“She was pinched and pulled, she said;
And he, by friar's lantern led,
Tells how the drudging goblin sweat

To earn his cream-bowl duly set." Whom also Keightley corrects: “The Friar is the celebrated Friar Rush, who haunted houses, not fields, and was never the same with Jack-o'. the Lanthorn. It was probably the name Rush, which suggested rushlight, that caused Milton's error. He is the Bruder Rausch of Germany, the Broder Runs of Denmark. His name is either, as Grimm thinks, noise, or, as Wolf deems, drunkenness, our old word rouse." Cf. lenny. son, " Vision of Sin":

“ Have a rouse before the morn." iv. 2. Humbie and Saltoun are parishes in Haddingtonshire,

24. William Caxton set up the first printing-press in England. He lived 1412–1491. Wynkyn de Worde was his successor, Cf, Pope's “ Dunciad," bk. i. 149:

“There Caxton slept with Wynkyn at his side;

One clasped in wood, and one in strong cow-hide,"
V. 6, Point of war) = note of war. Cf. Macaulay's" Įvry," 59,

vi. 8. Places in Scotland, from which the national heralds took their names :

Bute, an island on the west, at the mouth of the Frith of Clyde.
Islay, another island, a little farther west.
Marchmont: the castle of Marchmont, now called Roxburgh Castle.
Rothsay, an ancient royal residence in the Isle of Bute,
9. Tabards.] Cf. I. xi. 1,

11. King-at-arms.] These officers presided over the colleges of the heralds, and determined various matters relating to heraldry,

vii. 12. Cap of maintenance.) An heraldic term for a cap of dignity worn by distinguished persons. It originally belonged to the rank of a duke. The fur cap of the Lord Mayor of London, worn by him on state occasions, is so called. The Mayor of Exeter also has one, given by Henry VII,

19. Achaius (Eocha), Scotch king of the time of Charlemagne (cf. note on VI. xxxiii. 9), with whom it is stated, though on very slight grounds, that he made a treaty, and that the double tressure with the fleur-de-lys was introduced into the Scottish shield, as a reminder that Scotland had come to the aid of France,

vii. 30. Sir David Lindesay of the Mount.] The name is also spelt Lyndsay, and Lindsay. In early life he was page to James V., to whom he afterwards wrote, in his “Complaynt," asking that something might be done in memory of his early services. It was in answer to this that he received the appointment of Lord Lion King-at-Arms, chief of the heralds of Scotland, in which capacity he discharged several diplomatic functions at various courts-amongst others to the Emperor Charles V. The Mount was his patrimonial estate, near Cupar in Fifeshire. He is best known as a poet, his peculiar branch being satire, in which he is still considered a master. He attacked the abuses of the Roman Catholic Church with great severity, and being a contemporary of Luther, he may be counted as one of the chief movers in the Reformation, and a precursor of the party of Knox. (Cf. note on “Palmer," I. xxiii. 1.) His chief poems are-i.“ The Complaynt”; ii. “ The Dream" ; iii. “ Satyre of the Three Estaitis," a drama; iv. “The Tragedie of the late Cardinal," sc. the assassination of Car. dinal Beaton, which is remarkable for containing no condemnation of

vent. He died about 1560, probably in his bed. A life of him will be found in P. F. Tytler's “ Scottish Worthies." "I am uncertain." says Scott. " if I abuse poetical licence, by introducing Sir David Lindesay in the character of Lion Herald, sixteen years before he obtained that office. At any rate, I am not the first who has been guilty of the anachronism; for the author of 'Flodden Field'despatches Della. mount, which can mean nobody but Sir David de la Mont, to France, on the message of defiance from James IV. to Henry VIII.” .

viii. 5. Whom Royal James himself had crowned.) “The office of heralds, in feudal times, being held of the utmost importance, the inauguration of the King-at-Arms, who presided over their colleges, was proportionally solemn. In fact, it was the mimicry of a royal coronation, except that the unction was made with wine instead of oil. In Scotland, a namesake and kinsman of Sir David Lindesay, inaugurated a little later, was crowned by King James with the ancient crown of Scotland, which was used before the Scottish Kings assumed a close crown'; and, on occasion of the same solemnity, dined at the King's table, wearing the crown. It is probable that the coronation of his predecessor was not less solemn."-S.

