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the busts of Augustus, and is too stern for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods of his life. The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey. The* objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary, and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue with thai which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot where it was discove, ed. Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari, near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was either burnt or taken down. I Part of the Pompeian shade, the portico, existed in the beginning of the XV th century, and the atrium was still called Satrum. So says Blondus. || At all events, so imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if a fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.

XXV.

THE BRONZE WOLF.

And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome !"

Stanza lxxxviii. line 1. Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with the images of the foster-mother of her founder ; but there were two she-wolves of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysiusss at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal fig-tree. ** The other was that which Ciceroft has celebrated both in prose and verse, and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by

* Published by Causeus, in his Museum Romanum.
† Storia delle Arti, &c. lib. ix. cap. i. pag. 321, 322. tom. ii.

| Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Cæsar. cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscus to Suetonius, pag. 224. $ “ Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra."

Ovid. Ar. Amand. || Roma Instaurata, lib. i. fo. 31. Τ Χάλκεα ποιήματα παλαιάς εργασίας. Αntig. Rom. lib. 1.

** " Ad ficum Ruminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus 'upæ posuerunt." Liv. Hist. lib. x. cap. lxix. This was in the year U. C. 455 or 457.

It “ Tum statua Nattæ, tum simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis ictis conciderunt.” De Divinat, ii, 20. " Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio parvum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis." In Catilin. iii. 8.

“ Hic silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix

Martia, quæ parvos Mavortis semine natos
Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigebat
Que tum cum pueris flammato fulminis ictu
Concidit, atque avulsa pedum vestigia liquat.”

De Consulatu, lib. ii. (lib. i. de Divinat. cap. ii.)

the orator.* The question agitated by the antiquaries is, whether the wolf now in the Conservators' Palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one nor the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns ; Lucius Faunust says, that it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinust calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and Marlianusg talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Rycquius tremblingly assents. || Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome ; but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue. Monifaucon** mentions it as a point without doubt. Of the latter writers the decisive Winkelmanntt proclaims it as having been found at the church of Saint Theodore. where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says that it was placed, not found, at the Ficus Ruminalis, by the Comitium, by which he does not seem to allude to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.

Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was foundif near the arch of Septimius Severus. The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is incensed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with lighining in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense. But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate

i.

p.

* Εν γάρ το καπητολια ανδριάντες τε πολλοί υπό κεραυνών συνεχωνεύθησαν, και αγάλματα άλλα τε, και διδς επί κίονος ιδρυμένον, εικών τε τις λυκαίνης συν τε τη Ρώμη και συν TÕ 'Pwpúly idovuévn čreon. Dion. Hist. lib. xxxvii. pag. 37. edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention that the letters of the columns on which the laws were written were liquefied and become ayudoù. All that the Romans did was to erect a large statue to Jupiter, looking towards the east: no mention is afterwards made of the wolf. This happened in A. U. C. 689. The Abate Fea, in noticing this passage of Dion (Storia delle Arti, &c. tom. i. pag. 202. note x.), says, Non ostante, aggiunge Dione, che fosse ben fermata (the wolf): by which it is clear the. Abate translated the Xylandro-Leunclavian version, which puts quamvis stabilita for the original idpuuévn, a word that does not mean ben fermata, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion : 'Hβουλήθη μεν ούν ο 'Αγρίππας και τον A Ŭyovotov {vtavla ispucai. Hist. lib. Ivi. Dion says that Agrippa “ wished to raise u statue of Augustus in the Pantheon."

t"In eadem porticu ænea lupa, cujus uberibus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur : de hac Cicero ef Virgilius semper intelloxere. Livius hoc signum ab Ædilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent fæneratores, positum innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum Ruminalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est.” Luc. Fauni de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib. ii. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. 217. In his xviith chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there. | Ap. Nardini, Roma Vetus, lib. v. cap. iv.

Marliani Urb. Rom. Topograph. lib. 11. cap. ix. He mentions another wolf and twins in the Vatican, lib. v. cap. xxi.

11." Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus, quæ è comitio in Basilicam Lateranum, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capi. tolium postea relata sit, quanvis Marlianus antiquam Capitolinam esse maluit Tullio descriptam, cui ut in rc nimis dubia, trepidè adsentimur.”. Just. Rycquii de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.

f Nardini, Roma Vetus, 116. v. cap. iv.

** "Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostrat ædibus, cum vestigio fulminis quo ictam narrat Cicero." Diarium Italic, tom. i. p. 174.

It Storia delle Arti, &c. lib. iii. cap. iji. $ ii. note 10. Winkelmann has made a strange blunder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not in the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.

It “ Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che oggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio: e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Romolo e Remo, e stà nella Loggia de Conservatori.” Flam. Vacca, Memorie, num. üi. pag. i. ap. Montfaucon, Diar. Ital. tom. i.

himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf ; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.

Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to particularise the Romulus and the Remus, especially the first, which his audience remembered to have been in the Capitol, as being struck with lightning. In his verses he records that the twins and wolf both fell, and that the latter left behind the marks of her feet. Cicero does not say that the wolf was consumed ; and Dion only mentions that it fell down, without alluding, as the Abate has made him, to the force of the blow, or the firmness with which it had been fixed. The whole strength, therefore, of the Abate's argument hangs upon the past tense ; which, however, may be somewhat diminished by remarking that the phrase only shows that the statue was not then standing in its former position. Winkelmann has observed, that the present twins are modern ; and it is equally clear that there are marks or gilding on the wolf, which might therefore be supposed to make part of the ancient group: It is known that the sacred images of the Capitol were not destroyed when injured by time or accident, but were put into certain under-ground depositaries called favissa.* It may be thought possible that the wolf had been so deposited, and had been replaced in some conspicuous situation when the Capitol was rebuilt by Vespasian.' Rycquius, without mentioning his authority, tells that it was transferred from the Comitium to the Lateran, and thence brought to the Capitol. If it was found near the arch of Severus, it may have been one of the images which Orosiust says was thrown down in the Forum by lightning when Alaric took the city. That it is of very higḥ antiquity the workmanship is a decisive proof; and that circumstance induced Winkelmann to believe it the wolf of Dionysius. The Capitoline wolf, however, may have been of the same early date as that at the temple of Romulus. ' Lactantiusi asserts that in his time the Romans worshipped a wolf ; and it is known that the Lupercalia held out to a very late period after every other observance of the ancient superstition had totally expired. This may account for the preservation of the ancient image longer than the other early symbols of Paganism.

It may be permitted, however, to remark, that the wolf was a Roman symbol, but that the worship of that symbol is an inference drawn by the zeal of Lactantius. The early Christian writers are not to be trusted in the charges which they make against the Pagans. Eusebius accused the Romans to their

faces of worshipping Simon Magus, and raising a statue to him in the island of the Tyber. The Romans had probably never heard of such a person before, who came, however, to play a considerable, though scandalous part in the church history, and has left several tokens of his aerial combat with St. Peter at Rome; notwithstanding that an inscription found in this very island of the Tyber showed the Simon Magus of Eusebius to be a certain indigenal god, called Semo Sangus or Fidius. ||

Even when the worship of the founder of Rome had been abandoned, it was thought expedient to humour the habits of the good matrons of the city, by sending them with their sick infants to the church of Saint Theodore, as they had before carried them

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* Luc. Faun, ibid.
† See note to stanza LXXX. in Historical Illustrations,

“Romuli nutrix Lupa honoribus est affecta divinis, et ferrem, si animal ipsum fuisset, cujus figuram gerit.” Lactant. de Falsa Religione, lib. 1. cap. xx. pag. 101. edit. varior. 1660; that is to say, he would rather adore a wolf than a prostitute. His commentator has observed that the opinion of Livy concerning Laurentia being figure el in this wolf, was not universal. Strabo thought so. Rycquius is wrong in saying that Lactantius mentions the wolf was in the Capitol.

§ To A. D. 496. “Quis credere possit,” says Baronius (Ann. Eccles. tom. viii. p. 602. in an. 496.), “viguisse adhuc Romæ ad Gelasii tempora, quæ fuere ante exordia urbis allata in Italiam Lupercalia ?Gelasius wrote a letter which occupies four folio pages to Andromachus the senator, and others, to show that the rites should be given up

| Eusebius has these words : και ανδριάντι παρ' υμίν ως θεός τετίμηται, εν τω Τίβερι ποταμό μεταξύ των δύο γεφυρών, έχων επιγραφήν Ρωμαϊκήν ταύτην Σίμωνι δέω Σάγκτω. Eccles. Hist. lib. i. cap. xiii. p. 40. Justin Martyr had told the story before ; but Baronius himself was obliged to detect this fable. See Nardini, Roma Vet. lib. vii.

cap. xii.

VOL. III.

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to the temple of Romulus.* The practice is continued to this day; and the site of the above church seems to be thereby identified with that of the temple : so that if the wolf had been really found there, as Winkelmann says, there would be no doubt of the present statue being that seen by Dionysius.t But Faunus, in saying that it was at the Ficus Ruminalis by the Comítium, is only talking of its ancient position as rtcorded by Pliny ; and even if he had been remarking where it was found, would not have alluded to the church of Saint Theodore, but to a very different place, near which it was then thought the Ficus Ruminalis had been, and also the Comitium ; that the three columns by the church of Santa Maria Liberatrice, at the corner of the Palatine looking on the Forum.

It is, in fact, a mere conjecture where the image was actually dug up, and per haps, on the whole, the marks of the gilding, and of the lightning, are a better argument in favour of its being the Ciceronian wolf than any that can be adduced for the contrary opinion. At any rate, it is reasonably selected in the text of the poem as one of the most interesting relics of the ancient city,s and is certainly the figure, if not the very animal to which Virgil alludes in his beautiful verses :

" Geminos huic ubera circum
Ludere pendentes pueros, et lambere matrem
Impavidos : illam tereti cervice reflexam
Múlcere alternos, et corpora fingere linguâ.”ll

XXVI.

JULIUS CÆSAR.

" For the Roman's mind
Was modell’d in a less terrestrial mould."

