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of 18 guns, and a schooner. They the governor, officers, and soldiers were however soon silenced and of the garrison having all fled from taken possession of by the first di- the town. This success was obvision of boats, and the troops tained with a very trifling loss ; landing upon the islands of Ports and it was highly to the credit of mouth and Ocracoke, became mas-captains Rowley and Hoste, that ters of them without opposition, although the town was stormed in and thus command was ob- every part, not an individual was tained of the channel between plundered, nor was any thing taken them and the coast, through away except what was afloat, and which the inland navigation was in the government stores.

OF 90 conducted.

vessels captured, more than half The adventurous spirit of British were restored to their owners; 43 seamen and marines, when acting were sent to Lissa, laden with oil, on shore, has seldom been more grain, powder, and merchandize. strikingly displayed than in the A number of guns were rendered capture of Fiame, in the gulf of useless, and others were carried Venice Admiral Freemantle re- away, and 500 stand of arms,

with ports to sir Edw. Pellew, that on powder and military stores, were July 2nd, with the squadron under destroyed. On the 5th, the ships his command, he anchored oppo- moved to Porto Ré, the forts of site: Fiume, which was defended which had been abandoned by the by four batteries, mounting 15 enemy. The destruction of the heavy guns. On the 3rd, the ships guns, works, &c, being completed weighed to attack the sea-line of by the seamen, the squadron rethe batteries, whilst a detachment turned to its station. of seamen and marines was to An instance of similar enterprise storm at the Mole-head. The wind was reported on August 18th, by permitted only one ship to get up, eapt. Ustier, of the Undaunted, oft which silenced the second battery; Marseilles. An attack was made when, the signal being made to on the batteries of Cassis, between storm, captain Rowley, at the head that port and Toulon, protecting a of the marines, carried the fort, and bay in which were a number of capt. Hoste took the first battery. small vessels covered by gun-boats. Capt. Rowley, without loss of time, Light winds not permitting the dashed on through the town, dis- Undaunted to take her intended regarding the fire from the win- anchorage, the whole business was dows, and a field-piece placed in effected by a party of marines un the centre of the principal-street; der captain Coghlan, who carried and the seamen and marines drove the citadel battery by escalade; and the enemy before them with his drove-the-French at the bayonet's field-piece, till he came to the point from all their defences to the square, where he made another heights above the place; after stand, taking post in a large house. which the mole was entered by From this he was at length ex- the ship's boats, and all the vessels peļled; and the different parties of within it were brought out or de assailants making a junction, the stroyed. batteries, field-piece, stores, and, The capture of an American shipping were taken possession of, sloop of war in St. George's channel by an English vessel of the two ships and two Sicilian gunsame force, gave another timely boats, under the command of capt. proof that the superiority of British Harper, to capture the enemy seamanship was still no empty naval force lying between St. boast. Captain Maples, of the Pe George's isle and the town of Calican sloop of war, being directed taro, in which he completely sucby admiral Thornborough to cruize ceeded. He then attacked and for the protection of the trade, carried the island of St. George, descried on the morning of August the commandant and garrison of 14th, off St. David's head, a vessel which surrendered at discretion; on fire, and a brig standing from and thus an important post was her. He immediately made chace, gained, commanding the narrow and at half-past five, a. m. came channel leading to Cataro itself. along-side of the United States On the 16th, Castel Nuova and sloop, Argus, of 18 twenty-four fort Espagnol surrendered to the pound carronades, and two long British force, the garrison remain. 12 pounders. After a warm ac- ing prisoners of war. Several guntion on both sides of 43 minutes, boats, and a quantity of stores, the Pelican was in the act of board- were taken in this expedition, and ing, when the American struck the blockade of Cataro by sea and her colours. Her loss in killed land was the result. and wounded amounted to about A success over a foe, little capa40, among whom was her com- ble indeed of resistance, was remander. That of the victor was ported in the same month by capt. only two killed and five wounded; sir Christ. Cole of the Rippon. so that in this instance the superi. The French frigate Le Weser, ority of fire_was clearly on the of 44 guns and 340 men, lost side of the English ship, whose her main and mizen-masts in a complement of men was 116, hard gale on Oct. 16th. On the whilst that of her antagonist was 18th, she was fallen in with, sixty 127.

