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It is here represented in its natural size, the outside leaf, so as to lie as near to the and magnified; also in its state of chrysalis, root as possible, (as represented in the in which it is dormant. It is shown nestling cut.) It resembles, at first, a very small in the wheat stubble, near the roots, where white nit, and as it grows larger becomes it looks something like flaxseed. The a sluggish and almost inanimate maggot chrysalis is also tak-n from the stalk of the of a white colour. In this state, the prowheat, and represented of its natural size. per and most natural food of the insect is The egg and larva are omitted in the plate, the sap or juice of that kind of green as the one is a small white nit, and the wheat' which has the most delicate: other a small white maggot, not easily de. straw."* The change from the egg to the lineated.
larva, or maggot, is so difficultly discernAll insects undergo certain changes and ible, in so small an object, that Judge Hatransformations, which embarrass ordinary vens, whose observations are just quoted, observers; and the creatures seen in diffe- has mistaken the fact, and concluded that rent states are taken for different insects. the insect is, viviparous. But although But these changes are positive and uniform, some insects do not undergo the changes and must be known to understand the sub- that have been stated, yet none of them ject and come at the truth. They are four. that are viviparous produce a larva as the. 1. the ovum, or egg ; 2. the larva, or cater first state of existence. Spiders lay eggs pillar; 3. the chrysalis pupa, or dormant which produce spiders, and these creastate, and 4. the imago, or perfect insect. tures, by late naturalists, have been re
Omne animal ex ovo, (every animal is moved from the class of insects and produced from an egg,) is a favourite dog- placed by themselves on that account. The ma with some. It is true with respect to aphides, or little green insects that infest almost all insects. From the egg issues, in cabbages and other plants, and called cabdue time, called into existence by the bage-lice, deviate from the ordinary course warmth of a congenial sun, the larva or of other insects, and are viviparous. The caterpillar. In this state it partakes of its wheat tipula, however, progresses through favourite food, adapted to its nature, and the four ordinary changes common to most provided by the hand of the Omnipotent. insects. The chrysalis is brownish or It feeds till having obtained its growth, black, and might be mistaken for the egg and performed all its functions, it is pre- of some other insect. pared to sleep away a portion of its exist. The tipula vaginalis, looks something ence previous to its revival in its ultimate like a moscheto, but smaller, and is without state. It is in the caterpillar state that the feathery palpi, or feelers, of that troumost insects injure vegetation ; and herein blesome insect. The tipula plumosa, réthey perform no other functions than eat- sembles our moscheto very much.' The ing and digestion, by which they acquire American wheat tipula is said to have been their growth. This being accomplished, imported, during the American revolution, they become torpid and enter into the chry- by the German troops employed by Engsalis or dormant state, in which they conti- land to repress the spirit of freedom in pue a longer or shorter interval, according her colonies, and hence this little creature to the season. In high latitudes most of has been called the Hessian Fly. Judge them bybernate and resuscitate on the ap- Havens, in his observations on this subproach of summer, not again into a cater- ject, cloes not decide the question, but pillar, but into the imago or perfect insect. leaves it probable that it might have been From this form of its existence it inust be so, because the chrysalis of the insect is characterized and described as the parent sometiines deposited in the upper part of animal. The others are subordinate states the stalk of grain, and hence could have of being, preparatory to its perfect and been imported with straw from Europe. most complete developement. In this it But no such insect is known to infest grain performs the functions necessary for a con- in Great Britain, and one only on the continuation and propagation of its species. tinent of Europe, which feeds upon wheat The wheat tipula, like the silk worm, in the ear.t if these facts are wrong, the lays its eggs and dies, and a new generation succeeds.
The egg of the insect is generally depo. * Havens on Hessian fly. Agricultural Sociesited between the lowest part of the leaf ty Transactions of New York, vol. 1. p. 96. of the wheat and the part which forms the + Dr. Mitchill, in naming the insect tipula main stalk or straw, to the latter of which tritici, was aware that one of the same name init closely adheres, and is generally within habited Europe, and fed upon wheat, but it was VOL. 1. NO. IV.
