« 前へ次へ »
tuguese statesmen, and one of the ablest men of his time, was b. May 13, 1699, at
the castle of Soura, near Coimbra. His father, Manuel de Carvalho, was a capt. of cavalry, and belonged to the second grade of nobility. After studying law at Coimbra, and serving a short time in the army, Pombal was banished from Lisbon on account of his youthful turbuience of disposition, and retired to his birthplace, where he devoted himself for a while to study. Subsequently he married a rich widow, Donna Teresa da Noronha Almada, and repaired to court. In 1739 he was appointed envoy extraordipary to the court of London through the influence of his uncle, Paulo Carvalho, : position which he beld for six years, after which he was sent to Vienna in a similar capacity. Here Pombal (whose first wife was now dead) espoused, in 1749, Leonorai Ernestina, countess Daun, niece of the famous Austrian marshal of that name. This marriage had a most felicitous influence or his future career. When Pombal returned to Portugal, the Portuguese queen, who was an Austrian princess, conceived a great attachment to his wife; and when her son, Joseph I., ascended the throne in 1750, she induced him to appoint Pombal state secretary for foreign affairs. Immediately bis splendid administrative genius burst forth like a sudden blaze of sunshine. He found his coun)try almost without an army, without a fiect, without commerce or agriculture, and all power in the hands of unscrupulous Jesuits and grasping nobles. Among his first acts was to reattach to the crown a great number of domains that had been unjustly alienated. Then followed the reorganization of the army, the introduction of fresh colonists into the Portuguese settlements, the establishment of an East Indian company, and another for Brazil, where he introduced the cultivation of coffee, sugar, cotton, rice, indigo, and cocoa. In virtue of a treaty with Spain signed in 1753, Paraguay became an appanage of the Portuguese crown, and it was in this remote region that Pombal first came into collision with the Jesuits—the founders of the Paraguay missions. He got his brother, Francisco Xavier de Mendonça, appointed capt.gen. of Paraguay, and is said to have given him secret instructions to ruin the Jesuits in his reports to the king. When the great earthquake happened at Lisbon in 1755 Pombal displayed an almost superhuman courage and energy, in consequence of which the king raised him to the rank of count of (Eyras, and in the following year appointed him prime minister. He crushed a revolt instigated by the great nobles and the Jesuits, the latter of whom he now removed from the person of the sovereign, deprived of the power of the confessional, and in 1757 confined to their colleges. A conspiracy against the life of the king, which broke out Sept. 3, 1753, but failed, placed his enemies completely in his power. The leaders were punished with appalling severity. The duke of Aveiro and the marquis of Tavora were broken alive on the wheel, the sons and the son-in-law of the former were strangled, and the wife of the marquis was beheaded. The Jesuits were suspected of complicity in the plot, and Pombal accused them to the pope; and when the latter would not allow the minister to proceed against them in the civil courts, he dariugly caused some to be executed in prison. Father Malagrida, who had prophesied the death of the king: was delivered over to the inquisition as a heretic, and condemned to be burnt alive; and this auto da fé actually took place in 1761! But Pombal was not satisfied. He had made up his mind that the very presence of the Jesuits in Portugal was incompatible with the security of the government and the welfare of the nation, and by a royal decree of Sept. 3, 1759, they were banished from the kingdom as rebels and enemies to the king. When they refused to leave, Pombal bad them violently removed by soldiers, carried on board ships, and transported to the states of the church. The pope, Clement XIII., vehemently protested, whereupon Pombal caused the papal nuncio to be shown across the frontier. Shortly after, Clement XIII. died, and was succeeded in the papal see by Clement XIV.-no friend of the Jesuits, in consequence of which the differences between Portugal and the Vatican were soon made up. All this time Pombal was laboring energetically to improve the cultivation of the land and the system of education. In 1770 he was created marquis of Pombal, and from this period to the death of the king in 1777, he was at the very height of his greatness.
The accession of Joseph's daughter, Maria I.--an enemy of the minister-was immo diately marked by his downfall. He was deprived of his offices; the conspirators whom he kept in prison were released; many of his institutions were abolished; and he himself was on!y saved from the scaffold because be held in his possession documentary proofs of the former treason of his now triumphant enemies. Maria ordered him to retire to his castle of Pombal, where he died May 8, 1782. The peasantry always spoke of him as “the great marquis," and bistory has stamped the rustic verdict with its approval. When he was turned out of office, he left the queen a public purse containing 78,000,000 cruzados, and a well-ordered and flourishing state.
POME (Lat. pomum, an apple), a form of fruit of which examples are found in the apple, pear, and other fruits of the pomacea; and in which the epicarp and mesocarp (see FRUIT) form a thick fleshy mass; whilst the endocarp is scaly, horny, or stony, and divided into separate cells, in which the seeds are inclosed. The fruit is crowned with remains of the calycine segments. Pomes have 1 to 5 cells, or spuriously 10 cells.
