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PEAT Bogs. 45

always before the door, for the accommodation of

the most horribly filthy animals—said animals, in
the mean time, equally and worthily occupying
the domicil with the human beings who inhabit it.
And to complete the picture of general misery,
women beggars surrounded us every time we
stopped, with children in their arms, imploring
charity. From the numbers of children, indeed,
it would seem as if this were the most prolific
country under heaven. But it may be, because
none of them go to school, and all live out of
doors. -
The latter part of the ride, through Newry,
Hillsborough, and Lisburn, has been through a
beautiful and rich country, and has been, indeed,
such a redeeming scene for my general impressions
of Ireland, that I am most glad to have passed
through it. - - ..
We have passed a number of large peat bogs.
They are evidently the beds of decayed forests;
for trees are constantly dug out of them. Do I
remember to have read, or have I heard, that some
king of England, perhaps Richard II., finding that
the forests of Ireland rendered it difficult of con-
quest, gave to his English subjects, who would
come over and settle in Ireland, as much land as
they would fell the wood upon? If so, an act of
destruction and tyranny laid up a treasure for the
future wants of Ireland, and one almost indispens.
able to the existence of the people—and a treasure
too, not only of materials for warming their houses,
but for building them. For the trunks of those
ancient forests are found in these peat bogs in such
a state of preservation that they are actually valu-
able timber—particularly the spruce; the oak too,
though not so sound.
CushBNDALL, JULY 10. The ride to-day, in the
county of Antrim, of which indeed Belfast is the
shire town, and through the villages of Carrickfer.
gus, Larne, and Glenarm, has been delightful. The
vicinity of Belfast, on this side, is rich in scenery;
and the little village of Antrim, directly under your
eye and almost under your feet, as you descend
the lofty hill which you pass over to reach it, with
its imbowering groves of trees, and the fine seat
and grounds of some lord of the manor here, is a
perfect charm. The road has been mostly by the
seashore, winding around bold bluffs, and promon-
tories, and rocky crags, and has presented many
delightful views of intermingled ocean and hill or
mountain scenery. Latterly, the rocky barriers of
the ocean, by which I have been passing, have
begun to assume something of that appearance of

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| regular formation which I expect to see persected

!. o at the Giants' Causeway. * This northeastern part of Ireland was originally to settled by the Scotch, and it bears a very different go aspect from the southern portions of the route on

to which I have been passing. There is everywhere go on appearance of thrift and comfort; and beggars so have almost disappeared. The countenances of ... the people show a different origin—are more agreeable, more intelligent, more alive with expression o -nay, and shorter and broader. I saw two or : o three schoolhouses, also, which I have scarcely of met with before, on my way. of July 11. BushMILLs, two miles from the Giants’ * Causeway. The road is through Ballycastle to this place. * Nothing, it would seem, can resist abject, deep, of desperate poverty, for we have passed through two o, or three small villages to-day, of Scottish origin, which are, if possible, more insufferably dirty than any I have seen before, albeit Irish. s Carrick-a-Rede is about six miles on the road to the Causeway—a place of tremendous precipices by the sea; with a hanging bridge suspended on ropes over a chasm eighty feet deep, leading to a Small island, where is a salmon fishery. The ropes looked very small, and very old. I inquired of

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the guide how old they were, and he said, many
years. I advised him in conscience to inform all
travellers of that fact, and promised him his task
of conducting them over would be excused, as it
was of performing that service for me; for I have
no chances of life to throw away, when no good
is to result either to myself or others. The colour
of the sea-green water here, with dark masses of
sea weed interspersed, is more beautiful than I ever
saw elsewhere.
GIANTs’ CAUSEwAY. No one should come here,
without taking a boat, if the state of the water will
permit, and going to see the great cavern and the
Pleaskin; which are the sublime things about this
wonderful work of nature. The cavern is six
hundred feet long, and the arch over it, ninety
feet high. The Pleaskin is the loftiest and most
regular part of the gigantic ledge of basaltic
rocks. One bold head or promontory advances
forward perhaps a hundred and fifty feet in
front of the general line of the precipice, and on
each side the columns retreat in the form of an
amphitheatre. There are several others indeed,
but this is the most striking. There is one that
sustains a rock, which is called “the Crown,” but
the Pleaskin cliff appears as if it were the throne
of the place, supported by ranges of peers on each

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GIANTs’ CAUSEWAY. 49

side; and thus it has stood out and met, unshaken,
the storms of thousands of years.
After examining these spots, I went to the lower
ranges of columns which rise just above the water,
and landed from the boat to inspect them. They
are wonderfully curious; of all sizes and shapes—
from six to eighteen inches in diameter, from the
triangle to the nine sided figure—though the hex-
agonal form is the most common—and so exactly
fitted together, that in some places the water
stands on them without finding any passage down.
Each column consists of many parts, as is usually
seen in columns of human construction. The
length of the parts varies, from six to twelve and
eighteen inches, and one has been found about five
feet long. To give strength to the whole mass,
the articulations or joints of the columns are never
in the same line, but vary—some of the blocks rise
a little above others, presenting not a level but an
uneven surface on the top. And furthermore, the
surfaces at the ends of the separate blocks are
never plain, but convex and concave, the two kinds
of surfaces always and exactly fitting into each
other.
The height of the precipices upon the shore here
is from three hundred and fifty to four hundred feet.

The upper half only is columnar. The steamboatin vol. 1–E

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