velope ; and in the third be has done ral subjects of Mr. Fulton's investigawhat should make bis country proud, tion. The great objection is that the and the world grateful.

book is too long. In such matters comThe work which is the subject of pression is every thing. Considering our remarks, was read as. a memoir be- the avocations of the writer, part of the fore the. Literary and Philosophical prolixity to which we object, is perSociety of New-York. It was ondoubt- haps to be excused upon the ground edly designed for the press, and we suggested by Dean Swift--that he had have treated it as such. We under- no time to write shorter,---but surely stand that the profits of the publication there is a great deal wbich might have are liberally given to that society by been beneficially retrenched. The the author.

merits of Mr. West and his pictures, Mr. Colden evidently does not hold whatever they may be, might more the pen of a ready or practised writer. properly have been left to form a part of His style is sometimes deficient in ele- the biography of that gentleman, whengance, and often in ease and grace. In ever it shall come to be again written. a composition so formal, and so gene. We have thought proper to notice rally stately, we do not like such ex- these imperfections, though of minor pressions as “ the little farm on which importance. Upon the whole, we think he settled his mother," page 9. “Ca- the writer has done justice to his subnalling,” page 19,-and we particularly ject and honour to himself. disrelish the mock solemnity which re. The Appendix contains some insults from prefixing the indefinite article formation on the subjects , to which to the name of an individual" they Mr. Fulton had devoted his attention, mark the genius of a Fulton," page 13. though it is more diffuse than important. But these are trifles. The work wants It would be unjust to the publishers arrangement. The writer seems to have not to acknowledge that they have prebeen confused between his attention to sented us, in this work, an elegant spe. chronological order, and his desire to cimen of American typography. keep separate his accounts of the seve. D.

Art. 3. Le Printemps, premier chant du Poëme Chinois, Des Saisons, traduit

en vers Français, et mêlé d'allusions au Regne de Louis XVIII., Par Charles Léopold Mathieu, Membre de plusieurs Sociétés Savantes, nationales et étrangéres. · A Nancy. Chez HÆNER. 8vo. pp. 28.

CONSIDERING the frequent inter- hitherto, are trifling both in quantity and

course of Europeans with the Chi- value. The labours of Dr. Marshman, Dese, for centuries, it is somewhat ex- Mr. Morrison, &c. which have so much traordinary that so little should be facilitated the attainment of a language known of their literature. It is the that has heretofore presented difficulties more remarkable, as their pretensions in apprehension almost insurmountable, to learning are so great, and their may, perhaps,pave the way for more imbooks so numerous,-for they have portant accumulations of Oriental lore. possessed the art of printing, after a But it is in their popular works of fan. fashion of their own, from time imme- cy, in their plays, poetry, and novels, morial. Some of the writings of Con- that we must look for indications of the fucius have, indeed, been translated in- prevailing character and temperament to English, and versions have been of a people. Of these very few have made of a few other works of various fallen into the course of our reading. descriptions. But the acquisitions, This is the first specimen, sach as it is,

that we remember to have seen of Chi. This poem,' continues Mr. Mathieu, nese poetry.

, 'verses of which are inscribed as well Mr. Mathieu tells us that he chanced on fans as on paper-hangings, is entire. upon this poem of the Seasons, or ly composed of simple expressions, rather of the Months,' on a suit of ta- and written in key or radical characters pestry, and takes occasion, very justly, of what we term the Chinese alphabet ; as well as opportunely, to compliment which is an evidence that it was prothe Chinese on their taste in displaying duced at a remote period, when Chiin the hangings of their rooms something nese writing was restricted to its prifor the mind as well as the eye to re- mitive signs, the roots of its present pose on. We hope the hint will not characters, and consequently before the be lost. If the Chinese are too proud invention of these complicated characto learn of us, let us not be ashamed to ters." be instructed by them. From this source


och i

'It is a long time,' he adds, since the translator obtained the entire Poem,

we have had an opportunity to obtain on the Spring. Mr. Mathieu informs

any production of this singular and inus, also, in regard to a point on which

teresting people. It is a kind of disevery reader will be ready to put an

covery, to have found out a means of interrogatory,—that the poem appears

reading the inscriptions on their fans to be written in blank verse, except the introduction, in which the lines rhyme at

and tapestry, the characters of which

! at first blush, appear to have so little by their initial syllables. This is,

relation with those we know. They however, a singularity even in the Chi

open, however, a field of observation ; nese language, most of their verses

the more curious, that they seem inrhyming by their closes. · In regard to

"O tended to bring under the eye of the metre, the lines are irregularly of three, s

et, spectator the more esteemed extracts four, five, six, or nine feet. If we may

day of the poetry of the country, sometimes believe the translator, notwithstanding with

ing without reference to the designs of the the want of statedly recurring sounds rain

s paintings, but always with the laudable and of modulated cadence, poetic inspii

view of promoting instruction and moration is easily discernible in the im. rali

rality.' petuosity of the style. He thus expresses his veneration for this fragment of .

