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imperial guards. The viceroy of rode's corps from Leipzic on the Italy, Eugene Beauharnois, was road to Weissenfels to make a reappointed second in command, and connoissance. This corps came to Berthier, chief of the staff. The action on May 1st, by which it several corps were placed under was ascertained that the enemy's generals and marshals, long known chief force was in the vicinity of in the service. Such was the mighty Weissenfels and Lutzen, whilst the force with which the ruler of the viceroy's position appeared to be fate of France moved to another, between Leipzic and Halle. Witand, as was generally thought, a genstein therefore resolved to pre.concluding campaign.

vent the enemy's operations by The march of the different.di- making a previous attack upon his visions of the French was directed principal force, and with that view so as to form a junction near Jena, marched in the night between the and upon the Saale. Marshal Ney, 1st and 2nd of May to the defile of who took the lead on the left, ar- the Elster, in the vicinity of Pegau. rived in front of Erfurt on April At day-break the allied army 21st, and the intermediate corps passed the defile, and were drawn were rapidly closing in. The allied up on the left bank of the Elster. armies of Russians and Prussians The enemy's main body was exhad for some time been concen- tended beyond Weissenfels, with trating in the neighbourhood of its centre at the village of Gross Leipsic. The death of the veteran Groschen, and reaching to Lutzen, chief, Kụtusoff, on bis march, had the plain of which was the scene transferred the supreme command of the famous battle in which the to Witgenstein, whose head-quar. great Gustavus lost his life. About ters were at Doelisch, to the north noon, Blucher with the vanguard of Leipsic, whilst those of the moved to the attack of the French, Prussian general Blucher were at posted in Gross Groschen, which ·Altenburg, to the south of that village he carried by storm after city. The French commanders an obstinate defence. The battle successively crossed the Saale with soon became general along the greater or less opposition, whilst line. The villages in front were the Russian and Prussian forces several times taken and retaken, formed an union between Leipzic and the action continued with great and Altenburg. Napoleon joined carnage till dear seven in the evenhis troops, and took the command; ing. The result was, that the aland the emperor of Russia and lies kept possession of the field, king of Prussia animated their re- and that after the following day spective armies by their personal had passed without fighting, the presence. On April 30th, Witgen- French retreated, and Napoleon stein having received intelligence established his head quarters at which convinced him that it was Querfurt. The losses on each the intention of the French to make side are so differently stated, that a junction between that part of they cannot be spoken of with any the army which was under the certainty. The allies acknowcommand of the viceroy, and the ledged only about 10,000 killed main body, sent general Wintzing. and wounded, and had not a single

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cannon taken, whilst they made army, consisting, it is said, of prize of ten pieces of the enemy. more than 100.000 men, with a The principal loss fell on the numerous artillery, planned an Prussians, and among other staff attack upon the allies in front, officers, the prince of Hesse-Hom- whilst the force under Ney, Lauri. burg was killed. The French re- ston, and Regnier, should move turned their loss at the same num- from their position to the north of ber, and that of their opponents at Bautzen, and turn the right of the double or triple. From the supe- allies. Witgenstein, having peneriority of the French artillery, it is trated into this latter design, deprobable that the allies were the termined to counteract it by a se greatest sufferers. But whatever parate attack on the corps of those were the events on the field, it generals, which he entrusted to cannot be doubted, from the con- generals Barclay de Tolly and sequences, that the engagement D'Yorck. They engaged with Lauwas the most severely felt by the riston and Ney on the 19th, and allied army, which made little op- evere action is said, in the Rusposition to the advance of the sian account, to have terminated French to the Elbe, which river in favour of the allies. At least it they crossed at Dresden, and Meis- is certain that it frustrated this part sen, on the 6th and 7th, and Na- of the plan. The grand attack by poleon took up his quarters at the the French main army commenced former city on the 8th. The king at four in the morning of May of Saxony now joined his arms to 20th. The passage of the Spree those of the French emperor, in was forced by the corps of Oudinot, consequence of which, marshal Macdonald, and Marmont, and a Ney was admitted into Torgau. furious assault was made on the The French had already possessed centre of the allies, commanded by themselves of Leipzic. Their Miloradovitch, which he resisted troops continued to advance, and with great steadiness. At length, the main army of the allies to re- after seven hours hard fighting, the tire before them; and on the 12th numbers and impetuosity of the and 15th, marshal Macdonald French so far prevailed, that the came in contact with the Russian allies were obliged to fall back to rear-guard under Miloradovitch, their second position, near Hochand some actions of no great mo. kirchen. ment were brought on. In the On the 21st, another very sanmeantime Ney and Lauriston guinary conflict took place. Nacrossed the Elbe at Torgau, with poleon, in person, taking the comthe intention of acting on the mand of his whole assembled forces, right of the allies. The latter, who moved at day-break to the attack had conducted their retreat in such of the allies in advance of Würts. good order as not to lose a single chen and Hochkirchen. The degun, took up their first position on tails of this engagement are not the heights overhanging the Spree, intelligible without plans. On the with the centre of the front line whole it appears that the allies, behind Bautzen. On the 19th, who are represented as much inNapoleon, having joined his main ferior in number, were strongly

