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lar, the odd one longer, patals lacerated- sallow white, not large, and rather thinly fimbriated, capsuls warty.--Obs. It has scattered on the spike. Annual. great affinity with the Ruta chalepensis, 5. Sp. Xylosteon siculum. Stem upL. but it differs by the shape and crenu- right, and shrubby; leaves ovate or near lation of the folioles, besides the charac- ly cordate, entire, hairy nearly acute peters of the petals and capsuls. It grows tiolate, the upper ones nearly sessile; on the mountains of Sicily among rocks; pedicels horizontal, very short verticillait rises three or four feet, blossoms in ted naked spiked, berries distinct, round May and June, and has a powerful fetid and red.- Obs. It belongs to the genus rutaceous smell, which however is re- Xylosteon of Tournefort and Jussieu (Lolished by the women of Sicily, who cul- nicera L); it differs from the X. canescens tivate the plant in gardens and pots, un- by not having a twining stem,&c. from X. der the name of Arruta. I found it wild dumetorum by being destitute of bracteas in the neighbourhood of Palermo on Mt. and the pedicels not being vertical, &c. Pellegrino, Mt. Gallo, and Mt. Moarda; It is a small shrub, rising 3 or 4 feet, all the flowers are octandrous and te- which grows in many parts of the trapetal, except the first unfolded, which interior of Sicily, in mountainous fields is decandrous, and pentapetal.
near Traina, Nicosia, Gangi, &e. It blos2. Sp. Euphorbia montana. Stem sim- soms in May. ple, leaves scattered, sessile, oboval, acute, 6. Sp. Orchis hyemalis. Roots palserrulated; involucrum consimilar, om- mated, leaves oblong; Spike loose 4-8 bel five branched dichotomous, involucols flowered, bracteas longer than the ovaovate-rounded acute: perianth four-cleft, rium, spur short obtuse, labellum trilobed, sepals round entire, capsul warty.-Obs. the middle lobe larger rounded entire, It is a small annual plant, two or three Obs. The 0. cruenta bears much similariinches high. I found it on the summits ty to this species, but it differs from it by of the highest mountains, near Palermo, its labellum not trilobed, but cordated and Mt. Moerda, Mt. Fico and Mt. Mezzagni; crenulated, &c. This species grows near it blossoms in March and April. It dif- Palermo at the foot of M. Griffone and fers from the E. peplus by the shape of M. Grazia ; it blossoms in February, the involucels, perianth, &c. the sepals of the flowers are large and purplish; this colour perianth being lunular in E. peplus, they extends sometimes to the bracteas and are yellow in both species.
stem: it is figured in the Panphyton Sa3. Sp. Orobanche fragrans. Stem culum of Cupani. thick, leaves scaly oval acuminate; spike 7. Sp. Herniaria nebrodensis. Enthick, bracteas lanceolate acute longer tirely smooth, undershrubby; stems prothan the calyx, corolla swelled, four-cleft, cumbent branched diffuse, leaves oppodivisions nearly equal, ondulated obtuse, site petiolate elliptie nearly obtuse, flowstigma jutting.--Obs. The flowers are of ers in alterne glomerules, sessile few-flowthe size of O. caryophyllea, to which this ered. Obs. This species grows on the species is nearly related; but instead of summit of the Mt. Madonie, (formerly being white, they are of a pale and livid Nebrodes), it blossoms in July, and forms flesh-colour, their smell is also different, a small shrubby plant of only a few inchbeing peculiarly sweet and fragrant, but es extent, but forming by their reunion a not like pink. It grows on rocky grounds, thick turf. It appears to be intermediary on the mountains near Palermo, on M. between the H. glabra and the H. alpina. Pellegrino and M. Caputo, generally at- 8. Florula of the White Mountain of tached to the roots of the Psoralea bitu
New Hampshire. minosa, while the Ocaryophyllea grows This Florula is extracted, from a paper exclusively (in Sicily at least) on those of published in the New-England Journal the Faba vulgaris. It blossoms in April, of Medicine and Surgery for. October, and rises a foot at utmost Annual. 1816, by Dr. Jacob Bigelow, of Boston,
4. Sp. Orobanche obtusata. Stem under the title of Some account of the simple elongated, leaves ovate obtuse White Mountains of New Hampshire, and concave pubescent, spike slender, hrac- including the journal of an excursion on teas lanceolate obtuse, corolla tubular those mountains by Dr. Bigelow, in July, four-cleft, divisions nearly equal, obtuse 1816. The author has annexed to it a entire, stamens and style enclosed.-Obs. catalogue of the plants he found in the It is a very distinct species, growing over alpine or upper region of the mountains, a foot high, near Palermo, on the M. Ca- and of those found there by Mr. Boot pulo and M. Griffone: it blossoms in May, in another excursion in August, 1816; he the flowers are inodorous, of a dirty or has a' ticed a few of the most strika"
ing species found in the lower regions. Aira Melicoides, Mx.Ai ..