Stanza xc. lines 3 and 4. It is possible to be a very great man and to be still very inferior to Julius Cæsar, the most complete character, so Lord Bacon thought, of all antiquity. Nature seems inoapable of such extraordinary combinations as composed his versatile capacity, which was the wonder even of the Romans themselves. The first general-the only triumphant politician – inferior to none in eloquence - comparable to any in the ai. tainments of wisdom, in an age made up of the greatest commanders, statesmen,

* " In esse gli antichi pontefici per toglier la memoria de' giuochi Lupercali istituiti in onore di Romolo, introdussero l'uso di portarvi bambini oppressi da infermità occulte, accid si liberino per l'intercessione di questo santo, come di continuo si sperimenta.” Rione xii. Ripa, accurata e succincta Descrizione, &c. di Roma Moderna, dell'Ab. Ridolf. Venuti, 1766.

† Nardini, lib. v. cap. 11. convicts Pomponius Lætus crassi erroris, in putting the Ruminal fig-tree at the church of Saint Theodore: but as Livy says the wolf was at the Ficus Ruminalis, and Dionysius at the temple of Romulus, he is obliged (cap. iv.) to own that the two were close together, as well as the Lupercal cave, shaded, as it were, by tht fig-tree.

I "Ad comitium ficus olim Ruminalis germinabat, sub qua lupa rumam, hoc est, mammam, docente Varrone, suxerant olim Romulus et Remus ; non procul a temple hodie D. Mariæ Liberatricis appellato, ubi forsan inventa nobilis illa ænea statua lupæ geminos puerulos lactantis, quam hodie in Capitolio videmus.” Olai Borrichii Antiqua Urbis Romanæ Facies, cap. x. See also cap. xii. Borrichius wrote after Nardini, in 1687. Ap. Græv. Antiq. Rom. tom. iv. p. 1522.

§ Donatus, lib. xi. cap. 19. gives a medal representing on one side the wolf in the same position as that in the Capitol ; and in the reverse the wolf with the head not reverted. It is of the time of Antoninus Pius.

N En. viii. 631. See Dr. Middleton, in his Letter from Rome, who inclines to the Ciceronian wolf, but without examining the subject.

orators, and philosophers that ever appeared in the world — an author who composed a perfect specimen of military annals in his travelling carriage — at one time in a controversy with Cato, at another writing a treatise on punning, and collecting a set of good sayings — fighting * and making love at the same moment, and willing to abandon both his empire and his mistress for a sight of the Fountains of the Nile. Such did Julius Cæsar appear to his contemporaries and to those of the subsequent ages who were the most inclined to deplore and execrate his fatal genius.

But we must not be so much dazzled with his surpassing glory, or with his magnanimous, his amiable qualities, as to forget the decision of his impartial country

men:

HE WAS JUSTLY SLAIN.T

XXVII.

EGERIA.

Egeria ! sweet creation of some heart

Which found no mortal resting-place so fair
As thine ideal breast."

Stanza cxv. lines 1, 2, and 3. The respectable authority of Flaminius Vacca would incline us to believe in the claims of the Egerian grotto. I He assures us that he saw an inscription in the pavement, stating that the fountain was that of Egeria, dedicated to the nymphs. The inscription is not there at this day; but Montfaucon quotes two lines of Ovid from

* In his tenth book, Lucan shows him sprinkled with the blood of Pharsalia in the arms of Cleopatra,

“Sanguine Thessalicæ cladis perfusus adulter

Admist Venerem curis, et miscuit armis." After feasting with his mistress, he sits up all night to converse with the Ægyptian sages, and tells Achoreus,

“ Spes sit mihi certa videndi
Niliacos fontes, bellum civile relinquam.”
" Sic velut in tuta securi pace trahebant

Noctis iter medium."
Immediately afterwards, he is fighting again, and defending every position.

“ Sed adest defensor ubique
Cæsar et hos aditus gladiis, hos ignibus arcet

cæca nocte carinis İnsiluit Cæsar semper feliciter usus

Præcipiti cursu bellorum et tempore rapto.” † “ Jure cæsus existimetur," says Suetonius, after a fair estimation of his character, and making use of a phrase which was a formula in Livy's time. “ Melium jure cæsum pronuntiavit, etiam si regni crimine insons fuerit:” [lib. iv. cap. 48.] and which was continued in the legal judgments pronounced in justifiable homicides, such as killing housebreakers. See Sueton. in Vit. C. J. Cæsar, with the commentary of Pitiscus, p. 184.

I “ Poco lontano dal detto luogo si scende ad un casaletto, del qualen e sono Padroni li Caffarelli, che con questo nome è chiamato il luogo; vi è una fontana sotto una gran volta antica, che al presente si gode, e li Romani vi vanno l'estate a ricrearsi; nel pavimento di essa fonte si legge in un epitaffio essere quella la fonte di Egeria, dedicata alle ninfe, e questa, dice l'epitaffio, essere la medesima fonte in cui fu convertita.” Memorie, &c. ap. Nardini, pag. 13. He does not give the inscription.

$" In villa Justiniana extat ingens lapis quadratus solidus, in quo sculpta hæc duo Ovidü carmina sunt :

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