POMEGRANATE, Punica granatum, a fruit much cultivated in warm countries, and apparently a native of the warmer temperate parts of Asia, perhaps also of the n. of Africa. It has been cultivated in Asia from thc most ancient times, and is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. It has long been naturalized in the s. of Europe. In a wild state the plant is a thorny bush; in cultivation it is a low tree, with twiggy branches, flowers at the extremities of the branches, the calyx red, the petals scarlet. It is generally referred to the natural order myrtaceæ. The calyx is leathery, tubular, 5 to 7 cleft; there are 5 to 7 crumpled petals; the fruit is as large as a large orange, with a thick leathery rind of a fine golden yellow, with a rosy tinge on one side, not bursting when ripe; the cells filled with numerous secds, cach of which is surrounded with pulp, and separately inclosed in a thin membrane, so that the pomegranate appears to be formed of a great number of reddish berries packed together and compressed into irregular angular forms. The pulp is sweet, sometimes subacid, and of a pleasant delicato flavor, very cooling, and particularly grateful in warm climates. It is often used for the preparation of cooling drinks. A kind of pomegranate without seeds is cultivated and much prized in India and Persia. Pomegranates have long been imported in small quantities into Britain from Portugal and the n. of Africa; but have never become an article of general demand and commercial importance like oranges. There is an ornamental variety of the poinegranate with double flowers. The rind of the fruit is very astringent, and a decoction is used as a gargle in relaxed sore throat, and as a medicine in diarrhica, dysentery, etc. Deriving its astringency from tannin, it is used to trn leather. The finest morocco leather is said to be tanned with it, and small quantities are imported into Britain from the n. of Africa for the preparation of the finest kinds of leather, under the name of pomegranate bark.—The bark of the roots is used as an anthelinintic, and is often successfully administered in cases of tape-worm. Its value was known to the ancieuts, and it has long been in use in India. - It bears the winters of the s. of England in the open air, and is very ornamental, but the fruit is worthless. In some parts of the s. of Europe it is used as a hedge-plant. See illus., TEA, COFFEE, ETC., vol. XIV., p. 240, fig. 8.
POMEL, a boss or ball used as an ornament on the top of pointed roof, turret, etc.
POMERANIA (Ger. Pommern), a province of Prussia, bounded n. by the Baltic, e. by w. Prussia, s. by Brandenburg, and w. by the Mecklenburg duchics. Area, 11,600 sq. miles. Pop. (at the close of '80) 1,540,034. Pomerania is divided into the three gov. ernmental districts of Stettin, Stralsund, and Köslin.
This province, which is one of the lowest and fattest in Germany, and has few hills of even moderatc height, is intersected by the Oder (q.v.), which forms numerous lakes and ponds, the largest of which is the Dammer lake." The waters of this lake and of the Oder are then carried into the Stettiner Haff, from which threc outletsthose of the Peene, Swine, and Dievenow--lead into the Baltic. Between these thrco outlets are the two islands of Usedom and Wolin. After the Oder, the chief rivers of Pomerania are the Ihna, Rega, Persayte, Wipper, and Stolpe.
The shores in somo parts are protected by dikes and sand-banks. The soil is generally sandy, and in many districts even stony, although near Pyritz and Stargard, on the Ploen and Maduc lakes, and at some points of the sea-coast, it presents a tolerably fruitful character, yielding good crops of wheat, and affording rich pasture. About half of the whole arcă is cul. tivated; about a sixth is uncultivated, or under water; and the remainder is in pastures, heath, and wood. The chief vegetable products, most of which are grown in sufficient quantities to be largely exported, are-rye, wheat, and other grain, flax, hemp, tobacco, and timber. Among the other exports of Pomerania are horses, cattle, sheep, swine, geese of superior quality, feathers, butter, wool, hams, sausages, smoked poultry, etc. The sturgeon and salmon fisheries are very productive, and Pomerania is noted for its admirable lampreys, eels, and cray-fish, which are largely exported in a pickled state. The mineral products, which are inconsiderable, include bog-iron, lime, marl, alum. salt, amber found on the coast near Stolpe, and peat-which latter substance is obtained in enormous quantities, and extensively used for fuel, notwithstanding the abundant supply of wood yielded by the extensive and productive forests.
Linen and woolen fabrics, and leather, rank among the best of the industrial prod.
Acts; but the manufactures of Pomerania are not of much importance. The principal branches of industry are agriculture and thc rearing of horses and cattle, while the active transport-trade between the neighboring Prussian states and the Baltic ports constitutes a very important source of wealth to the province. The inain seat of Pomeranian trade is at Stettin (q.v.), which ranks as one of the most important commercial cities of Prussia.