- Carex curta Wild. A.
Although these mountains had often Menziesia---indet. . been visited before by botanists, and par
cerulea Swartz. J. ticularly by Mr. Peck and Cutler, no (Erica Wild.) catalogue of any consequence had been Oxycoccus vulgaris, Pers. J. A. . . published of the plants growing on Pinus nigra var nana, them, until Dr. Bigelow's first attempt, in balsamea v. nana, which he has noticed nearly 70 species, Poa-----indet... among which 6 are new, and 3 undeter- Polygonum viviparum Wild. A. mined; but several other species omitted Potentilla tridentala, Ait. J. in his catalogue, are mentioned in the Epilobium alpinum, A. Flora of Michaux and Pursh, and by Empetrum nigrum, A. diligent researches and repeated visits Geum peckï, Pursh, J. A. many more will probably be detected. Houstonia cerulea, J. It will be at any time very acceptable to Juncus spicatus, A. see some botanist, living in their neigh- a melanocarpus, Mx. J. bourhood, attempt and execute a com- Kalmia glauca, J. plete investigation of their Flora, which Ledum latifolium, Ait. J. is probably the nucleus of Botany of the Lichen velleus, New England states.
- rangiferinus, I. Plants of the Woody Region.
pyxidatus, Betula lenta
- cornulus, &c. &c. Gualtheria hispidula
Rubus saxatilis, A. Rhodora canadensis
Salix repens Wild. J. Oxalis acetosella
.... indet. Viburnum lantanoides
Spirea alba Erh. A. Sorbus americana
Solidago multiradiata, Ait. A. Cornus canadensis
Sorbus americana v. nana, Acer saccharinum
Vaccinium tenellum, A. rubrum
Veratrum rivide ? J. montanum
IV. New Genera and Species. - striatum
N. B. Dr. Bigelow has shortly noticed Pinus balsamea
6 new species, all found on the Alpine re- canadensis
gion, but some of which must even be - alba
considered as new genera, as it will ap- nigra
pear by their description. strobus
1. Aplostemon bracteatum. Raf. Chaff Dracena borealis, Ait.
cylindrical one spiked ; spike ovate acute, &c. &c. &c.
surrounded by bracteas. A. II. Plants of the Region of dwarf Scirpus bracteatus, Bigelow. Culmo Evergreens.
tereti monostachys, spica ovata acuta Pinus balsamea v. nana
bracteis involucrata; flosculis monandris. - nigra v. nana
Obs. This plant belongs to my genus. Cornus canadensis
Aplostemon, containing all the species of Houstonia cerulea.
Scirpus with one stamen ; it differs maJII. Plants of the Alpine Region. .terially from the Aplostemon triqueter, N. B.-J. means found in blossom in July by Dr. Bigelow, and A. in August by * This Plant grew the last on the highMr. Boot.