posted on a chain of heights con- however, gradually advanced with nected with the range of moun- no effectual opposition through tains separating Lusatia from Bo- Silesia towards the Oder, and Nahemia, which bounded them on poleon established his head-quartheir left, whilst their right termi- ters on the 31st at Neumarkt, not nated in a flat and woody country; far from Breslau, which capital that the enemy's first attack was was entered by Lauriston on directed on their flanks, but soon June 1st. became general; that the line of During the course of these oc. the allies resisted in every other currences, important transactions part, but the right Aank, under the were taking place in the north of command of Barclay de Tolly, be- Europe. Sweden, which, under ing urged by a very superior force, the dictates of a cautious policy, was obliged to change its position though obviously liberating herand though supported by Blucher, self from all the restrictions imKleist, and D’Yorck, and recover, posed by her connections with ing part of its ground, was at France, had hitherto only asserted length so much outflanked by the an independent neutrality, was inenemy, that at five in the evening duced by the turn which affairs the allied army found it necessary had taken, openly to join the cause to retreat. The loss of the French of the allies. Of this resolution during these two days, is stated by she gave a public declaration by themselves at 11 or 12,000 men in forming, in March, a treaty of al. killed and wounded, and the duke liance and subsidy with the court of Friuli (Duroc) was among the of Great Britain. Its terms will former. The allies also claimed be found in the State Papers, and the capture of 3,000 French prison- have also been already mentioned ers and 12 pieces of cannon, and as a subject of debate in parliaasserted that the enemy had no ment. It will be sufficient here to trophies of war to show on their notice that they refer to engageparts. It is almost needless to sayments already subsisting between that the French statements gave a the courts of Stockholm and Pevery different view of these re- tersburg, and that they bind Swesults. The general event however den to employ a force of not less was, that the allies continued re- than 30,000 men, under the comtreating, but in good order, and mand of the Crown Prince, in a intent upon taking every opportu- direct operation against the comnity to check the impetuosity of mon enemy upon the continent, ibeir advancing foe. A brilliant in conjunction with the Russian action in which the Prussian ca- troops. They also stipulate the valry under Blucher defeated, on union of Norway with the kingthe 26ih, a French division of in- dom of Sweden, as the result of fantry marching from Haynau, a co-operation of the three powers. under general Maison, is men- From the time of the signature of tioned with distinction in the dis- this treaty, the preparations of the patches of sir Charles Stewart, Swedes to fulfil their part of the The British resident with the allied conditions were carried on with army. The different French corps, vigour ; and though their accession cannon taken, whilst they made army, consisting, it is said, of prize of ten pieces of the enemy. more than 100,000 men, with a The principal loss fell on the numerous artillery, planned an Prussians, and among other staff, attack upon the allies in front, officers, the prince of Hesse-Hom- whilst the force under Ney, Lauri. burg was killed.