Pomerania, like every other part of the Prussian dominions, is well provided with educational institutions, and, besides the university at Greifswald, it has thirteen gym. nasia, several normal and training schools, and numerous classical and other schools.
Pomerania formed, in the earliest periods of its history, a part of the ancient kingdom of the Wends or Vandals. From the year 1062 it bad its own ducal rulers, and in the beginning of the 12th c. it adopted Christianity in consequence of the preaching of bishop Otto, of Bamberg. Bogislaus XIV., who died in 1637, was the last male representative of the Wendisi ducal line; and, on his death, the house of Brandenburg said claim to the whole of the Pomeranian territories, in conformity with a compact which the latter family asserted to have been made between them and the Wendish dukes; but thic country having been occupied by the Swedes during the thirty years' war, Prussia was obliged to content itself with the possession of further Pomerania, or Hinterpommern, which was assigned to it at the peace of Westphalia, while Sweden retained the remainder of Pomerania, with the island of Rugen (q.v.). After the death of Charles XII., and the subsequent decline of the Swedish power, Prussia was able to make good her asserted claims on the territory of Pomerania at the peace of Stockholin; and in 1720 Sweden was compelled to cede s. Pomerania and the island of Rugen, retaining only a narrow strip of land between Mecklenburg and the Baltic, which was also incorporated with Prussia in 1815, after having been first transferred by Sweden to Denmark as part indemnification for the separation from the latter kingdom of Norway, and subsequently ceded to Prussia by the Danes in exchange for the duchy of Lauenburg, and on the payment of 24 million thalers to the latter, and of 31 million thalers to the Swedish government.
POMERANUS, or POMMER. See BUGENHAGEN.
POMEROY, a city and the co. seat of Meigs co., Ohio; on the Ohio river, 20 m. above Gallipolis, 40 m. 8. w. of Marietta: pop. '80, 5,560. Large deposits of salt are found in the vicinity, and the most important industry is its manufacture, for which there are six furnaces. There are also rolling-mills, machine-shops, and flour-mills. Coal is shipped, taken from veins near by.
POMEROY, JOHN NORTON, LL.D., b. New York, 1828; educated at Hamilton college, graduated 1847; studied law, and was admitted to the state bar in 1851. In 1864 he was elected dean of the law faculty of the, university of New York, and became pro fessor of law and political science. He remained in this position for four years, and during this time produced his best book, Introduction to the Constitutional Laws of the United States, 1868; and Introduction to Municipal Law, 1865. The first is used as text-book at West Point, and many colleges and law-schools. In 1869 be returned to Rochester. His Remedies und Remedial Rights, according to the Reformed American Procedure appeared before his death. He edited Sedgwick's Constitutional Law, and has contributed many articles to the North American Review, the Nation, and to legal periodicals. He wrote many articles on law for Johnson's Cyclopædia. He d. 1885.
POMEROY, SETH, 1715–77; b. Mass. ; was maj. of the Massachusetts troops that captured Louisburg in 1745; lieut.col. of the regiment commanded by col. Ephraim Williams, and at his death took command and defeated baron Dieskau; was a delegate to the Massachusetts provincial congress in 1774-75; fought at Bunker hill, and soon after appointed senior brigadier by the continental congress; but in consequence of disputes about military rank, he declined the appointment and retired to bis farm.
POMIGLIA'NO D'AR'CO, a t. in the province of Naples, Italy, about 84 m. n.e. of Naples; pop. about 10,000. The vicinity has many times been covered by lava from Vesuvius. There are two very handsome churches, a hospital, and several avcient ruins, among which is one supposed by some antiquarians to be the palace of Fompey alluded to by Cicero
POWIETTÉE, or POMEL CRoss in heraldry, a cross whose extremities terminate in single knobs or pomels, like the bourdon or pilgrim's staff.
POHOLOGY (Lat. pomum, a fruit of any kind, an apple), a term much employed in France and Germany, and to a smaller extent in Britain, to designate the study of fruits and of their cultivation, particularly those of the natural order pomacem (q.v.). See FRUIT, FRUIT-GARDEN, APPLE, PEAR, etc.
POMONA (whose pame is obviously connected with pomum, “a fruit") was, among the Latins, the patron divinity of garden-produce. The poets, not, perhaps, without some allegorical design, represent several of the rural gods as her lovers—Silvanus, Picus, Vertumnus, etc. Of Vertumnus, in particular, it is related that after he had vainly tried to approach her under a thousand different forms, he at last succeeded by assuming the figure of an old woman. In this guise, he recounted to her the lamentable histories of women who had despised love, and having touched her heart, suddenly transformed himself into a blooming youth and married her. But Vertumnus (connected with verto, “to turn,” or “to transform") is probably nothing more than a personification of those changes by which plants advance from blossom to fruit. The worship of Pomona, as was natural among a homely race of farmers and shepherds like the ancient Latins, was of considerable importance. Varro tells us that at Rome her services were under the care of a special priest, the famen Pomonalis. In works of art she was generally represented with fruits in her lap, or in a basket, with a garland of fruits in her hair, and a pruning-knife in her right hand.
