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was as deeply religious in his mental habits, as he was devout in his sacred compositions ; nor, except the foible of indulgence at the table, is any stigma left upon his memory.

I am not prepared, with Scriblerus, to credit all that some of the ancients have told, respecting the moral influence of Music; nor do I expect it to quiet a mob, any more than to unite a broken bone. I am even willing to confess, that, under any state of society which we have witnessed, or can readily conceive, the refinement of the Lacedæmonians, in making it penal to add a new string to the lyre, as a species of luxury, or an engine of corruption, appears as much too delicate, as the total neglect of such tendencies is too unfeeling. But that, on minds already well disposed, much effect of a moral, and still more of a religious kind, may be produced by Music, is a proposition which I must ever support, as full of truth and utility.

The very curious fragment of Philodemus, the fourth book of his work on Music, which has been published from a MS. found at Herculaneum *,

proves that the Epicureans were great sceptics, with regard to the then generally acknowledged powers of Music. His first chapter, as divided by the modern editor, has for its title the assertion, “ that Music has no powerto inform the mindt.” He seems to be equally an infidel respecting its religious uses, and the tales which history. or tradition then recorded of its wonders, as employed by Thales, Terpander, and others. But the Epicureans, like other sceptics, went too far, and doubted, not only what was really problematical, like the tales in question, but also facts, which reason can solve, and observation will always confirm.

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* Under the title of “ Herculanensium Voluminum Tomus I," with the learned notes of Carlo Rosini.

† “ Nullam esse Musicain quæ ad animos informandos sit idonea."

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That Music is an aid to devotion, the practice of all nations, in all ages, must establish beyond controversy ; that it can sooth grief and exhilarate low spirits, who that has an ear for melody, or a heart to feel, has not experienced ? That it enlivens what was gay before, and can make even buffoonéry 'tolerable, who, that has heard it at a feast, or at a pantomime, will venture to deny? Its martial effects every regimental band will testify; and few hearers are so low in spirit, as not to have felt a kind of inspiration of courage, from the sounds of a march, or the notes of a patriotic air. On the other hand, the lover, in every climate, seeks its aid, as if by instinct. If facts of this sort, are too notorious to bear an exemplification, which would lead at once to the most trite topics*, what a scope must there be, within the

* Who has not heard the effects of “the Rance des Vaches, among the Swiss, or the Pibroch, among the Highlanders ? Or, what Englishman has not felt, the animation produced by, God save the King, or, Rule, Britannia?

power of music, for effects the most salutary to the human mind

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from the exhilaration of the jig, to the sublimity of the anthem ; from the insinuation of tender passion, to the excitement of martial ardour.

WITHOUT having recourse therefore to any fables, we may pronounce, without hesitation, that music is unjustly treated, when it is considered as calculated for mere amusement; and that it has much higher offices to perform, which neither they who compose it with genius, nor they who hear it with judgment and discrimination, should ever discard from their attention. There is no occasion for the supporter of this opinion, to deny that, by union with words, the moral, or to speak more generally, the mental effects of Music are greatly heightened. It is perfectly true; and the very capacity to admit this union is one of the greatest glories of Music. If a picture, or a statue, could be made to speak, with propriety or effect, would

it not be a much more perfect work of art than it is? Music therefore which can speak, and by the aid of words does speak to the very soul, is, for that especial reason, to be held in so much the higher estimation.

No man felt the dignity of Music more than Handel; since no man, probably, ever felt to such a degree, the sublimity of its powers. He has conseerated to perpetual veneration both those powers and his own genius, in his glorious composition, called Messiah, in which the words are those of real, and the Music of apparent inspiration : and both together are worthy, if we may say so without presumption, to be sung by angels and glorified spirits.

As an example which includes all others, permit me to dwell, before I conclude, on the particulars of the Oratorio now mentioned. I am persuaded, and have long felt the persuasion, that, by developing its merits to the public, in this

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