« 前へ次へ »
covered with similar scales, and nearly 5. Extracts from the Journal of Mr:: black, the lips are white; a white half ring Charles Le Raye, relating to some new sets on the nape of the neck, and extends Quadrupeds of the Missouri Region, on each side over the eyes; a black line with Notes by C.S. R. connects the eyes with the nostrils; an ob- A concise and interesting Topogralong white band lays below the head, lon- phical Description of the state of Ohio, gitudinally; the nostrils are round, the Indiana Territory and Louisiana, &c. mouth is small and with a few small teeth; was published at Boston in 1812, in a the body is cylindrical, but the back is small 12mo. volume, by an anonymous slightly carinated towards its centre, and writer, styling himself a late Officer of of an ash colour; the black rings are nar- the U.S. Army. To this work, an account row underneath. The tail is only two of the Indian tribes East and West of the inches long, very compressed; the extre- Mississippi, is added; and likewise, the mity is broader, obtuse, tipped with white, Journal of Mr. Le Raye while a captive and has a slight lateral angle on each side, with the Sioux nation, on the waters of or a protuding longitudinal nerve; a simi- the Missouri. This Journal occupies lar appearance is perceptible on the upper from page 158 to 204, and is replete with and lower edges, which appear to be useful and valuable geographical inforthickened ; the whole tail is covered with mation and natural observations. large scales of a transverse and broad Mr. Charles Le Raye, who appears to shape.
have been a Canadian trader, and an inThis snake is found in the West Indies, telligent man, was going, in 1801, to trade in the sea, particularly on the shores of with the Osage nation, when, on the 238 the Island of Guadaloupe.
of October, he was made a prisoner and 6. A fabulous account of a great Water- plundered, by a party of Sioux or NadoSnake that, according to the Indian tradi- wessies, who were then at war with the tion, dwelt in ancient times in a lake near Osages. He remained their captive until Philadelphia, may be seen in Dr. Barton's the 26th April, 1815, and during that peMedical and Physical Journal, Vol. 2, p. riod visited many nations on both sides 168. As other Indian traditions, relating of the Missouri, such as the Ricaras, to the mammoth, the megalonx, &c. it Mandans, Minetarrees, and the Crow, the may be partly founded on truth. . Flat-head and Snake Indians. He was
7. The great Sea-Snake has been seen allowed to accompany a hunting party of again towards the middle of September, Minetarrees (or Menitures or Gros-venin the bay of Massachusetts, and three tres) to the plain of the Yellow Stone yellow collars observed on its neck, which river, and the upper plains of the Mishas led some to believe it might be ano- souri, near the Rocky Mountains. Those ther individual and species ; but this cir- excursions enabled him to observe macumstance might have been overlooked ny of the new and rare Quadrupeds of before: it is not stated whether it had those regions, and he appears to have streaks of a lighter hue on the body, as been the first observer, who has noticed the first was represented to have by some them with accuracy, and whose observawitnesses. It is therefore likely that the tions have been communicated to the two characters of “streaks of a lighter public : Since such observations of Caphue on the body, and three yellow collars tains Lewis and Clarke, as relate to those on the neck,” may be added to its de parts, were only made between 1804 and scription. . The collars are described as 1806, and not published until 1814. about 2 inches broad and i foot apart. Those circumstances will render Mr.
8. Dr. Mitchill informs me that Gene- Le Raye's observations particularly inral Hawkins has written a Memoir on the teresting. It is from intelligent travelSea-Serpents of Massachusetts, which he lers that naturalists derive their most has sent, with a drawing to Sir Joseph correct and accurate materials: I conBanks ; it is a paper of some length, and sider those furnished by Mr. Le Raye as much interest, as it relates facts and all highly yaluable, mostly new, and entitled the circumstances attending the appear to priority; wherefore they claim the ance and natural history of those huge attention of all those who shall feel any animals, taken upon the oaths of eye- share of interest in the study of the aniwitnesses. He attempts to prove, with mals of North America : and I have been much probability, that several individuals induced to collect them together and ilhave been seen, and two at least, if not lustrate them by appropriate notes or three species ; one with three collars, comments, hoping thereby to render another without any, and a smaller one, them of more easy access and utility.