The French re- ston, and Regnier, should move turned their loss at the same num- from their position to the north of ber, and that of their opponents at Bautzen, and turn the right of the double or triple. From the supe- allies. Witgenstein, having peneriority of the French artillery, it is trated into this latter design, deprobable that the allies were the termined to counteract it by a segreatest sufferers. But whatever parate attack on the corps of those were the events on the field, it generals, which he entrusted to cannot be doubted, from the con- generals Barclay de Tolly and sequences, that the engagement D’Yorck. They engaged with Lauwas the most severely felt by the riston and Ney on the 19th, and allied army, which made little op- a severe action is said, in the Rusposition to the advance of the sian account, to have terminated French to the Elbe, which river in favour of the allies. At least it they crossed at Dresden, and Meis- is certain that it frustrated this part sen, on the 6th and 7th, and Na- of the plan. The grand attack by poleon took up his quarters at the the French main army commenced former city on the 8th. The king at four in the morning of May of Saxony now joined his arms to 20th. The passage of the Spree those of the French emperor, in was forced by the corps of Oudinot, consequence of which, marshal Macdonald, and Marmont, and a Ney was admitted into Torgau. furious assault was made on the The French had already possessed centre of the allies, commanded by themselves of Leipzic. Their Miloradovitch, which he resisted troops continued to advance, and with great steadiness. At length, the main army of the allies to re- after seven hours hard fighting, the tire before them; and on the 12th numbers and impetuosity of the and 15th, marshal Macdonald French so far prevailed, that the came in contact with the Russian allies were obliged to fall back to rear-guard under Miloradovitch, their second position, near Hochand some actions of no great mo. kirchen. ment were brought on. In the On the 21st, another very sanmeantime Ney and Lauriston guinary conflict took place. Na crossed the Elbe at Torgau, with poleon, in person, taking thom the intention of acting on the mand of his wholes ml right of the allies. The latter, who moved at day-br had conducted their retreat in such of the allies in good order as not to lose a single chen and H gun, took up their first position on tails of the heights overhanging the Spree, int *** with the centre of the front line behind Bautzen. On the 19th, Napoleon, having joined his main

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prince, whose plans would not Although Napoleon had asto-, allow him to divide his forces, and nished. all Europe with the efforts who was now, through the failure he had been able to make after the of the negociations between the destruction of his veteran armies, allies and Denmark; become a de- in the Russian campaign, and by, clared enemy, of that kingdom, his successes had retrieved in a found himself under the necessity great measure that, military re. of recalling these troops. The nown which he had been in dan-, protection of Hamburg was there- ger of losing, yet he must have fore abandoned ; and on May 30th, been sensible that his advance from general Tettenborne with all the the Saale to the Oder was a series. military, evacuated it, and 5,000 of hard-fought battles, in which his. Danes with 1,500. French, under best troops were gradually melting the command of general Bruyere, away; and that the further he made their entry unopposed. A proceeded, the more distant he. patriotic citizen, Mr. Von Hess, was from his supplies, whilst the , addressed the Burgher guard, of allies were getting into the heart. which he had been appointed com- of theirs. Additional .conquests mander, in a last order of the day, could no longer form a part of his conceived in terms worthy of a plan; and he was to consider how noble mind feeling the misfortunes he should retain the advantages he of his native country, and yielding had gained, and his predominance, to present circumstances, without in the system of Europe, against despairing for the future. 6. The which he saw new confederacies events of the war (says he call the rising. Encouraged, therefore, by Russian army tò more decisive the Austrian cabinet, which was successes. A dark concatenation now in a state of apparent neutraof impenetrable misunderstandings lity, he transmitted to the emperor compels the sons of the north, who Alexander proposals for an armi. were destined to our assistance, to stice, preparatory to a congress for witness our fate, if not with in- a general peace to be holden at difference, at least without doing Prague. À cessation of hostilities any thing to avert it.” In conclu- in consequence took place on the sion, he requests his fellow-citi- first of June, and the armistice zens to reserve to other times that was ratified on the 4th, Its arti. ardent feeling of hatred to the cles minutely described the line despotism which again threatens of demarkation between the belli. their desolated town, and to re- gerent powers during the contimove their persons to places where nuance of the armistice, and apa they may await the moment of the pointed a number of regulations overthrow of tyranny. The loss of with relation to the besieged towns, Hamburg was severely felt by the and other circumstances. The line allies both in a military and a com. on each side proceeded from the mercial view; and it seems difficult frontiers of Bohemia, on different to justify, if not the final desertion tracks, to the Oder, and thence to of its defence, at least some of the the Elbe, down to its mouth, leavprevious measures which only adde ing a neutral territory between ed to its calamities.

them, not to be occupied by the

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