(Scirpus monander, Rottbo) which has a Holcus fragrans of Mx. and Pursh, three sided chaff and a long triphyllous (Dimesia fragrans,) constitutes a new involucrum. Raf.
genus, totally different from Holcus, and 2. Bigelowia montana. Raf. Stem an- belonging to the natural family TRIMEIA gular; leaves oblong, acute enerved; in the natural order ACHIROPIA of the peduncles solitary elongated. A.
graftes. Its character will be, exterior Arenaria seu Stelaria (anonmya) Bige- glume bivalve triflore, interior glume low, Caulo anguloso, foliis oblongis acutis bivalve, two lateral male flowers with s eneroibus, pedunculis solitaris elongatis, stamens, the middle one hermaphoidite floribus apetalis.
and with 2 stamens. Raf. Obs. Dr. Bigelow is doubtful of the 4. Melica triflora. Bigelow. Hairy, genus of this plant, and has not even panicle compact exterior glumès trifiore, named it. It cannot be an Arenaria, interior glumes awned, A- Villosa paniwhose character is to have entire petals, cula coarctata, glumes trifforis, corpusnor a Stellaria, which must have bifid culo accessorio, fosiculis aristatis. petals ; it must therefore constitute a pe. Obs. This species must form with the culiar genus in the natural family Alsinia, Melica aspera, of Desfontaines, a subintermediate between the genera Phar- genus distinguished by its triflore glumes, naceum, Ballarion and Arenaria, whose and which I shall name Trianthusa. Raf. characters will be: Cal. 5 phyllous, no 5. Scirpus obtusus. Bigelow. Chaff. petals, 10 stamens, 3 styles, capsule uni- cylindrical and spiked, naked ; spike lanlocular, and which is dedicated to Dr. ceolate, scales thick and obtuse at the Bigelow, author of the Florula Bostonien- top, J . Culmo tereti, mido, monossis, &c. Raf.
tachyo, spica lanceolata, squamis apice 3. Dimesia monticola. Raf. Exterior carnosis obtusis. Big. valve of the interior glume awned on the 6. Vaccinium gualtheroides. Bigelow. back in the lateral male flowers. J. Procumbent, leaves obovate entire, flow
Holcus monticola. Bigelow. Glumis ers nearly solitary, berries oblong, style trifloris, hemaphrodito intermedio dian- persistent. J- Prostratum, foliis obodro, maculis lateralibus triandris, valvu- vatis integris, floribus subsolitaris, baccis la exteriore dorso aristato.
oblongis stylo coronatis. Big. Obs. This plant, together with the
C. S. R.
Art. 6. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS.
OBSERVATIONS ON THE USE OF GYPSUM changed and becomes glauber salt or sul
AS A MANURE ON THE SEA COAS:1. phate of soda, by assuming the sulphuric THE general introduction of gypsum acid of the gypsum. Such have been the 1 as a manure, throughout the well facts, and this the manner of accounting cultivated districts of the U. States, has for them. hean of the utmost importance to the The following method of applying gypAgriculture of the country. Its use, how- sum on the sea coast, makes up for the ever, has been limited to the interior, or unsuccessful experiments heretofore perat least now within 40 or 50 miles from formed with it as a manure; and if future the sea board. Its failure to produce fer- practice should corroborate the present tility, within a saline atmosphere, has been statement, it would leave a doubt of the accounted for upon the principles of che- correctness of the theory which accounts mical aslinity. (Trans. Agricultural Socie- for the preceding results in failing to proty, N. Y. Vol. I.) Plaister of paris, called duce fertilizing effects. As the air, rain, also gypsum, is sulphuric acid in combi- and dew have the same saline impregnanation with lime, forming the chemical tion within a sea atmosphere, the same union, making sulphate of lime. The sea chemical changes should take place in salt contained in the atmosphere is muri- whatever way the plaister is applied to atic acid in union with soda, forming mu- produce fertility. The following notice riate of soda. When these two ingredi- was taken from a New-York daily paper ents come together in solution, the su- of August, 1812. (The Public Advertiser.) phate of lime or gypsum is converted in- “A gentleman of respectability and into muriate of lime by the muriatic acid of telligence, of Long-Island, lately. commuthe sea salt. As the action which takes nicated that the following process is rapidplace in this case must be that of a double ly prevailing in his neighbourhood, and in elective attraction, the sea-salt is also many parts of New Jersey. When the
Indian corn (maize) has fairly silked, and several days in and about Cape Ann bar
the farina on the blossom is matured, dust bour, has brought to my recollection one ha small portion of ground plaister on the of this species.