1. Page 165. During our stay,
Indians killed a deer, which is called the ' 4. Page 169.--" A species of the badlong tailed deer. It was longer than the ger, called prarow, inhabits these plains, red deer, of a darker colour, and with a (those of the Sioux river.) Its head much white belly. Its horns are short, small, resembles the dog; legs short and very and somewhat flat; its tail nearly eigh- thick in proportion to its body, armed teen inches long. They are said to be with long, sharp claws, well adapted to plenty in those plains." The plains of digging. The size of the body somethe Kanzas river.
what exceeds the ground bog; hair of a Note. This concise description is suffi- dark brown colour, and tail visibly reciently accurate to enable us to ascertain sembling that of a ground hog. It burthat it belongs to a new species of deer, rows and hedges in the ground.” unknown east of the Mississippi, to which Note. By this notice, the animal I shall give the name of Corvus macro- might be a marmot or Arctomys instead urus, which means long tailed deer; it of a badger, but as it is called such by may be characterized as follows-horns Le Raye, I will consider it as a new spesomewhat depressed, shorter than the cies of badger, which may be named and head, body brownish above, white be- characterized as follows-Melesium pralow, tail elongated.
tense (meadow badger,) entirely of a 2. Page 168.--"An animal is found in dark brown, tail bushy, long claws. these plains (on the Sioux river, north of 5. Page 187.-"Here, (on the Yellow the Missouri) called the Prairie chien, or Stone river) we killed several Rocky meadow dog. It is smaller than the Mountain sheep. The male, or moungray fox, and formed much like the dog. tain ram, is considerably larger than the Its ears are pointed and stand erect, and female, and has much longer horns. The the whole head very much resembles the horns of the male which we killed, meadog. Its tail is long, slim, and of a dun sured three feet in length, and five inches colour. It digs holes and burrows in a diameter, at his head. This animal is light loamy soil, and in the same holes taller than a deer, and has a larger body. a small speckled snake takes shelter, It is covered with soft hair of a dun cowhich the Indians call the dog's guard. lour, gradually becoming of a lighter coThe Indians have many superstitious lour towards the belly, which is entirely notions respecting these dogs. The Ay- white. Its horns are shaped, in many 00-wars or Nez percés nation, have a tra- respects, like the horns of rams, or the dition that the human race sprang from common sheep, bending backwards, but this dog and the beaver. All other na- have many rough knots. Its tail resemcions hold them in great veneration.” bles that of the red deer. The legs and
Note. A very imperfect description of fect resemble the sheep, but the hoofs this new species of fox, which I shall somewhat longer. It is swift, and climbs name Canis chlorops, (green eyed fox, or the clefts of rocks with so much agility meadow fox) as it is probably the same and ease, that no other animal can follow species better described in Lewis and it, and by this means it escapes the Clarke's travels, vol. i. p. 207. Its defi- wolves. Its flesh is esteemed equal to nition, drawn from both accounts, may that of the deer.” A figure of this anihe-tail elongated, strait and dun colour, mal is annexed. ears long and pointed, eyes green, fur N ote. This species of sheep has been pale reddish brown.
well described by Geoffroy in the annals 3. Page 168,-“A kind of deer is fre- of the Museum of Paris, vol. 2, page 360, quently killed here, (on the Sioux river) and Desmarets has given to it the name called mnule deer. It is smaller and of a of Ovis cervina in the new Dictionary of darker colour than the red deer, having Natural History, vol. 24, page 5, 1614. large branched horns. The ears are very Yet some American Naturalists persist in large, the tail about five inches long with the wrong belief that it is the same anishort dark hair, and at the end a tuft mal'as the argali of Siberia, or Ovis amcomposed of long black hair.