Agure in the plate, which las never before ral years, and the insect disappeared. been given to the public, will serve to cor. Some sowed the bearded wheat, which the rect the errors by comparison with the tipula did not injure, but this kind of description of figures of other lipulæ pub. grain does not wholly escape, unless it is lished in books of entomology.
sown late in the autumn, so that the tipula German troops were quartered in seve- has not the green plant upon which to lay ral places on Long-Island, during the Ame. its eggs. The crops of wheat sown early rican revolution, and a year or two after in the fall receive the most damage by it. Peace, when agriculture commenced its In this part of the country, the tipula operations uninterrupted by war, the passes through two generations in a season, wheat tipula first excited noiice in that and consequently annoys the young grain part of our state, by the injury done to the both in the spring and autumn. After wheat. It was easy to attribute this plague hybernation, or lying in a state of chrysalis to our enemies, and accordingly it was all winter, in the culm, or stalk of the saddled upon the poor Hessians, who are grain sown in the autumn, it resuscitates innocent of the charge, and hence it is im- between the middle of April and first of proper to call the wheat insect, the Hes. May. The imago, or perfect insect, has sian Fly. It is besides quite different from no other duty to perform than to deposit a fly, whose figure and habits are very its eggs in a situation where sufficient food unlike those of a tipula, and the former will be found to nourish its young. Ac. belongs to a genus of insects called musca, cordingly, the place selected is between which most generally feed upon animal the first leaf and the stalk near the root. substances.
The season, if warm, soon hatches the eggs The tipula vaginalis tritici of America, into small white maggots, which feed upon most generally delights to feed upon the the sap and tender fibres of the plant, by tender plants of green wheat, but it has which it is deprived of its circulating been known to attack rye, and even barley, juices, withers and dies ; or if not, it is (Havens. Agricult. Trars. vol. i. p. 91.) stunted in its growth, appears sickly, and though the two latter rarely and without does not bring its seed to perfection. Du. injury, except that in one case on Long. ring the monihs of May and June it exists Island, in 1788, a field of summer barley in the egg and larva, or maggot state, in was entirely destroyed, as was supposed, by which latter the damage is effected. It this insect. It first appeared to attract becomes torpid, or is converted into the notice by its ravages on the east end of chrysalis before harvest, and is found in Long-Island, about thirty-one years ago, that state in the stubble after harvest, and (viz.) in 1786. The crops of wheat were during the months of July and August, and almost entirely cut off in that part of the sometimes longer, and may be found as country in 1787 and 1788. The inhabi- long as the stubble is suffered to stand, tants, discouraged by such destruction, till in September, when it again issues into cultivated rye almost exclusively for seve- its perfect state of existence, and the same
progress is repeated, though the period of sp different a creature, that it could not be mista. its several changes differs ; the dormant ken for the American wheat tipula, as the one in state particularly, which, in summer, " Europe feeds upon wheat in the car, and ours only about two months, but in the winter upon the juices of the young plant, and deposits tive or six. Thus two generations sucits eggs and chrysalis on the stalk, where it is ceed each other in a year. The one comcovered like a sheath by the first or outer leaf. mences in April and terminates its exist. Hence, not to confound the two insects together, ence in August: The other springs into he has called the American wlicat tipula, the life in September and October, and finishes tipula vaginalis tritici. That they are not the same, will be easily seen by comparing the de-as period
des its period by the ensuing spring. Thus scription and figure çf the American tipula, with nature seems to have adapted its coming the tipula tritici of Europe, which is as follows: to the spring and autumn, when the tender "Dust rufous : wings hyaline with a fringed sprouting grain affords the best nourishsnargin: eyes black. Inhabits Europe; very ment minute, (Lin. Trans. vol. iv. p. 230.) 'Antenna'It bas been supposed that the damage moniliforin, longer than the thorax: legs very done to grain was effected by the chrysay long. Larva citron with foliated papillæ at the margin, a sharp head and truncate tail; skips,
ne of the tipula, by its mechanical effect of and is found in great numbers in the ears of pressure, as from one to six have been wheat, to which it is very iniurious; is destroyed found on one plant: but this cannot be by the ichneumon tipula para narrow, reddish case, since we have shown that the insect and pointed at cachend.''' turtva's Limous. is not converted into a chrysalis till near ti
ripening of the grain, and the injury is so easily injured as some other varieties of manifested while the wheat is young and wheat, and this arises from the strength of before it begins to head. It can only be its stalk and abundance of juices, which a number of the larvæ or young mag- are not as delicate as some other kinds, gots sucking the juices of the plant, which and hence these small creatures cannot deprevents its increase and vigour.