of Such is the account the translator

gives us of the original of the poem antiquity. On retrouve dans ce poëme le laconisme

which he has entitled · Le Printemps.' impétueux, ce beau désordre, que l'on

ho We have been the more sedulous in pourrait appeler pindarique, qui caracté. gleaning these particulars relative to it, rise les poésies antiques, et dont les poë- since it is exceedingly difficult to dismes orphiques nous donneraient le pre. cover any traces of its former self in the mier type, si la poésie chinoise, dans une dress which he has given it. Unwilling langue que plusieurs indications me ferai. ent volontiers croire la langue primitive et

to lose any opportunity of discovering antédiluvienne, ne nous en fournissait un, !

un. his loyalty, Mr. Mathieu has plentifully peut-être plus antique encore, dans ce pre. interlarded bis performance with the mier chant du poëme chinois des saisons.* most fulsome and impertinent flattery ** We find in this poem that energetic lacon

of the House of Bourbon, whilst, with ism, that charming wildness, which may be an equally deplorable want of taste, he termed Pindaric, which indicates antiquity, and of has tricked out bis primitive, antediluwhich the poems of Orpheus might be regarded vian. radical, straight-mark'd. Chinese as the prototype, did not Chinese poesy, in a language which I have been led by many con- bard, in all the common-place of a siderations to look upon as the primitive and an- mincing, set-phrased, palavering, Paritediluvian tongue, furnish us, in this very produc- siann tion, a specimen of the same kind, possibly more sampeumann

ore sian petit-maitre. ancient,

The poem appears to us, from what

we can gather in regard to it, to have nois avoir aussi des comparaisons dans been designed as a georgic. The foto deur poésies. Cette remarque prove évi. lowing is given by Mr. Mathieu as the demment que cette figure est inspirée par la " Argument."

nature elle-même. “ Exposition of the Subject. The .. Again, on introducing an episode of traces of winter still subsist; it is ne- bis own, yet or considerable interest eessary to break up the ice to aid the we confess, describing the renversement emancipation of nature. The ice is cut of a fisherman's cabin by an inundation, in pieces with sharp instruments. New he tells us, indeed, that the passage is frosts intervene to bafile hope. Let not.in bis author, and adds, in his own ardour be redoubled to counteract these justification, Jast efforts of winter. The time hasIl ne m'a pas paru dans tous les vers now come to construct new habitations, Chinois, que j'ai vus jusqu'ici, que le goût

Chinois adoptât l'épisode ; mais si celui and to till the ground, that the seeds

n'est pas de ce pays, j'ai cru qu'il etait inay germinate. The heat of the sun dans la nature du poëme, et qu'en vers increases, and reanimates industry and Français, il devait s'y trouver. nature. Now gardens are formed and How far this may be satisfactory to embellished. The melting of the snows others we know not, for ourselves we on the mountains occasions floods which had far rather see a Chinese poem, in alarm the busbandmen. The waters at all its nudity, than bedizened - en vers last subside. The caravans assemble. Francais." " At any rate, we do not The soldiers are mustered-may they think Mr. Mathieu's poetic merit extehave no wars to wage. Commerce re- nuates the audacity of his innovations. vives, the vessels sail on their voyages. We shall limit ourselves in quoting from The ehildren, who had been benumbed his version to a mere specimen, as we by the cold weather,resume their studies, do not wish to multiply French extracts, and return to the charge of the old men. and because we are still less inclined The middle-aged men undertake the to turn poetic strains into humble execution of those projects which they prose. In fact, if filtered through anhad matured in the winter, New families other translation, probably as little extend themselves. The youths en- would remain of the sentiment as of gage in exercises suitable to their years. the language of the original. The folThose who study mathematics apply lowing debût of the poem may possibly the principles they acquire to geogra- convey some idea of the brusquerie and phy and astronomy. Finally, those abruptness of the Chinese ; and is a who learn to write, apply geometry to favourable instance of the faithfulness the regular construction of their letters.” and even of the manner of Mr. Ma: Such is the plan of this poem, as far thieu. as we can disengage it from the epi• Mortels, ranimez vous, le soleil va renaître ; sodes and allusions' with which the La nature glacée, attend un nouvelle être. translator has so injudiciously encum- Avec elle, å l'envi, commences vos travaus; bered it. We are indebted, however, Accourez, saisissez vos haches, vos mar. to bis candour and simplicity, for two teaux. further facts in regard to the style of Pour vos nombreux enfans, il faut des toits

o propices, the original. The dissolving of snow co

solving ol show C'est l'instant de bâtir d'utiles édifices. by the sun is likened by the poet to the Hatez-vous ! mais toujours suivez, à chaque fusion of metals by fire. Mr. Ma- mois, ibieu takes care, and it is not amiss, to Du temps et des saisons les immuables let us know that this simile is found in lois. the text. He further observes, with

with Que le hardi triangle aille, en sa marche

sûre, great naïveté,

De la terre et des mers vous donner la Il est vraiment curieux de voir les Chic figure.