tufts of silk. There ought to be no wind, “On a passage I made from Quebec, and perhaps the advantage would be in 1787, in a schooner of about eighty greater if applied while the dew was on tons burden, while standing in for the in the morning. The gentleman stated Gut of Canso, the island of Cape Breton that whenever this had been practised the being about four leagues distant, one of cobs were crowded with grains to the the crew cried out, A shoal a-head! very extremity. He likewise observed The helm was instantly put down to tack that advantage had also been obtained by ship, when to our great astonishment, this dusting the blossoms of potatoes. Per- shoal, as we thought it to be, moved off, haps the same process would be advanta- and as it passed athwart the bow of our geous on the blows of melons, cucumbers, vessel, we discovered it to be an enorsquashes, pumpions, and even peas and mous Sea-serpent, four times as long as beans."
the schooner. Its back was of a dark · I am apprehensive of some mistake in green colour, forming above the water a this matter, as nothing has come to my number of little hillocks, resembling a knowledge on the subject since cutting chain of hogsheads. I was then but a out the above paragraph from the news- lad, and being much terrified, ran below paper, in 1812; but if the fact should be until the monster was at some distance so, it is of some moment to agriculture from us. I did not see his head distinctand the sciences to diffuse the informa- ly; but those who did, after I had hid tion; and it is with a view of soliciting a myself in the cabin, said it was as large knowledge of what has been done by as the small boat of the schooner. I rethose who have made experiments, that collect the tremendous ripple and noise
I have offered these observations on the he made in the water, as he went off from • subject. If gypsum fails of fertilizing the us, which I compared at the time to that
earth on the sea coast, from chemical occasioned by the launching of a ship. changes with sea salt, the same effect “My venerable friend, Mr. of must take place when it is sprinkled on your city, was a passenger with me at the the blossom or mingled with the dew; time. He will corroborate this statement, for it is well known that dew contains and probably furnish you with a better much earthy and saline particles in solu- description of this monster; for I well tion, and is generally more impure than recollect his taking his stand at the bow rain; and from experiments which I have of the vessel, with great courage, to exmade on rain-water, it appears impregna- amine it, while the other passengers were ted with salt, and other impurities, at all intent only on their own safety. seasons of the year, in and about New- " At Halifax, and on my return to BosYork. Hence, if gypsum will fertilize, as ton, when frequently describing this monabove applied in a sea atmosphere, che- ster, I was laughed at so immoderately mists should know it—and this informa- that I found it necessary to remain silent tion is to be derived from practical far- on the subject, to escape the imputation SAMUEL AKERLY of using a traveller's privilege of dealing
in the marvellous." Further evidence to prove the existence of On the evening of September 9, capt.
the Kraken, in the ocean, and tending to James Riley was at my house, and said show that this huge creature is a species that he knew capt. Folger, of Nantucket, of Sepia or Squid. Being three several who was occupied on a whaling voyage communications of facts, made to Dr. in the southern Atlantic Ocean, about 20 Mitchill, by William Lee, Esg. Capt. years ago. On the cruise, he saw an aniRiley, and Cant. Neville, in September, mal of uncommon size, floating on the 1817, communicated by Dr. Mitchill. sea, off the coast of Brazil. Capt. F. then (See our Magazine for JCNE, p. 124, commanded a very large French built for Capt. Fanning's Narrative.)