leagues to the west of Ushant, The gulf of Cataro was the scene steering under jury masts for Brest, of some spirited actions in October, by his majesty's sloop Scylla, capt. in which the British navy displayed Macdonald, who kept her in view its usual enterprise. Capt. Hoste, till the 20th, when he met with in the Bacchante, joining the Sara- the sloop Royalist, capt. Bremer, cen, capt. Harper, and three gun. who volunteered to join him in an: boats, off Ragusa, on Oct. 12th, attack of the enemy. The two having been informed of the state sloops bore up in close order, the of the country about Cataro, and Scylla on the quarter, and the Roythe insurrection of the Bocchese, alist on the bow of the frigate, and or people of the Bocche (mouths) commenced an action, which conof the gulf, proceeded thither on tinued an hour and a half; when the 13th, and forcing the passage their sales and rigging being much between Castel Nuova and the fort cut, they drew off to repair daof Rosa, anchored his squadron mages. A man of war then apabove Castel Nuova. In the even- pearing in sight, the Royalist was ing he detached the boats of the dispatched to convey intelligence

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of the situation of affairs; and at any further opposition would have day-light, on the 21st, the Rippon been the extreme of rashness. took the advantage of a breeze to The part taken by the British close with the enemy. The Le squadron commanded by captain Weser bore up to the Rippon and Farquhar, of the Desirée, in reducstruck her colours, after having ing the French batteries near the exchanged two broadsides with the mouth of the Elbe, is reported by Scylla. She was so much crip- that officer in a letter, 'dated off pled, that sir C. Cole took on board - Cuxhaven, Dec. 1. In co-operathe greater part of the prisoners, tion with a body of Russian troops, and towed her into port. No' a line of gun-boats cannonaded great loss of men was, sustained on Fort Napoleon on Nov. 29th, and either side ; and the principal cre- in the meantime the ships were dit of the action was given to employed in landing guns, and capt. Macdonald for his perseve constructing a seaman's battery rance in attending on the enemy's within 400 yards of the strong motions.

battery of Phare, or Cuxhaven. A success of a similar kind was This was completed on the 30th ; obtained in the same month by the but before it began to fire, a flag capture of the frigate La Trave, of of truce was hoisted by the enemy, 28 French 18 pounders, and 16 and both batteries were surren18 pound carronades, with a crew dered, mounting 26 heavy guns of 321 men, nearly all Dutch. and iwo mortars, with a block. While sailing under jury masts, house, and a garrison of 300 men, near the entrance of the English who became prisoners of war. Channel, she was chased on Oct. Within the last ten days (says capt. 23rd by the Andromache, captain Farquhar) the small detachment Tobin, upon which she opened a of Russian troops, commanded by fire from her stern guns; but it col. Rodinger, assisted by his Mawas not returned till a position was jesty's squadron, have reduced four taken by the Andromache on her strong batteries, consisting of 50 weather quarter. She made a fee- heavy guns, 4 mortars, and 800 ble resistance for about 15 mi- men and officers, all made prisonnutes, and then struck her colours ; ers of war, This success was oband her captor observes, that such tained without any loss on the part was the disabled state of her masts, of the navy, and a trifling one on previously to the encounter, that that of the Russians.

Vol. LV.

[1]

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XII.

Retreat of the French from Wilna.--The Emperor of Russia's Proclamation. Capture of Kowno. Losses of the French to that period. D'Yorck's convention.-Koningsberg ana other Places taken by the Russians, who cross the Vistula... Situation of Prussia. The King retires to Breslau, and calls upon his Subjects to arm.-The Austrians abandon their Posts on the Narew, and the Russians enter Warsaw.Pillau surrendered, and Dantzic and Thorn invested.-- Austrians con, clude a Truce.Saxons pursued.-Proposed Mediation of the King of Prussia.-His Treaty of Alliance with the Russian Emperor.-Ring of Saxony quits Dresden.--The French evacuate Berlin.-Morand withdraws from Swedish Pomerania.-Russians enter Hamburg. Hanseatic Legion formed.-British take possession of Cuxhaven.Affair of Bremer-lee.-Russians cross the Elbe.Morand's Corps destroyed. Distribution of the allied Armies.---Thorn surrenders.-France.-Napoleon's Preparations. Concordat. Exposé.- Napoleon sets out for the Army. Position of the different forces.-Battle of Lutzen.-King of Saxony joins the French French cross the Elbe. Battles of Bautzen and Wurtschen.- Allies retreat towards the Oder, -An Action of Cavalry.-Breslau entered by Lauriston.-Affairs in the North.- Treaty between Sweden and England.-Hamburg occupied by the Russians, Danes, and Swedes.---Recovered by the French. Von Hess's Address to the Burgher Guard.-Napolcon proposes an Armistice.- Accepted.-Demarkation of Limits.- Napoleon's Decree from the Field of Wurtchen.

