Language Contact in Japan: A Sociolinguistic History
Clarendon Press, 1996/06/20 - 250 ページ
The Japanese are often characterized as exclusive and ethnocentric, yet a close examination of their linguistic and cultural history reveals a very different picture: although theirs is essentially a monolingual speech community they emerge as a people who have been significantly influenced by other languages and cultures for at least 2000 years. In this primarily sociolinguistic study Professor Loveday takes an eclectic approach, drawing on insights from other subfields of linguistics such as comparative and historical linguistics and stylistics, and from a number of other disciplines - cultural anthropology, social psychology and semiotics. Focusing in particular on the influence of Chinese and English on Japanese, and on how elements from these languages are modified when they are incorporated into Japanese, Professor Loveday offers a general model for understanding language contact behaviour across time and space. The study will be of value to those in search of cross-cultural universals in language contact behaviour, as well as to those with a particular interest in the Japanese case.
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Other Asian Languages
The Social Evolution of Japanese Contact with European Languages
A Sociolinguistic Chronology of Early European Contacts
A Short History of English Contact
The Contexts of Contemporary Contact
The Social Reception of Contact with English Now
Sampling and Questioning
Results of the Survey
The Functions of Language Contact in Japan Today
Towards a Strategic Understanding of English Contact Behaviour
The Semantic Impact of Westernization
The Context of Internationalization
The Institutional Context
Technology Commerce and the Media
Japanizing and Westernizing Patterns
The Grammar of Integration
Patterns of Assimilation
CodeSwitching and CodeMixing
Negative Community Attitudes towards Foreignisms in Print
The Questionnaire English translation
The Historical Division between Japanese and Chinesebased Literary Genres
Lexical Resources in Contemporary Japanese RestaurantNames
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advertising Ainu Anglicization angular syllabary attitudes behaviour borrowing cent century Chapter Chinese characters Chinese texts code-mixing code-switching commercial compounds contact with English contemporary contexts cultural degree derived diglossia diglossic bilingual distant non-bilingual domains donor Dutch employed encoding English contact English-based English-derived established European languages example external fact Female foreign language forms function Furthermore Gairaigo guage Hikaru Genji hybridization informants innovative integration involved Japan Japanese contact Japanese language Japanese society Japanese words katakana language contact language shift lexical linguistic loan-word loans mass media Meiji Meiji period Miho Nakayama modernization monolingual style morphological native non-Japanese norms noun official oral orthographic patterns phenomena phonological pidginization political pronunciation questionnaire reference roman script semantic setting Sino-Japanese social socio-linguistic strategy stylistic syllabary syllabic symbolic Table tion transfer variety verb vocabulary Western written YEAH YEAH YEAH Yomiuri Shimbun
23 ページ - Thus, bilingualism without diglossia tends to be transitional both in terms of the linguistic repertoires of speech communities as well as in terms of the speech varieties involved per se. Without separate though complementary norms and values to establish and maintain functional separation of the speech varieties, that language or variety which is fortunate enough to be associated with the predominant drift of social forces tends to displace the other(s). Furthermore, pidginization (the crystallization...
20 ページ - Diglossia Without Bilingualism There are situations in which diglossia obtains whereas bilingualism is generally absent ( quadrant 3 ) . Here, two or more speech communities are united religiously, politically or economically into a single functioning unit notwithstanding the socio-cultural cleavages that separate them. At the level of this larger (but not always voluntary) unity, two or more languages or varieties are recognized as obtaining. However, one (or both) of the speech communities involved...
191 ページ - We do not mean to imply that what we dub 'strategies' are necessarily conscious. For the most part they do not seem to be, but when interactional mistakes occur, or actors try to manipulate others, they may very well emerge into awareness. And they are open to introspection, at least in part. But the general unconscious nature of such strategies raises fundamental methodological problems that we simply skirt. We cannot pretend to have any special insight into what is...
191 ページ - ... seem to be, but when interactional mistakes occur, or actors try to manipulate others, they may very well emerge into awareness. And they are open to introspection, at least in part. But the general unconscious nature of such strategies raises fundamental methodological problems that we simply skirt. We cannot pretend to have any special insight into what is probably the biggest single stumbling block to theory throughout the social sciences: the nature of the unconscious and preconscious where...
210 ページ - A register in a given language and given speech community is defined by the uses for which it is appropriate and by a set of structural features which differentiate it from the other registers in the total repertory of the community (Ferguson 1977:212).
20 ページ - ... outsiders" (and this may well mean all those not born into the speech community, ie, an emphasis on ascribed rather than on achieved status) role access and linguistic access are severely restricted. At the same time linguistic repertoires in one or both groups are limited due to role specialization. Examples of such situations are not hard to find (see, eg, the many instances listed by Kloss, 1966).
191 ページ - We continue to used the word strategy, despite its connotations of conscious deliberation, because we can think of no other word that will imply a rational element while covering both (a) innovative plans of action, which may still be (but need not be) unconscious, and (b) routines — that is, previously constructed plans whose original rational origin is still preserved in their construction, despite their present automatic application as ready-made programmes.
23 ページ - Since the formerly separate roles of the home domain, the school domain and the work domain are all disturbed by the massive dislocation of values and norms that result from simultaneous immigration and industrialization, the language of work (and of the...
141 ページ - Bartsch (1987: 8) with reference to this matter: the correctness notion [for lexical items] is very simple: what is in the list ie the lexicon, is correct. The lexicon is stored in the 'collective memory