vour sufficient of its substance before it It is a mistake that the wheat tipula is begins to harden into straw. This and to be found on salad. The insect is too any other variety of wheat, whose stalk small to be positively distinguished by the is stout and has a stiff straw, will answer naked eye; though another specics may the same purpose. But if from any cause infest salad, it is certainly not this insect, the insect has become very numerous, the for although it sometimes leaves its fa- same precautions of late sowing in the fal} vourite food, this happens but rarely, and must be resorted to. then it attacks its congeners, and does not 3. Manuring high. In so doing the farshift to the salad.
mer produces a strong and rapid growth, This insect travels about thirty miles in which progresses faster than the maggot a season, going apparently in swarms, of the insect can devour, and as the stalk and alighting in a body upon a piece of grows hard the feeding of the larva ceases grain, which will most frequently be in. to have cffect, jured in patches, as if attacked by differ- 4. Making use of a roller. By using a ent swarms. The periods of its existence heavy wooden or stone roller on the young in the different states of maggot, chrysalis, grain, in the autumn, after the chrysalis is &c. must vary according to circumstances formed, or in the spring before it is hatch. in different parts of the country, therefore ed, or on the stubble after harvest, the the months in which the changes take chrysalis will be crushed, and future pro. place in the southern parts of New-York, geny destroyed In this state it is very will not be the same as where the seed time tender and delicate, and the smallest presand harvest are different. The insect will sure will burst it and the insect must die. be found, however, in the egg and maggot, 5. Ploughing up the stubble. If this is on the young grain in the spring and au- done immediately after harvest, the chrytumn, and in the state of chrysalis just be- salis will be buried in the earth, and not fore harvest, and on the stubble. . being in a place congenial to its nature, it
Several remedies may be proposed for will die. Unless the stubble is comthe destruction of these insects. Very pletely buried, the experiment will not hot weather, attended by a dry state of the succeed, the deeper the ploughing tho atmosphere, will either bring forward the better. insect prematurely from its chrysaline 6. Burning the stubble. If the stubble state, or dry up the moisture, by which it is entirely burnt the chrysalis must be deis destroyed. This has been observed stroyed, but as it lays near the root, the with some of them, kept in a dry vessel in fire must be well applied, or the insect June. Some came out feeble and others escapes. withered. A cold season, with much
I am, &c. moisture, will also destroy them, though
SAMUEL AKERLY. these remedies are not at our will and disposal; but some one of the following may Messrs. EDITORS, be practicable in any part of the country.
1. Sowing late. If the grain is scattered There was nothing more extraordinary early in autumn, the insect has full time in the eccentric life of Thomas, Lord Lytand opportunity to deposit its eggs on the tleton, or as he is commonly called, Lord tender plant, and have them undergo the Lyttle
the Lyttleton the younger, than the mysterious
e manner of his death. The event made a changes into maggot and chrysalis before, mann winter; but by delaying, as long as the
great noise, and excited much speculation at
the time. Indeed the bruit bas hardly subseason for sowing winter grain will admit,
1 sided, and inquiry is scarcely at rest. If you the time for these changes is shortened, think there are any of your readers who are and the eggs or maggots are destroyed by not familiar with the facts, you will perhaps the frost.
feel willing to admit a succinct account of 2. Cultivating the bearded wheat. This his Lordship's character, and of the singular has been considered as proof against the concomitants of his decease, into your useattack of the insect, but reliance on it ful Miscellany. alone has been found fallacious. It does This liceptious nobleman was the son of not escape with impunity, though it is not the celebrated George, Lord Lyttleton, when was equally celebrated as a scholar and a In the same Miscellany, for Dec. 1799, a Christian. He was the heir of his father's very interesting and candid account is given talents, but not of his virtues. He succeeded of this strange occurence, from which I to the title and estates in 1773. The circum- make the following extract. stances of his death, which occurred in 1779, . On Thursday morning, the 25th of Noy. were certainly very extraordinary, and ex- last, his lordship mentioned at breakfast, to cited the more attention on account of his Mrs. Flood (n widow lady who lived with Lordship's known profligacy and scepticism. him as companion to the Miss Amphletts, his In the Gentleman's Magazine, for Nov. last, nieces,) that he had passed a very restless I met with the following article in relation night; that he thought he heard a fluttering to this event.