mon. It has been well distinguished by „Vote. This short account is however being denominated an animal with the characteristic; it belongs to my Cervus body of a deer, and the head of a ram. hemionais (mule deer) a new species, akin It is called big-horn by some other trato the Cerrus melanurus, or black tail vellers. deer. Its description will be-horns ve. 6. Page 189._"We only hunted the Ty branched, longer than the head, ears buffalo, mountain sheep and Cabree. A longated, body of a reddish brown, tail party was sent to gain the summit of a
wn with a black tuft at the end. . ridge, so as to pass over the pther side,
· while the rest of us crawled up, sur- Felis concolor. This species I shall call
rounding them on every side, excepting Felis misar, and characterize thus:towards the river. As soon as the signal Tail nearly as long as the body, which is was given, by those who had ascended entirely sallow and unspotted. and gained the opposite side, we all rais- 8. Page 190.-“ One of the Indians.. ed a sudden yell, and sprang out of the killed(near the Yellow Stone river) a beau. grass, and the affrighted animals instantly tiful wild cat, about one half larger than fled from us, pitched over the precipice, the house cat. Its fur was long and exand were dashed against the stones at the ceedingly fine, covered with black and bottom, where we killed sixty-one. Some white spots on a bright yellow ground of them fell nearly two hundred feet; Its belly was pale yellow, and its tail but some of them which were near the about two inches long. It is the richest bottom made their escape. It took us looking skin I ever saw." several days to dress and cure the meat, Note. All the wild cats with short which is cut in thin slices, and dried in tails and only three grinders on each side the sun or by a slow fire.” With a figure of each jaw, form the genus Lynx: This of the Cabree or Missouri antelope. beautiful genus, of which only four have
Note. The Cabree is not described, been recorded, has been increased by me but is figured, and is said in another part to nearly fifteen, in a monography of it, of the work, page 118, to inhabit also the several of which belong to North Amecountry of the Osage. It appears that rica, and among them Leraye's species several animals of the antelope tribe, or shall be distinguished as follows: Lynx allied thereto, are found in the western aureus-Bright yellow with black and parts of North America, four of which I white spots, belly pale yellow unspotted, have already ascertained, including this. tail and ears without tufts. 1. The Mazama ovina, Raf. (or Ovis mon- 9. T'he other Quadrupeds seen by Letana of Ord. Ist number of the Journal raye, but not described, are the following, of the Academy of Natural Sciences of which are mostly met between the Sioux Philadelphia) which belongs to an exten- country and the Rocky mountains. sive new genus of animals of the western Lerave.
Notes. continent, where it is the substitute of the Beaver, Castor Tiber, L. antelope tribe of the eastern continent, Otter, 'Lutrix Americana, Raf, the M. pita. Raf. M.bira, Raf. M. pudu. Ermine, Mustela erminea, L. Raf. (Ovis pudu Gmelin,) &c. belonging Marten, - marta ? L. to it, and probably many more species. Spotted wild cat, Felis pardalis? I 2. The Vazama caprina, Raf. or Pudu of Buffalo, Taurus crinitus, Raf. North America, of - Blainville. 3. The Elk, Cervus coronatus ? Geofroy. Cervus bifurcatus, Raf. (or Antelope bifur- Deer, virginianus, L. cata, of Smith,) which is a real species Grizzly, or white bear, Ursus ferox, Raf of buck, since it has divided horns. 4. Black Bear,
- niger, Raf. The Strepriccros eriphos, or the Cabree White rabbit, Lepus variabilis, L. of Leraye, and ibex, or antelope of some Lynx, Lynx rufus ? Raf. other travellers, which by the figure ap- Mountain cat, montanus ? Raf. pears to possess the following characters; Fox, Canis virginianus ? L. horns compressed, double the length of the head, tail long and bushy.-My genus Strepriceros includes the species of goats
BOTANY. and antelopes with spiral horns.
6. Neogenytum Siculum, or Descriptions 7. Page 189,-“We killed a wild cat of four new genera of Dicotyle Sicilian (near the Yellow Stone river) which re Plants. sembled the domestic cat, and was about They are extracted from my Fragthe same size. It was of a sallow colour, ments of a Flora Sicula which I and had a tail nearly of the length of the wrote from memory in January, 1816, body. This little animal is very fierce, about two months after my shripwreck. and often kills Cabree and sheep by I believe all the characters stated are corjumping on their neck, and eating away rect; the plants belonging to those genethe sinews and arteries until they fall, ra having all been observed in the spring and then sucks the blood.”