Qu'il formé des remparts, qu'il élève des était venu là faire un traité d'alliance et tours,

de commerce avec les Américains. Cet In, Des palais de vos rois, qu'il trace les con- de la Chine, est le chef de la hutième des tours ;

cent premières familles chinoises au temps Et qu'au joug suspendu le soc fendant les d’Yao, l'an 2296, 48 ans après le déluge plaines,

d'Ogygés, auquel on peut rapporter la sub. Prépare l'abondance et le prix de vos mersion de l'Atlantide. Il a pu en sortir peines.

quelque temps avant la submersion, et se . So much for the noom There are trouver encore quarante-huit ans aprés, au

· temps d’Yao, selon le Pě-Kia-Sing, livre qui however, some fanciful speculations, on contient tou

contient tous les noms des cent familles a point concerning our own country, chinoises, au temps de cet empereur, et contained in a note, that have a bold- qui conserve toujours ce même nom : quoi. ness which commends them to consi- que le nombre des noms propres qu'il con. deration, and are supported by a cor- tient, soit augmenté jusqu'a 438. Ces ca

is ractères numeriques sont employés, à la respondent confidence of assertion. If

“Chine, dans les livres les plus anciens, et they fail to convince, they will serve jamais les Chinois n'ont voulu se prêter à to amuse. In his prefatory remarks, les changer. J'ai, en ce moment, à ma speaking of the primitive characters in disposition un manuscrit chinois qui en which these verses are written, Mr. Ma- fait la preuve, concurremment avec le dic

sa tionnaire chinois de M. de Guignes, qui est thieu says

le titre le plus moderne. Ce manuscrit A l'aspect de ces caractères, au style de est un traité de mathématiques appliquées. ces vers, on serait tenté de croire cette ll paraît être fait par quelque missionnaire poésie tirée de ces livres antiques et sa- pour introduire à la Chine les mathéma. crés, écrits avec les fragmens de la ligne tiques européennes. Il contient des cal. droite, entiere et brisée, qui ne sont sûre- culs, et sur-tout une espèce de table de lo ment pas de l'arithmétique binaire, comme garithmes, où l'on voit figurer le 0, parmi l'a cru si bizarrement Leibnitz ; puisque les autres signes de numeration chinois, les caractères numériques chinois sont les qui sont aussi atlantiques. Il semble que caractères romains dont l'origine est at- l'auteur ait eu l'intention d'inspirer aux lantique.

Chinois l'envie de se servir de ce 0, pour On this he introduces the following faciliter la formation des nombres, en l'em. note, which will be read with some avi- plo

ployant concurremment avec leurs signes

ordinaires, à la manière des chiffres arabes. dity by our antiquarians.

Le dictionnaire chinois, au contraire, ne Cette idée de Leibnitz de voir son cal. fait aucune mention du zéro dans la table cul binaire dans les anciennes écritures qu'il donne des signes numériques chinois. chinoises, ne peut être que la rêverie d'un ll indique toujours cette numération à la inventeur de calcul qui veut trouver son maniere romaine, ce qui prouve que los système par-tout. Le système de numé- Chinois, toujours fidèles à leur ancien usage ration chinois, les signes de cette numéra. n'ont pas voulu adopter seulement ce zéro; tion sont les mêmes que ceux de l'hiéro- par conséquent s'ils avaient eu originairo. glyphe atlantique de Dighton, près Boston, ment une autre numération, ils l'auraient en Amerique, lequel paraît être de l'an du plutôt conservée que de la changer contre monde 1902, selon la traduction que j'ai une nouvelle aussi peu commode que la trouvé le moyen d'en faire, d'après l'art de romaine, pouvant choisir l'arabe de prête. Jire les hiéroglyphes, que j'ai découvert. rence. On ne dira pas qu'ils tiennent la Cette numération atlantique est la même leur des Romains. Ce peuple n'a jamais que celle des Romains, qui la tenaient des été à la Chine ; et les livres chinois de Pélanges, peuples sortis originairement de Confucius, où se trouvent employés les l'Atlantide, où, selon Platon, qui donne le chiffres romains, ou plutôt atlantiques, sont nom de Pélagos à la partie de l'Ocean si- trop anciens, pour pouvoir supposer que tuée entre cettee île et l'Amérique, ils de la numération dont ils se servent, y a été vaient par consequent habiter la côte occi- portée depuis la découverte de la Chine, dentale. Elle paraît avoir été portée à la même par saint Thomas. Confucius exist. Chine par cet In, fils d'In-dios, roi de l'At- ait 550 ans avant notre ére, ou au moins, lantide, nommé dans l'hiéroglyphe d'Amé, selon d'autres, 483 ans. Ces chiffres rorique, pour le chef de l'expédition, qui maines dont il s'est servi, ne peuvent donc