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THE close of the last year wit- command to the king of Naples. the recoil upon the French of their soon after broke up, leaving beinvasion of the Russian empire; hind them a great number of canwhilst, amid the rigours of a nor. non and large magazines; and on thern winter, pursued by an irri- the 12th, Field Marshal Kutusoff tated and continually augmenting established his head-quarters in that foe, harassed on every side

by bands city. On the same day the Emof hardy and active Cossacks, they peror Alexander issued a proclawere retracing their steps west- mation, in which, after stating the ward. The main army reached necessity of keeping up his forces Wilna in the beginning of De to an establishment adequate to cember 1812, where they were de- the circumstances of the time, he serted by Napoleon, who hastened ordered a general levy of eight back to Paris, delegating the chief men in every five hundred throughout the empire, with the exception the French by capture, up to the of some provinces which had been 26th of December, are stated in particular sufferers. That the losses the Russian accounts to amount to of the Russians, as well as those of 41 generals, 1298 officers, 167,510 their invaders, must have been non-commissioned and privates, very great during the campaign, and 1131 pieces of cannon. The cannot be doubted; and it was Emperor Alexander, on Dec. 22nd, highly important that the blow in- re-entered Wilna, which he had flicted on the French should be quitted to the invader about six followed up with vigour, and that months before. He issued thence such a countenance should be various regulations and decrees for shown, as would deter their am- restoring order in the provinces bitious ruler from any future at- which had been occupied by the tempt to carry the war into the enemy, and for the prevention of Russian territory.

infectious diseases from the wretchThe pursuit was eagerly conti ed prisoners, and the heaps of unpued, and few days occurred in buried carcasses. He attentively which the fugitives did not expe visited the hospitals, in which a rience some disaster. General Pla- shocking mortality long prevailed. toff destroyed a column of the ene- Marshal Macdonald retreated my near Wilna, on Dec. 11th, took from Riga, and was pursued by the a general and upwards of a thou- Marquis Paulucci, who, on Dec. sand soldiers. On the 14th, com- 27th, occupied Memel, making ing up with the French at Kowno, the garrison prisoners, and taking a town on the Niemen, in which possession of the magazines. The was a garrison defended by en- main retreating army in the meantrenchments, and redoubts on the time was followed by general Witheights, a cannonade was opened genstein, and the Hetman Platoff. on each side, which was main. The former, advancing along the tained till dark. Platoff having Niemen towards Tilsit, succeeded sent a regiment of Don Cossacks in cutting off Macdonald from the across the Niemen on the ice, in body of Prussians under general order to menace the enemy on the D'Yorck, and reduced the latter to opposite bank, two columns of enter into a convention, by which French made a sortie at the ap- he agreed to remain neutral with proach of night, which were at- the troops under his command, tacked by the Cossacks, and thrown consisting of about 15,000 men, ininto disorder with considerable fantry and cavalry. The terms were loss. One part of them filed along highly liberal towards the Prusthe river, while the other took the sians, who at this time were road to Wilkowski, still pursued scarcely regarded as enemies by the by their indefatigable foe. Kowno Russians; and though the king of was captured with all the French Prussia was at present necessitated who remained in it; and in the to seem to disapprove the conduct pursuit of three successive days, of D'Yorck, it can scarcely be 5,000 prisoners were made, and 21 doubted that he secretly concurred pieces of cannon fell into the hands in it. On the other hand the of the victors. The total losses of French, who probably regarded

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