of 1815, were freshly impressed on my Note. This short notice refers proba- memory. I therefore consider that bly to a new species of cat, very similar should, hereafter, any slight inaccuracies to the cat seen by captain Lewis, but not be detected in my descriptions, they will killed, (see Travels, page 266,) which I not be material, nor invalidate the escall Felis fossor, and likewise to the tablishment, characters and classificaYol. I. NO, VI
tion of those genera. They are all abundance on the sea-shore, on the sandy Dicotyles.
beach of Mondello, between Monte Gallo · I. Genus. APOCETON. Calyx five and Monte Petlegrino, spreading on a flat leaved, sepals unequal, carinated with surface of three to eight inches diameter ; hooded tops and scarious edges. Corolla the whole plant was of a remarkable redfive-petalled, petals hypogyne, persistent, dish colour, and had the habit of a polyequal, flat and entire. Five stamens hy- carpon: the petals were very small and pogyne, alternate with the petals, and flesh-coloured. Mr. Bivona, a botanist equal, filaments filiform, anthers rounded. of Palermo, to whom I communicated Ovarium eentral, nearly trigone, one style, the plant, thought it might be the Illectone stigma capitated and trilobated cap- brum alsinefolium of Scopoli, vide Persul, one-celled, trivalve, three or six cen- soon Sin. pl. 1. p. 261; but not having tral seeds.-Small annual herbs with been able to consult Scopoli's description knobby and cylindrical diohotomous and figure, I am at a loss to decide ; I am, stems, leaves opposite, smooth, entire, however, perfectly conscious it belongs to with short petiols, and scarious stipules, the genus Adoceton, rather than the genus flower terminal, congested, nearly corym Illecebrum. . hose, bracteolated.
II. Genus. PHEDIMUS. Calyx fiveObservations. Adoceton was one of parted, sepalo unequal, longer than the the ancient Greek names for some species petals; five equal petals, 10 stamens, five of the genus Nlecebrum, to which this ge- ovaries, the remainder as in Sedum-hanus is nearly related in habit, and even in bit of Sedum, leaves and flowers sessile, diagnosis ; but it differs widely by having annual plants. a corolla, and a capsul neither five-valved. Obs. This genus was already enumenor one-seeded. In my natural classifica- rated by me, in my Analysis of Nature, tion of vegetables, it belongs to the first p. 174, as belonging to the first natural class Eltrogynia, seventh order Isandria, class Éttroginia, second order Perimesia, and family Dionidia, together with the family Sarcophillia, and sub-family Diplogenera Ortegia, Hagea, Dionea, &c. the gynia. It differs from the genus Sedum former of which differs by having only by the striking and peculiar irregularity three stamens, and no corolla; the second of the calyx, which is not found in any by having emarginated petals, an equal other genus of this family, besides the less calyx, entire stigma, and a many-seeded important character of having petals shortcapsul, and the last by being decandrous, er than the calyx. The name of Phedi&c.
mus is mythological. 1. Sp. Adoceton Saratile. Upright stems, 1. Sp. Phedimus uniflorus. (Sedum unileaves oval, acute, glaucous and thin, pe- florum, Raf. car. N. G. Sp. An. Pl. Sic. tals oblong, obtuse, longer than the calyx, p. 73. Sp. 184, tab. 18, fig. 2.) Stem capsul six-seeded. Obs. I found this erect, simple, uniflore, leaves opposite, species, as well as the following, on a obovate, obtuse, entire ; flower sessile, herborisation, a few miles north of Paler- sepals obovate, obtuse; petals lanceolated, mo, in Sicily, towards the end of April, acute ; capsuls erect.--Obs. I described 1815, in company with my friend, Will. and figured, ever since 1810, this plant, Swainson, Esq. an English botanist and as a new Sedum, overlooking then the irzoologist. He collected specimens as regularity of the calyx, as a generic chawell as I, and I sent some of mine (both racter; but having since found another of this species and the next,) to Dr. Ro- species, with the same peculiarity, I coniner, of Zurich; therefore I have less to ceived they ought to form a distinct regret the loss of the remainder. It grew group. among stones and rocks on the west side 2. Sp. Phcdimus stellatus (Sedum stelof Monte Gallo ; it had the appearance of latum of Desfont. fora atlant, and some an Arenaria ; the flowers only expand in other authors.) Stem diffuse, branched, the heat of the day: the stems rose from multiflore ; leaves scattered, obovate; spaone to three inches-the petals were thulated, acute, and serrated; flowers in white. I believe it is figured in the Pan- spikes, one-sided; bracteas lanceolate, phyton Siculum of Cupani, as well as the acute--sepals cylindrical, acute; petals following species, under the name of Alsine. lanceolated, acute; capsuls spreading,