POMONA, or MAINLAND, much the largest and most populous of the Orkney Islands (q.v.), in which group it occupies a central position. It is open to the Atlantic on the w., and to the German ocean on the e., while on the n. Enhallow and Shapinsha sounds separates it from the islands of Ronsay and Shapinsha, and on the s., Scapa Flow separates it from Hoy and South Ronaldsha. Area, 150 sq.m.; pop. '81, 17,165. It is 25 m. in length, and 15 m. in extreme breadth, but is very irregular in shape. At the town of Kirkwall, the breadth of the island is only about 2 miles. In the w., the shores are bold and elevated, but there is a general slope toward the east. The surface is diversified with hill and lake, and consists in great part of moor and beath. Good pastures are found, however, and in the valleys there is a fertile, loamy soil. Oats, beans, and bere are produced, and sheep and swine are extensively reared. The chief towns are Kirkwall (q.v.) and Stromness (q.v.).
POMPADOUR (JEANNE ANTOINETTE Poisson), Marquise de, a notable mistress of Louis XV., was b. in Paris in 1720 or 1722. Her reputed father was a certain François Poisson, who held a humble office in the army-commissariat; but M. le Normand de' Tournbeim, a rich fermier-général, claimed for himself the bonors of a dubious paternity, and brought up the little Jeanne as his daughter. She turned out a wonderfully clever child, and M. le Normand spared no pains to give her the best, or, at least, the most stylish education possible. She excelled in such accomplishments as music, elocution, and drawing; but what charmed the brilliant society that frequented the salons of the rich financier, was the perfect grace and beauty of her figure, and the exquisite art with which she dressed. A crowd of suitors constantly besieged her, but the one who obtained her hand was her cousin, Le Normay l’Etioles. They were married in 41. But Mme. l'Etioles, who was constantly told by her infamous mother that she was a ** morsel for a king,” was careless of her husband's honor and peace. Though he loved her to distraction--and he was a man with whose love any woman might have been content-she, colil, heartless, and ambitious, was scheming day and night to attract the notice of the monarch. Her efforts were after a time crowned with success, and Mme. l'Etioles was installed in the palace of Versailles; she was soon afterward ennobled by the title of marquise de Pompadour, and long ruled the king, first as mistress, and afterward as amie nécessaire. One reads with some astonishment of the incessant artifices she had recourse to in order to preserve her influence—the everlasting huntings, concerts, private theatricals, little suppers, and what not-anything to distract the royal mind (surely sufficiently distracted already by nature), and to make it think only of the clever purveyor of gayeties! The private theatricals, in particular, were a great success, and wero “got up"every winter from 1747 to 1753—the marquise herself proving a charming actress. The king thought the marquise extremely clever, and, when he ceased to "love" her, was glad to avail himself of her services as his political adviser. In fact, she became premier of France; the council of ministers assembled in her boudoir, where the most important affairs of state were settled. The choice of ministers, of ambassaulors, of generals, depended on the caprice of a female; the abbé de Bernis, the favorite of a favorite, entered the council. Foreign diplomacy turned the circumstance to account. The Austrian prime-minister induced Maria Theresa to sacrifice her pride to the exigencies of her position, and the empress-qucen wrote the courtesan a letter in which she addressed her as ma cousine. That word turned the head of the marquise, and changed for a time the foreign policy of France. She died (April 15, 1764) with the reins of government in her hands. During her lifetime, immense sums from the national treasury were paid away to the marquise, and to her brother, created marquis de Marigny. In the years 1762–63 alone, they amounted to 3,456,000 livres. She had numerous houses and lands also given her. In 1853, M. le Roi, keeper of the townlibrary of Versailles, published in the Journal de l'Instruction Publique, a list of the expenses of the marquise de Pompadour during the years in which she had enjoyed the royal favor, which he had found in MS. in the archives of the department of Seine-et-Oise. They amounted to 36,000,000 livres. She was imperious and vindictive beyond measure, and with relentless cruelty doomed to perpetual imprisonment, in the dungeons of the bastille and clsewhere, multitudes who had dared to speak about her ill-gotten gains and power. After facts like these, it is but a poor apology for the marquise to say that she encouraged savans, poets, and philosophers, patronized and protected the Encyclopédie, and aided in the expulsion of the Jesuits. The Lettres in her name are mostly spurious. See the Life by Goncourt (new ed. 1878).
POMPEII, a city of Campania, was built at the mouth of the river Sarnus (Sarno), looking out on the bay of Naples. It stood at the base of Mt. Vesuvius, betwcen Ilerculaneum and Stabiæ. Of its early history little is known (legend ascribed its