y avoir été portés que par un peuple anté- which had arrived there for the purrieur ; or, aucun people n'est rapporté par pose of concluding a treaty of coml'histoire, y avoir été avant notre ére. Sans la traduction de l'hiéroglyphe atlantique

merce and amity' with the Ainericans. de Dighton, en Amérique, ce fait serait in. This In became the founder of a disa explicable. L'identité de numération de tinguished fainily in China, and was cet hiéroglyphe et de celle de la Chine, living in the time of Yao, in the year l'identité de nom, d'In, Chinois, et de l'In, 2296, being 48 years after the utter atlantique de l'hiéroglyphe, dans le même submersion of the island of Atlantis in temps, prouvent bien, au contraire, que ces deux monumens viennent du méme peuple;

Se the Ogygian deluge. This island of que ces deux In sont de la meme famille, Atlantis was, in its day, what Great comme je le prouverai d'ailleurs par nom- Britain is in ours; carried on a brisk bres d'autres faits que j'ai rassembles dans trade with the four quarters of the globe, un ouvrage que je publierai bientôt. L'on and established colonies and factories verra qu'à l'époque de l'hiéroglyphe atlan- to facilitate or

to facilitate exchanges. Unfortunately tique d'Amérique, en l'an 1902 du monde, où l'Ile Atlantide pouvait exister comme this

comme this great emporium of the arts and i'hiêroglyphe le prouve ; Les Atlantes, au sciences was swallewed up about 1800 milieu de l'Océan, comme aujourd'hui les years before the Christian era !! Such Anglais, comme eux, fréquentaient alors is the amount of this wonderful story les quatre parties du monde, y faisaient of the events in which Mr. Mathieu des établissemens. Ils y portaient leur

speaks as familiarly as of the occurlangue et leur numération, qui s'y sont "P conservées jusqu'aux découvertes moder. rences of yesterday. We may safely nes, apres l'interruption de communication recommend it to the reader to believe avec ces contrées, qu’occasionna, pendant as much of it as he can. si long-temps, la submersion de cette ile A s the inscription on the rock at fameuse. Voilà comme les scènes du mon. Dic

9. Dighton, seems to be the pivot on which de se sont succedées dans des âges differens, et que les hommes, dont la vie est

Si this ingenious theory hinges, it may be éphéinère, ont toujours cru que celle qui well to append such authentic informase passait sous leurs yeux, ou à la portee tion as we have, in regard to it. This inne leur mémoire, était la premiére. Ce formation is furnished in a paper comsont les moucherons d'un jour, qui bour. municated by the Honourable James donnent et voltigent sous l'ombre du cédre

Winthrop, of Cambridge, to the A. A. S. antique, en disputant sur la durée de cet arbre éternel, et le soir ils ne sont deja from which we have made the followplus.

ing extract:

.Iccount of an Inscribed Rock, at Dighton, For the benefit of those who may

in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, need an interpretation, we will give the communicated to the American Academy substance of the above in a few words. of Arts and Sciences, Nov. 10, 1788. By Mr. Mathieu, in controverting an opinion James Winthrop, Esq. of Leibnitz, states, that the Chinese sys

“ In Taunion river, about six miles be. tem of numeration and the signs em

low the town of Taunton, and within the

limits of Dighton, is a rock containing an ployed in it, are the same as ibose hieroglyphical inscription, which has long found in the Atlantic hieroglyphical engaged the attention of the curious. The inscription at Dighton in Massachusetts, rock is on the eastern side of the river, which appears to bare been written in upon the beach, and the inscribed side the year of the world i902! This sys. fronts northwesterly. At the lowest tides

the water retires from the foot of it, but tem of numeration is similar to that of

numeration is similar to that of at high water it is commonly covered. the Romans, who derived it from the The longest side contains the inscription, Pelasgi, a people originally from the looking towards the channel of the river, island of Atlantis ! The same system and is the natural face of the rock, not was communicated to the Chinese by smoothed by art. This side is ten feet

six inches long, and four feet two inches that very ln, son of Indios, king of At

wide. The other sides are shorter, and lantis, who is named in the inscription drawn to a point towards the shore and of Dighton, as chief of the expedition, are rough, as if large pieces had been bro

Vou, li 80. IV.

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