Language Contact in Japan: A Sociolinguistic History

前表紙
Clarendon Press, 1996/06/20 - 250 ページ
The Japanese are often characterized as exclusive and ethnocentric, yet a close examination of their linguistic and cultural history reveals a very different picture: although theirs is essentially a monolingual speech community they emerge as a people who have been significantly influenced by other languages and cultures for at least 2000 years. In this primarily sociolinguistic study Professor Loveday takes an eclectic approach, drawing on insights from other subfields of linguistics such as comparative and historical linguistics and stylistics, and from a number of other disciplines - cultural anthropology, social psychology and semiotics. Focusing in particular on the influence of Chinese and English on Japanese, and on how elements from these languages are modified when they are incorporated into Japanese, Professor Loveday offers a general model for understanding language contact behaviour across time and space. The study will be of value to those in search of cross-cultural universals in language contact behaviour, as well as to those with a particular interest in the Japanese case.
 

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目次

Introducing Language Contact
12
A Typology of Contact Settings
15
Japanese Contact with Asian Languages
26
Other Asian Languages
43
The Social Evolution of Japanese Contact with European Languages
47
A Sociolinguistic Chronology of Early European Contacts
50
A Short History of English Contact
59
The Contexts of Contemporary Contact
77
Remodelling English
138
The Social Reception of Contact with English Now
157
The Survey
162
Sampling and Questioning
171
Results of the Survey
176
The Functions of Language Contact in Japan Today
189
Towards a Strategic Understanding of English Contact Behaviour
195
Conclusions
212

The Semantic Impact of Westernization
79
The Context of Internationalization
90
The Institutional Context
95
Technology Commerce and the Media
100
Japanizing and Westernizing Patterns
114
The Grammar of Integration
117
Patterns of Assimilation
118
CodeSwitching and CodeMixing
124
Negative Community Attitudes towards Foreignisms in Print
215
The Questionnaire English translation
218
The Historical Division between Japanese and Chinesebased Literary Genres
224
Lexical Resources in Contemporary Japanese RestaurantNames
225
References
227
Index
237
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23 ページ - Thus, bilingualism without diglossia tends to be transitional both in terms of the linguistic repertoires of speech communities as well as in terms of the speech varieties involved per se. Without separate though complementary norms and values to establish and maintain functional separation of the speech varieties, that language or variety which is fortunate enough to be associated with the predominant drift of social forces tends to displace the other(s). Furthermore, pidginization (the crystallization...
20 ページ - Diglossia Without Bilingualism There are situations in which diglossia obtains whereas bilingualism is generally absent ( quadrant 3 ) . Here, two or more speech communities are united religiously, politically or economically into a single functioning unit notwithstanding the socio-cultural cleavages that separate them. At the level of this larger (but not always voluntary) unity, two or more languages or varieties are recognized as obtaining. However, one (or both) of the speech communities involved...
20 ページ - ... outsiders" (and this may well mean all those not born into the speech community, ie, an emphasis on ascribed rather than on achieved status) role access and linguistic access are severely restricted. At the same time linguistic repertoires in one or both groups are limited due to role specialization. Examples of such situations are not hard to find (see, eg, the many instances listed by Kloss, 1966).
23 ページ - Since the formerly separate roles of the home domain, the school domain and the work domain are all disturbed by the massive dislocation of values and norms that result from simultaneous immigration and industrialization, the language of work (and of the...

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