egypt he was the plant is a low woody plant about a attacked by the plague, in Africa by the
coast-fever ; in Philadelphia he lay dan- 20,000 and 25,000 may be of French or gerously ill for weeks : wounded by a Latin extraction. If we assume 22,500 lance in Mexico, he was reported dead : to be so, that will leave 5,000 Teutonic next he had a visitation of lock-jaw : at words in common use; and in our literary sea he was smitten with paralysis, which English, taken at 10,000 words, those ultimately touched his brain ; and he that are non-Roman will thus amount to died in January, 1857, in his thirty- about a balf. Of that half 4,000 words seventh year. Here we have the example may be current in our spoken language, of a man chronically and acutely afflicted, which will therefore be genuine English not only bearing up under every form of for four-fifths of its entire extent It suffering, but ransacking the whole earth will consist of about 4,000 Gothic, and in pursuit of his favourite designs, under- 1,000 Roman, words.-Dublin Univer. taking gigantic toils, venturing into the sity Magazine. presence of every species of danger, aiming at nothing for himself, but dedicating INSECT LIFE IN SOUTI AFRICA, a life of daring devotion to the service of While waiting by the elephant, I humanity. His character was conspicu- observed a great number of insects, like ously free from the common vices and grains of fine sand, moving on my boses. frailties of his age ; he was generous, On examination with a glass, four species charitable, just to rich and poor, modest, were apparent; one of green and gold and humane. The only accusation ever preening its wings, which glanced in the levelled against him has been satisfactorily sun with metallic lustre, another clear as dissipated. Such a citizen, such a me- crystal, a third of the colour of vermilion, mory, America does well to honour. The and a fourth black. These are probably obsequies of Dr. Kane were like those of some of those which consume the seeds some mighty commander fallen on the of every plant that grows. Almost every field of victory. Populations followed the kind has its own peculiar insect; and mortuary car; cities put on mourning. when the rains are over, very few seeds If ever a funeral resembled a triumph, it remain untouched. The rankest poisons, was that with which the republic of the as the Kongwhane and Euphorbia, are United States exalted the labours and the soon devoured the former has a scarlet virtues of their philanthropic traveller. insect; and even the fiery bird's-eye Again, thirty thousand persons have sub- pepper, which will keep off many others scribed to Dr. Elder's biography of Kane from their own seeds, is self devoured by -Atheneum.
a maggot. I observed here, what I had
often seen before, that certain districts OUR LANGUAGE.—Dictionary lan- abound in centipedes. Here they have guage is something very different not light reddish bodies and blue legs; great only from common colloquial English, myriapedes are seen crawling everywhere. but even from that of ordinary written Although they do no harm, they excite composition. Instead of about 40,000 in a man a feeling of loathing. Perhaps words, there is probably no single author our appearance produces a similar feeling in the language, from whose works, how- in the elephant and other large animals. ever voluminous, so many as 10,000 Where they have been much disturbed, words could be collected. Of the 40,000 they certainly look upon us with great words, there are certainly many more distrust, as the horrid biped that ruins than one-half that are only employed, if their peace. In the quietest parts of the they are ever employed at all, on the forest there is heard a faint but distinct rarest occasions. We should any of us hum, which tells of insect joy. One may be surprised to find, if we counted them, see many whisking about in the clear with how small a number of words we sunshine in patches among the green manage to express all that we have to say, glancing leaves ; but there are invisible either with our lips, or even with the pen. myriads working with never-tiring manOur common literary English, probably, dibles on leaves, and stalks, and beneath hardly extends to 10,000 words ; our the soil. They are all brimful of enjoycommon spoken English, hardly to 5,000. ment. Indeed, the universality of organic And the proportion of native or home- life may be called a mantle of happy grown words is undoubtedly very much existence encircling the world, and imhigher in both the 5,000 and the 10,000 parts the idea of its being caused by the than it is in the 40,000. Perhaps, of the consciousness of our benignant Father's 30,000 words, or thereabouts, standing in smile on all the works of His hands.the dictionaries, that are very rarely or Dr. Livingstone. never used even in writing, between
THE “ DIES IRÆ" OF THOMAS DE CELANO.
VERSION BY DR. IRONS.
[This version has left little to be desired ; since it faithfully represents not merely the language, but also the metre, and, what is more, the rhyming triplet of the original.-North British Revist, No. LI.] Day of wrath! O day of mourning ! Think! kind Jesu, my salvation See ! once more the cross returning, Caused Thy wondrous incarnation ; Heaven and earth in ashes burning! Leave me not to reprobation !
Faint and weary Thou hast sought me, 0, what fear man's bosom rendeth !
On the cross of suffering bought me; When from heaven the Judge descendeth,
Shall such grace be vainly brought me ? On whose sentence all dependeth !
Righteous Judge of retribution, Wondrous sound the trumpet flingeth, Grant Thy gift of absolution, Through earth's sepulchres it ringeth, Ere that reckoning-day's conclusion ! All before the throne it bringeth !
Guilty now I pour my moaning, Death is struck, and nature quaking,
All my shame with anguish owning ; All creation is awaking,
Spare, O God, thy suppliant groaning ! To its Judge an answer making!
Low I kneel with heart-submission;
Help me in my last condition.
Ah ! that day of tears and mourning ! When the just are mercy needing. From the dust of earth returning :
Man for judgment must prepare him ; King of Majesty tremendous,
Spare, O God, in mercy spare him ! Who dost free salvation send us,
Lord, who didst our souls redeem, Fount of pity! then befriend us !
Grant a blessed requiem.
AN EVENING PRAYER.
To the prayer Thy child hath made ; Every sin and terror banish'd,
Jesus, while the night-hours darken, Let my rest be calm and deep.
Be Thou still my hope, my aid; Soul and body, mind and health,
Holy Ghost, on Thee I call, Wife and children, house and wealth, Friend and Comforter of all : Friend and foe, the sick, the stranger, Hear my earnest prayer, O beat me! Keep Thou safe from harm and danger. Lord, Thou hearest, Tbou an near me.
FOR A WAKEFUL NIGHT.
'Tis when the lights of earth are gone, Alone I do not sleep;
The beareniz glories shine ; Around me ever watcheth One
When other comfort have I none, Who wakes with those who weep. Thy comfort, Lord, is mine. On earth it is so dark and drear,
Be stiil, my throbbing heart, be still,
Cast at the weary load :
Shine there through all our night. And rest upon thy God.