noise in the room; and that immediately Pit-place. Ensom. Jan. 6. after he fancied he saw a beautiful lady, MR. URBAN,
dressed in white, with a bird on her hand, • Your correspondent, T. S. mentions who desired he would settle his affairs, for “ the marvellous account of Lord Lyttleton's that he had but a short time to live. On his death," and wishes to see it authenticated." inquiring, how long, the vision answered, Having bought Pit-place, where he died, I “Not three days.” His lordship mentioned can give the following copy of a document this dream frequently, but with an affected in writing, left in the house as a heir-loom, air of careless indifference, which only showwhich may be depended on. Having re. ed that it had made a stronger impression ceived much pleasure and instruction from on his mind, than he chose to acknowledge. your work for near forty years, I deem it my On Saturday evening he pulled out his watch, duty to assist, in however triding a degree. observed that it was half past ten, and that he
" Lord Lyttleton's dream and deatli” (see had still an hour and an half longer to live, Admiral Wolseley's account.)- I was at and jocosely checking under the cbin one of Pit-place, Epsom,'when Lord Lyttleton died: the young ladies (his nieces) danced about Lord Fortescue, Lady Flood, and the two the room, and asked her if she did not think Miss Ampbletts, were also present. Lord he would get over it, and live beyond the Lyttleton had not been long returned from time predicted for his death. Soon afterIreland, and frequently had been seized with wards, however, he went to bed, complained suffocating fits. He was attacked several of an uneasiness in his stomach, and while times by them in the course of the preceding his servant was mixing a cup of rhubarb and month. While in his bouse in Hill-street, pepper-mint-water, a medicine which he freBerkley-square, he dreamt, three days before quently took, expired. It was remarkable, his death, “he saw a bird fluttering, and af. likewise, that his lordship endeavoured to ac. terwards a woman appeared in white appa. count for bis baving dreamed of the bird, by rel, and said, Prepare to die, you will not ex. saying that a few days before, being in his ist three days. He was alarmed, and called green-house, at Pit-place, with Mrs. D , his servant, who found him much agitated he had taken some pains to catch a robin, and in a profuse perspiration. This had a which had been shut up in it, and wbich be visible effect the next day on his spirits. On had set at liberty. the third day, while at breakfast with the His general complaint was a pain in his above-mentioned persons, he said, 'I have stomach, and bis usual medicine, a dose of jockied the ghost, as this is the third day' ruubarb in mint water. His real disorder The wbole party set off to Pit place. They was a polypus on the heart, described to be a had not long arrived when he was seized quantity of coagulated blood, contained in a with a usual fit. Soon recovered. Dined cyst or bag, on the bursting of which, imme. at five. To bed at eleven. His servant, diate death, the uatural consequence, en. about to give him rhubarb and mint water, sued. stirred it with a tooth-pick; which Lord Lyt. His Lordsbip died at the age of thirty-five. tieton perceiving, called him a slovenly There was certainly in the above case a dog,' and bid bim bring a spoon. On the ser- striking coincidence of the event with the vant's return, he was in a fit. The pillow be. prediction. But that such presentiments are ing high, his chin bore hard on his neck. In not infallible I imagine many of your rea. stead of relieving him, he ran for belp; and ders can attest. An anecdote I lately met on his return found him dead."
with in some biographical sketches, by the In Boswell's “ Life of Dr. Johnson,” (vol. late John Courtenay, Esq., of the princiiv. p. 313,) he said, “ It is the most extraor. pal men of his day, will go to show this. Mr: dinary occurrence in my days. I heard it Courtenay thus relates it : from Lord Westcote, his uncle-I am so glad My acquaintance with the late General to have evidence of the spiritual world, that Dalrymple, uncle to the present Earl of I am willing to believe it.”. Dr. Adams re- Stair, commenced about the year 1763. His plied, “You have evidence enough; good ınanner and address were pompous, and be ävidence, which needs no support." : did not express himself with facility and con.