22. The reception of ambassadors was part of the duty of a King-atArms.

ix. 10. Lady Heron.] Cf. supra, I. xvi.-xviii., and infra, note, xvii. 12.

14. Tyne.] This river (which is not to be confounded with its English namesake between Northumberland and Durham) rises on the borders of Edinburghshire, and runs in a north-easterly direction, for some thirty miles, through Haddingtonshire to the Frith of Forth, which it joins not far to the east of North Berwick.

X. 2. Crichtoun Castle.] “A large ruinous castle on the banks of the Tyne, about ten miles south from Edinburgh. As indicated in the text, it was built at different times, and with a very differing regard to splendour and accommodation. The oldest part of the building is a narrow keep, or tower, such as formed the mansion of a lesser Scottish baron ; but so many additions have been made to it, that there is now & large courtyard, surrounded by buildings of different ages. The eastern front of the court is raised above a portico, and decorated with entabla

tures, bearing anchors. All the stones of this front are cut into diamond facets, the angular projections of which have an uncommonly rich" appearance. The inside of this part of the building appears to have contained a gallery of great length and uncommon elegance. Access was given to it by a magnificent staircase, now quite destroyed. The soffits (technical term for the inside of an arch) are ornamented with twining cordage and rosettes: and the whole seems to have been far more splendid than was usual in Scottish castles. The castle belonged originally to the Chancellor, Sir William Crichton, and probably owed to hir its first enlargement, as well as its being taken by the Earl of Douglas, who imputed to Crichton's counsels the death of his predecessor, Earl William, beheaded in Edinburgh Castle, with his brother. It is said to have been totally demolished on that occasion; but the present state of the ruin shows the contrary. It was garrisoned by Lord Crichton, then its proprietor, against King James III., whose displeasure he had incurred. From the Crichton family the castle passed to that of the Hepburns, Earls Bothwell; and when the forfeitures of Stewart, the last Earl Bothwell, were divided, the barony and castle of Crichton fell to the share of the Earl of Buccleuch. They were afterwards the property of the Pringles of Clifton, and are now that of Sir John Callander, Baronet.”-S.

xi. 7. Scutcheon of honour.) Given to commemorate some noble action,

Scutcheon of pretence.] A shield containing the arms of a wife who is an heiress, borne in the middle of the husband's shield.

24. Massy More.] “The Castle of Crichton has a dungeon-vault, called the Massy More. The epithet, which is not uncommonly applied to the prisons of other old castles in Scotland, is of Saracenic origin. It is a corruption of a Moorish word-Mazmorra. , 'Carcer subterraneus, sive, ut Mauri appellant, Mazmorra. The same word applies to the dungeons of the ancient Moorish castles in Spain, and serves to show from what nation the Gothic style of castle-building was originally derived."-S. . . xii. 10.) A customary courtesy in receiving guests of distinction. · 13, Earl Adam Hepburn.] He was the second Earl of Bothwell, and fell in the field of Flodden, where, according to an ancient English poet, he distinguished himself by a furious attempt to retrieve the day =

“ Then on the Scottish part, right proud,

The Earl of Bothwell then out brast,
And stepping forth, with stomach good,

Into the enemies' throng he thrast;
And Bothwell! Bothwell !' cried bold,

To cause his souldiers to ensue,
But there he caught a wellcome cold,

The Englishmen straight down him threw.
Thus Haburn through his hardy heart

His fatal fine in conflict found,” &c.
_"Flodden Field,” a Poem : edited by H. Weber (Edin, 1808),

xii. 18. He who.] This should be “him who,” in apposition to lord, which is governed by with. · 19. Hated Bothwell.] James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, the murderer of Darnley, and third husband of Mary Queen of Scots. He was grandson of Earl Adam,

. This tale is given by Pitscottie in his History of Scotland. The apparition seems to have been an imposture got up by the opponents of the war in order to deter the King from it. Such is Scott's own account. Cf. “Tales of a Grandfather” (Scotland), vol. i. p. 181. For a similar event, cf. V. xxiv. 30.