2. Sp. Adoceton maritimum. Pro- stellated.-Obs. This plant grows near cumbent stems; leaves ovate, obtuse, Palermo, and in many other parts of Sithick and rubescent, petals lanceolated, cily, in rocky and stony soils : it blossoms acute, shorter than the calyx, capsul three- in June and July; the petals are reddish
seeded.--Obs. This was found the same white. It appears that many species have - day with the foregoing; it grew in great been confused under the name of Sedum
zonje U stellatus, by Linnæus, and other authors, are found with 1, 2, 3, 4, or more free staingoni several being figured in Bauhin, &c. The mens, others with connected stamens, ?s da Sicilian species is probably identical with some with a pedunculated or sessile ovatalkabel that of Barbary, and of Italy. Whether rium, others with a style or without any, it of all the Sedum stellatus of the remainder of In this situation it is highly proper and Te smal Europe (there are at least two species ; necessary for the better knowledge of the 1a bow one with white flowers, and another with species and the improvement of the scimmuna yellow flowers,) is a real Sedum or a Phe- ence, to encircle those species as forming ve the li dimus, must be inquired into by Euro- an extensive natural group or sub-family 1, videl pean botanists; and if it is a Phedimus, (Salicia) in the family Amentacea, which not w its comparative and distinct characters belongs to the fourth natural order Arandeschi must be ascertained. .
thia, in the first class Eitrogynia. I therecide; III. Genus. PTERNIX. Perianthe oval, fore had already (since 1814,) divided the it belang imbricated; lepids fleshy at the base, ma- genus Salix into about tengenera, of which n the cronate, and spinescent. Phoranthus the Vetrir was one'; that name being one
hairy. Calyx downy ; down simple cili- of the ancient Latin names for some speCalyi ated. Corolla elongated; limbus tubulas cies of it. I had left the name of Salix to r tha bilabiated; upper or outside lip four-cleft; the majority of the species, having two amers lower or inside lip entire, linear, and free stamens, a sessile ovarium, and a edus- acute; all the five divisions linear and style. My other genera were, ers se equal. Five stamens monadelphous and Disynia. With 2 connected or mona
synantherous; stigma filiform, entire, ar- delphous stamens.
nus, Carduus, leaves alternate, amplexi- culated ovarium. sit ame caule, few terminal, and large flowers. Oisodir, 2 free stamens, a sessile ovari.
Obs. The name of Pternix was one um, no style. of the Greek names of the Cynara or Ar Diplopia. 3 free stamens, a peduncu
tichoke, to which genus this is nearly re- lated ovarium, a style. ei ole lated, belonging to the same family : Melanir. 4 or many free stamens, a.
Carduacea, first sub-order; Cynared, of pedunculated ovarium.
of Vetrir, by its entire, oblong leaves, &c. 'IV. Genus. VETRIX. Diecious, amen. It bears the vulgar name of Udda with taceous, flowers lepigonal ; male flowers some other species of Sicilian willows. with one stamen ; female flowers with Description of seven new Species of Sicisessile ovarium, one style, two stigmas;
lian Plants. remainder as in Salix, L.- habit of Salix, These plants are also extracted from leaves sometimes opposite.
my fragments of a Flora Sicula, or SiciObs. The genus Salix of Linnæus is now lian flora: they are all dicotyle, except increased to nearly 200 species, and ma- . the Orchis hyemalis. ny more have as yet been unnoticed or 1. Ruta fimbriata. Stem shrubby, - Undiscovered in North America, Siberia, leaves decomposed, thick, folioles une
Tartary, China, &c. among wltich some grial, oblong, obtuse cremulated, glandu: