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Yet he was no bigot, but was on terms of friendship with Erasmus, Colet, and other Reformers. Moreover, in his “ Utopia”-the only portion of his contributions to literature which is now read-he advocates the principles of toleration, although his precept upon that subject is in advance of his practice.
Xxxviii. 22. Sands.] Vide Shakespeare, “Henry VIII." (Act I. Sc. iii.). Sir William Sands, or Sandys, created Lord Sands, and succeeded the Earl of Worcester as Chamberlain to Henry VIII. He and Sir Nicholas Vaux conducted the Duke of Buckingham from the Temple-landing to the Tower after his condemnation. It was he who, with Sir Henry Guildford, arranged the banquets at Cardinal Wolsey's, to which the King used to go as a masquer. Cavendish, “Life of Cardinal Wolsey."
Denny.) Sir Anthony Denny, knight, one of the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber to King Henry VIII. He was a good scholar, having been educated at St. Paul's School, under the grammarian Lilly, and at St. John's College, Cambridge. He was a great favourite of King Henry VIII., and was appointed by him one of the executors of his will. He acquired a large fortune at the dissolution of the monasteries. He was so great a benefactor as to be almost a second founder of the Grammar School of Sedbergh, in Yorkshire ; so that his literality in this respect may atone somewhat for his rapacity in the matter of the Church estates. His personal character seems to have stood very high, both according to the testimony of his contemporaries, and testing it by his associates. He was a friend of Matthew Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury; he only of the royal courtiers directed heavenwards the thoughts of the dying King. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, wrote his epitaph, and Sir John Cheke honoured his memory by the compilation of a poem.
23. Bluff King Hal.] Cf. V. xxii. 34.
L'Envoy.) An address : a term borrowed from the old French poetry, and adopted by our writers in the same sense. It was the technical name for additional lines subjoined to a poem, or part of a poem, as from the author-conveying the moral, or addressing the piece to some. patron.
From envoyer, French. It is thus defined in the Dictionary of the French Academy, under “envoi": “Couplet qui termine un chant royal, une ballade, et qui sert à adresser l'ouvrage à celui pour qui il a été fait.” Cf, Shakespeare, “Love's Labour Lost,” III. i. " Moth. Is not l'envoye a salve? [Q. Latin salve=good-bye.] Armado. No, page; it is an epilogue or discourse, to make plain.
Some obscure precedence, that hath 'tofore been sain."
Aisle.) (II. xvii. 3.) Fr. aile, Lat. ala: wing, of a church.
Amain.] (VI. xxiii. 20, 27.) With violence, suddenly. Cf.“ Lycidas," iii. “The golden opes, the iron shuts amain." Cf. the expressions “ might and main,” “ main force.” Derivation, Germ, mögen, strength, from which also may and might come.
Angel.] Vide note, I. x. 8.
Argent.) Heraldic term for silver (from the Latin through the French).
Ashen.] (VI. xiv. 22.) Of the colour of the ash, sc. between brown and gray. Elsewhere it means “made of ash.”
Attaint.) (II. xxviii. 4.) Through French atteindre, from Lat, ad and tingo : to stain, corrupt-used of a legal conviction which deprives of civil rights. Cf. taint. So paint from pingo.
Azure.] Heraldic term for blue (French), Low Lat. lazur, lazu·lum, cf. lapis lazuli. Heraldic phraseology is French for a like reason that "beef” and “mutton" are. Vide Beeves. English heraldry is due to the conquering Normans.
Baldric.] (V. viii. 18.) Derivation : 1. Du Cange says from low Latin baldringus, ring or belt of a bold man; 2. Others from Latin, balteus, belt; 3. Others make it bell-ring, because it is the belt used to fasten the clapper of the bell. It was a belt, or girdle worn transversely, used in feudal times, to mark the rank of the wearer. Cf. “Lay of Last Minstrel," II. xix. 6:
“ A palmer's amice wrapped him round,
With a wrought Spanish baldric bound.”
Bandrol.) (IV. xxviii. 6.) A little flag, or streamer, such for instance as that which hangs from a trumpet.
Barricade.) Vide note, I, ii. 10.
Bartizan.) (VI. ii. 21.) A small overhanging turret, projecting from the angle of a square tower.
Basnet,) (VI. xxi. 7), bassinet, a helmet, so called from its resembling a small bason, generally without visor. Knights wore them, when fatigued, for case. They were commonly worn by the infantry.
Bastion.) (VI. ii. 22.) A technical term in engineering for a projection from a rampart, a bulwark. Cf. Fr. bâtir. Bastille, our battlement.
Battled.] (I. I. 4.) Supplied with battlements. It is also used in heraldry of marks on & shield like battlements.
Bead.) (1. xxv. 8; II. xvii. 9.) Bid.] (VI. xxvil. 26), derived from A.S. biddan, G. beten, to pray. Small balls of glass, pearl, or the like, strung upon a thread, used by the mediæval Christians, and by Romanists now, to count their prayers. So “ to bid one's beads" meant to be at prayer : and later the phrases “to tell teads” (II. viii. 13; V. xxvi. 40), “to be at one's beads,” were used with the same meaning, and later even “ to tell one's chaplet” (V. xviii. 12). Kitchin (“Faerie Queene,” I. Gloss. bid) quotes from the “Glossary of the Shepheard's Calender,” “To bidde is to pray, whereof cometh beades for praiers, and so they say 'to bidde his beades,' sc. to say his praiers." Cf. Dryden :
“By some haycock or some shady thorn,
He bids his beads both evensong and morn." Spenser, " Faerie Queene," I. i. 30 :
“Bidding his beades all day for his trespas.” Again, x. 3:
“All night she spent in bidding of her beades." To bid seems originally to have meant praying, not commanding; traces of which we have in the “bidding prayer,” and in such phrases as “bid you God speed,” “ bid you good-bye,” meaning, pray that God may speed you, may be with you.
Beadsman.) (VI. vi. 6.) A man employed in praying, generally for another. Cf. Spenser's “ Faerie Queene,” I. X. 36:
“An holy hospitale,
Did spend their days in doing godly thing.”
“In thy danger Commend thy grievance to my holy prayer, For I will be thy beadsman, Valentine.
Val. And on a love-book pray for my success." Beads, Saint Cuthbert's.] Vide note, II. xvi. 4.
Beard.) (VI. xiv. 24.) To oppose to the face, to set at defiance. In the language of the ancient romances, to beard was to cut off a man's beard-a punishment commonly inflicted upon prisoners, and a deadly insult. Cf. Shakespeare, First Part of “Henry VI.," Act I., sc. iii. :“ Winchester. Do what thou dar'st. I beard thee to thy face!
Gloucester. What! am I dared, and bearded to my face?"
And “Macaulay's Lays,” Horatius, xxxiii. 3:
“The tribunes beard the high.” Molière, “ Femmes savantes," il. 9:-"Je m'en vais être homme à la barbe des gens.”
Beeves.] (I. xix. 6.) Oxen. The animal, when alive, is usually called by a Saxon name (ox); when dead, by a Norman (boeuf-beef). The Saxons had the trouble of keeping and feeding the animals : the Normans ate them. On this see Ivanhoe, chap. i. Cf. Tennyson's Enid, p. 77:
“And men brought in whole hogs and quarter beeres." Bells.] (IV. XV. 8.) A shortened form of English, bellow. It is used by Chaucer :
"He gan to blasin out a soun
As loude as bellith winde in hel." Bent.) (IV. xxv. 4.) Old French pente, the slope of a hill. It is also used by Dryden, who adopted it from Chaucer.
Bide.) A.-S. beidan (1) verb neuter. (V. xvii. 5.) To dwell in, remain. Hence (2) verb active (III. xxii. 24, VI. iv. 24), endure. Cf. Shakespeare, “King Lear," III. iv. 28:
“Poor naked wretches, wheresoe'er you are,
That bide the pelting of the pitiless storm."
Blazon.] (I. xi. 15 and V. xv. 19.) subs. The verb, to blazon, is a technical term in heraldry, meaning to describe a coat of arms in words. The substantive, however, is here used, as both have been frequently, for the painting of the arms. Tennyson uses the verb of painting generally, “In Memoriam," lxxxvi. 8:
“The prophets blazoned on the panes.” Bowne.] (IV. xxii. 33, V. xx. 21.) verb. Scotch, to go. Cf. English phrase, “ whither are you bound ?" Cf.“ Lay of Last Minstrel " V. xxx. 2, “ Were bowning back to Cumberland.” In “ Lady of Lake,” IV. viii. 8, an adjective, “ for battle bowne," &c., ready.
Bowyer.] (II. xv. 11.) An archer ; one who uses the bow. Dryden has, “ Call for vengeance from the bowyer king.” A later meaning is one whose trade it is to make bows. It has passed into an ordinary English name.
Brake.) (IV. xv. 8.) Properly a fern ; a thicket (of ferns.) Cf. Bracken.
Brand.] (III. iii. 14, IV. iii. 9.) Germ. brennen, to burn. A burning piece of wood. Later it means a sword-hence our“ brandish" ; because in motion it glitters like a firebrand. The Cid's sword is called Tizon, from titio, a burning brand. Cf. Milton, “ Par. Lost," ii. 643:
“Paradise, so late their happy seat,
Waved over by that flaming brand."
Breviary.] (VI. iii. 28.) Originally an abridgement (Lat. brevis, short); but afterwards used for the book containing the daily service of the Church of Rome, as opposed to the Missal.
Brigandine.) (V. ii. 23.) French, a coat of mail. From brigand, which originally meant a foot-soldier. Cf. Jerem. xlvi. 4, “ Furbish the spears, and put on the brigandines"; and Milton, “Samson Agonistes," 1120:
“ Then put on all thy gorgeous arms, thy helmet
And brigandine of brass, thy broad habergeon,
Vant-brace and greaves." Broach.) (I. iv. 1.) V. pierce, tap, from Fr. broche, spit. In “ broach the subject” we have a metaphorical use of the same word.
Brocade.] (V. iv. 24.) A silken stuff, variegated with colours of gold or silver.
Brook.) 1. Endure (I. xiii. 17); 2. Guide, restrain (I.x.11). Brook, from A.-S. brúcan, to keep food on the stomach. Cf. the verb " stomach."
Buckler.) (I. iii. 14, III. iii. 14.) A shield buckled on the arm. Cf. Ps. xvii. 7.
Budget,] Vide note, I. xxviii. 16.
Buffet.] (III. xxii. 24.) A blow. Tennyson's “Enid," p. 50,“ Swang from his brand an airy buffet out." Cf. 1 Pet. ii. 20, “For what glory is it, if, when ye be buffeted for your faults, ye shall take it patiently?" And 2 Cor. xii. 7, "A thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me.”
Bush.) Before a tavern. Vide note, III. ii. 9.
Buskin.] (V. v. 18, riii, 19.) High-boot, reaching up as high as the knee. It was worn by tragic actors to give them greater height, and the word is sometimes used for tragedy. Cf. Milton, “ Il Penseroso," 102, “The buskined stage.” So sock for comedy.
Caitiff.) (II. xxix. 11.) Through French chétif, from Lat. captivus. Properly a prisoner, which in ancient days was the same thing as a slave. Then the social passed into a moral degradation, and the word acquired its present sense, a miscreant.
Casque.) A helmet.
Chequer.) (IV. xxv. 10.) Or checker, verb. Derived most probably from French, échiquier, a chess-board. Originally, to variegate with crosslines, make like a chess-board : hence, generally, to variegate, diversify.
Chief.) (VI. ii. 11.) An heraldic term. “The chief is so called of the French word chef, the head or upper part: this possesses the upper third part of the escutcheon." (Peacham.)
Chose.] (II. xxiv. 1.) Past part. of choose=modern, chosen.
(1). A countryman (III. xxviii. 2). The Eorl and the Ceorl, Earl and Churl, were the poles of Anglo-Saxon society.