4. Linlithgow is the capital of the county of the same name, called also West Lothian. It was from very early times a royal domain ; and the palace was generally bestowed as dower-house on the Queens of Scotland, James IV., who was very fond of the place, and resided there frequently, made many additions to the palace. It was finally burnt by some English soldiers, quartered there, and is now in ruins. An account of its appearance may be found in Sir Walter Scott's “Provincial Anti. quities" (Prose Works, vol. vii, p. 382). · xv.15.) In 1487 a conspiracy was formed against King James III, ander the Earl of Angus and other nobles. The conspirators had by fraud obtained possession of the King's eldest son, and made good use of the young prince's name. The opposing forces met at Sauchieburn, three miles north-east of the famous field of Bannockburn (June 18, 1548), where the royal troops were defeated, and the King met his death in flight. His son James IV. never ceased to feel remorse for his conduct, and ever after wore a heavy iron belt, adding a link of an ounce or two every year to increase the penance. : xvi. 2. Linlithgow's holy dome.] The Church of St. Michael, not a cathedral, as the word " dome” might seem to imply. It was built by David I.

9. Katharine's aisle.] The south transept, called St. Katharine's Chapel, because dedicated to St. Katharine of Sienna. James built this chapel for himself, with twelve stalls for the Knights Companions of the Order of the Thistle. By reference to the note on St. Katharine (xxxi, 14), it will be seen that she had not long been made a saint,

xvi, 10. Iron belt.) Cf. xv. 15 and V. ix. 20. 13, Thistle.] The most ancient Order of the Thistle is said to hare

uted by King Achaius (Cf, vii. 19), the collar to have been added by James V., and new life given to the order by James II., King of the United Kingdom. It now consists of the sovereign and sixteen knights. Its motto is, “ Nemo me impune lacessit.”

20. As.] Understood if.

xvii. 9.] These are the words of his message, according to Pitscottie :" Sir King, my mother hath sent me to you, desiring you not to pass, at this time, where thou art purposed; for if thou does, thou wilt not fare well in thy journey, nor none that passeth with thee. Further, she bade thee mell with no woman, nor use their counsel, nor let them touch thy body, nor thou theirs ; for if thou do it, thou wilt be confounded and brought to shame."

Notice the words, “ my mother sent me," used by St. John, the adopted son of the Virgin Mary. (Cf. St. John xix. 26–7.) Some historians, Lin, gard for instance, speak of the appearance as of St. Andrew, the patron Baint of Scotland, but these words could not have been used except by St. John,

xvii. 12. Woman.] Lady Heron. Cf. infra, note, V. x. 2. 14. Doubly warned.]-1, Not to war; 2. Not to meddle with a woman,

20. Cf. Pitscottie's account: “I heard say, Sir David Lindesay, Lyonherauld, and John Inglis the marshal, who were at that time young men, and special servants to the King's grace, were standing presently beside the King, who thought to have laid hands on this man, that they might have speired further tidings at him: But all for nought; they could not touch him; for be vanished away betwixt them, and was no more seen.”

22. Sir Walter seems to have drawn his metaphors from Pitscottie, He“ vanished away, as he had been a blink of the sun, or a whip of the whirlwind, and could no more be seen."

xxi. 15. He was to have seen an elfin foe in guise of his worst enemy, (III. xxii. 34). Who was it likely to have been ?

22. Saint George.] Cf. note, I. ii. 1, xxii. 4. Norham.] Cf. note, I. i. 1.

7. Brian Bulmer.) This story comes from an old manuscript, origi. pally in the Chapter Library, Durham. It is in Latin. The Englishman, who is called Radulphus Bulmer, on coming forth from the camp near Norham, meets a Scotch knight, with whom at first, as an old acquaint. ance, he held some slight converse, and then, as in duty bound, joined battle. Bulmer was speedily overthrown: and the other then promised not only to spare him, but to heal his wounds, on condition that he would not pray to God, to the Virgin, or to any saint. But on his opponent whispering some obscenity into his ear at the same time as he raised him, Bulmer cried out, “ Mi Jesu," and instantly the other fied. The manu. script ends with an expression of belief that it was the devil himself with whom Bulmer had fought. : 10, “The forest of Glenmore, in the North Highlands (in Ross-shire), is believed to be haunted by a spirit called Lham-dearg (bloody hand), in the array of an ancient warrior, having a bloody hand, from which he takes his name."-S. , 13. Rothiemurcus.] Extensive fir-woods, on the banks of the River Spey, in Elginshire.

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