ship, and the floating carcass was four or Copy of a letter addressed to Dr. Mitch- five times as long as his vessel. It attract
ill, by our late Consul at Bordeaux, now ed the spermaceti whales, who came to in the treasury department, Wm. Lee, feed upon it, and had eaten away great
portions of the flesh. He visited the huge “ Washington, Sept. 2, 1817. body of the creature, and satisfied him“My dear sir,
'self that it was an enormous craken. He The description given in our news- hauled all his boats upon it, and his men papers of a Sea-serpent, lately seen for ascended it and lived upon it as if it had
been a rock or island. They remained the whole voyage. She was accordingly on it and near it for the purpose of killing kept to windward for the purpose of the whales that came to devour it. In this, avoiding it; but the smell was, notwiththey were so successful, that by continu- standing, extremely nauseous and dising there they took whales enough to load gusting. their vessel and complete her cargo. The O n conversing with mariners in the back of the kraken was high and dry White Sea, such occurrences were spoken enough for them to inhabit temporarily, of by them, as too common to excite and to look out for their game. And when much attention or any doubt. from this point of observation they dis- Afterwards, while at Drontheim in covered a whale coming to make a meal, Norway, capt. N. discoursed with practithey launched their boats from the top of cal men concerning things of this kind. the dead kraken, and made an easy prey The prevailing idea was, that such driftof him. The substance of the monster's ing lumps were by no means uncommon; body was skinny, membranous and gela- that they were bodies or fragments of tinous, and destitute of the fat and blub- huge squids; that these were sometimes ber for which the whale is remarkable. borne away by the Maelstrom current,
Captain Neville, being on a voyage and ingulphed and dashed to pieces by from London to Archangel, in the year its whirlpools; and thus these broken 1803, saw floating on the ocean in about trunks and limbs sometimes cast on shore the latitude of 68, a mass of solid matter and sometimes tossed about on the sea. of a dirty whitish colour, which when he It is supposed that squids and whales descried it, and for some time after, was inhabit the same tracts of ocean; because believed to be an island of ice. On ap- the former furnishes food for the latter, proaching it, however, he ascertained it to at least for the cachalats, orco, and other be an animal substance of an irregular toothed and voracious species. figure, as if lacerated, decayed, and eaten away.
The remnant of the carcass was never- INPORTANT SURGICAL INTELLIGENCE. theless full as large as the brig in which Extract of a letter from James Kent Platt, he sailed; whose capacity was one hun. M. D. a young physician, from Newdred and eighty-nine tons, and length York, who is now in attendance at the seventy feet.
London Hospitals, to Dr. David HoThis enormous body was the food of sack. animals both of the air and of the water.
London, June 17, 1817. For, as he sailed within a few rods of it, MY DEAR SIR, he saw great numbers of gulls and other We have lately had two or three sea-fowls, sitting on it and flying over it; new and important operations. About a those which were full, retiring, and the week since, Mr. Cooper tied the aorta hungry winging their way to it for a re- just above its bifurcation, in a man who past. He also beheld several cetaceous was labouring under an immense aneuris. creatures swimming round it; some of mal tumour of the left external iliac artethem were whales of a prodigious magni- ry. The meurism was too high and tude, exceeding the vessel in length. large to admit either of the external or Others were smaller and seemed to be- common iliac being secured, and as the long to the grampus and porpoise tribe. sac had sloughed and hæmorrhage had He considered them all as regaling them- begun, it was thought justifiable to pass selves with its flesh.
a ligature around the aorta itself. It was Near one extremity of this carcass, he a dangerous, but it was a dernier resort. distinguished an appendage or arm hang- An incision was made three or four inches ing down into the water, which from his long, through the parietes of the abdoacquaintance with the sepia, he concluded men, on the left side of the umbilicus; to be that of a squid ; being probably the the intestines were pushed aside, and the only one left after the rest had putrified vessel detached from the surrounding or been devoured.
parts and membranes by the fore finger Such was likewise the opinion of å na- of the right hand, which was kept under vigator of much experience and long ob- the artery till the common aneurismal servation in the scenery of the north At- needle was introduced, when one ligature lantic then on board ; who remarked that was applied. The ends of the ligature the corrupting lump was intolerably fetid were brought out at the external wound, and offensive to man; and would, if the the integuments were placed in contact, brig was suffered to run against it, impreg- and then secured by a quill suture. nate her with foulness and stench for Previously to the operation an attempt