ciseness, which induced many to depreciate As our correspondent seems to have taken his parts. His understanding was excellent, a fair view of the subject, we will only add clear and comprehensive, wholly employed that some similar cases, with judicious reon military subjects; his judgment and pre- marks on the operation of such sinister anticicision on every point of his profession were pations, may be found in Reid's Essays' unquestionable.
which are noticed in our review of that valuI lived in great intimacy with General able publication, in this number of our MisDalrymple above forty years, and always cellany. found him a generous and attached friend. His table was elegant, and his great delight was to entertain a convivial select party; for MESSRS. Editors, he hated to have a crowded dinner, which obliges the company to split into sets, and,
If the following anecdote of the power of substitutes a confused noise instead of gene!
" painting, in deceiving canine sagacity, ral agreeable conversation.
strike you as forcibly as it did me, I am The last time he sailed to America, le confident you will give it a place in your earnestly pressed me to go and dine with Miscellany. I confess I do not recollect him at Hounslow on his way to Porstmouth. to have heard of an analogous case. I observed that he was unusually grave and ln the year 1815, Doctor Buchanan, of dispirited; after a cheerful bottle he began the United States' Navy, stationed at Sacto ialk of presentiments, and at last owned kett's Harbour, having sent his son to that he had conceived an idea that lie should New-York, for the purpose of taking pas. die in America, and never see England again. sage for Europe, wrote to a friend in this I was surprised at this, as he was of a firm, city to select a portrait painter, and have the high, cheerful temper, and as little tinctured boy's likeness portrayed and sent to him. by superstition as any man I ever knew. To This was done, and some time after the dissipate this mental gloom, I related an an- friend received a letter expressing the faecdote which happened to myself not many ther's approbation of the portrait, and remonths before. I dreamed that Moses had lating a singular occurrence evincing the appeared and acquainted me that on such a truth of the resemblance day of the month and day of the week I "an
"My friend, Captain Heilman, has a fine should surely die. I told this dream the next day at dinner at Mr Blair's in Portland place;
pointer dog, named Pero. My dear James but it made so litile impression on me that I
being an excellent shot, and fond of sporthad forgotten both the dream and the Mo
ing, an intimacy was consequently formed gaic dates. Mrs. Sharp, a Scotch lady, who
between him and Mr. Peio-who would was present, privately made a memorandum
frequently call (as it were) for James to go of the fact; and as I accidentally called on a hunting: After James's absence he reher at her mother's, Lady Sharp, in Tichfield peated his visit about once a week, as if street, she reminded me that the fatal day seeking his former friend. The first visit he was come to verify Moses's denunciation. paid after the arrival of Dunlap's semblance The surprise and suddenness of recalling this of his sporting companion was truly affect. singular dream to my recollection, in def. ing. The moment he came into the door the ance of all my efforts, depressed my spirits picture struck his eye, he'stood motionso much, that I was obliged to slep into De less, one leg raised and his tail wagging vaynes's shop, in Spring Gardens, in my way for a few moments,-he then seemed to 1o the Ordnance Office, and take forty or have identified the truth of his own sight; Bfty drops of Lavender Drops to revive me; he rapidly approached it, whining and nor did I recover from the gloomy impres- wagging his tail-jumped upon the chair sion till the day was past. "I assured the ge- ove
the ge; over which it stood, and placing his neral on my honour that I had not invented
fore-paws on the frame, licked the hands the anecdote for the occasion. I appealed to Mr. and Mrs Blair and Mrs. Sharp for the
of his quondam young friend : and this truth and accuracy of my relation. The sin.
visit he repeats frequently, standing, ere gularity of this dream, its accidental impres
his departure, with his eyes fixed on the sion upon me, with the enlivening aid of an- picture and his tail wagging adieu. I pre, other bottle. had a most propitious intuence sume this fact has taken place a dozen on the general. He pursued his journey to times, and in the presence of a dozen Portsmouth in the evening, and was no long- people.' er disturbed by his presentiment. I have
Yours, &c. often reflected since, that if my dream had
R. T. been accidentally verified, it would have had more effect to prove the divine legislation of . We certainly do consider the circumMoses, than Warburton's Treatise.
stances narrated by our correspondent, Yours, &c. J, S.