troops on either side; and in this the front, looking towards Paris, space Breslau was comprized. All shall be inscribed the names of all Saxony, Dessau, and the small our cantons of departments on this states surrounding the princes of side the Alps. Upon the front, the confederation of the Rhine, looking towards Milan, shall be were left to be occupied by the inscribed the names of all our canFrench army; and all Prussia by tons of departments beyond the the allied army; and the Prussian Alps, and of our kingdom of Italy. territories in Saxony were to be on the most conspicuous part of neutral. The term of the armi- the monument shall be engraved stice was fixed to the 20th of July; the following inscription : The emand hostilities were not to recom• peror Napoleon, upon the field of mence without six days' notice. battle of Wurtchen, ordered the It may

be interesting to record erection of this monument as a a proof, given at this period, of the proof of his gratitude to his people confidence with which the French of France and Italy; and to transruler looked forward to the secu- mit to the most distant posterity rity of his widely extended em- the remembrance of that celebrated pire. From the field of battle of epoch, when, in three months, Wurtchen, he issued the following 1,200,000 men ran to arms to indecree: “ A monument shall be sure the integrity of the empire, erected on Mount Cenis. Upon and of his allies."

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Armistice prolonged.--Congress at Prague.-Hostilities resumed.

Austrian Declaration of War against France.-Crown-Prince of Sweden at the Head of the combined Army of the North of Germany:Advances to Berlin.- Interview of the Sovereigns at Prague.-Their Plans.-- Action between Blucher and the French on the Bober.-French driven back to Dresden.-Atlack of the Allies on that City.Their retreat into Bohemia.- Defeat of Vandamme.-Blucher's Defeat of Macdonald.-Silesia freed from the Enemy.-Crown-Prince's Advance.-Victory at Juterboch.-Davoust's Retreat from Mecklenburg. -Actions in Bohemia.-Allies assemble around Leipzic.-Cassel taken and retaken.-Bremen recovered.- Napoleon quits Dresden.--Alliance between Austria and Bavaria.-Blucher's Victory near Leipzic.Grand Attack upon Leipzic and its Capture.-- Retreat of the French Army.--Action with General Wrede at Hanau.- Napoleon arrives with his Army at Mentz.

leon took up


his residence tions for the renewal of war. The chiefly at Dresden, where he em- king of Prussia published a deployed himself in reviewing the cree for a levy en-masse in his doreinforcements of troops that were minions, for its internal defence, frequently arriving from France, whilst its regular army should be and in occasional visits to the for. employed in concert with that of tified places in the vicinity, which the other allies. But it was to were diligently strengthened, and Austria that the public attention put in the best possible state of was chiefly directed, where the defence. Negociations proceeded great augmentation of the forces, but slowly, and a convention was and the warlike measures of diffe signed at Neumarkt for the pro- rent kinds, announced designs of longation of the armistice to the higher purpose than merely main10th of August. The members of taining a posture of neutrality. the proposed congress assembled at Towards the end of July the troops Prague, who were, on the part of of the line quitted Vienna, and the the French emperor, the count burgher guard performed duty in de Narbonne and Caulincourt; the city and suburbs. Levies were of the emperor of Russia, the carried on through all the herediprivy councillor D'Anstett; of the tary dominions; the arsenals were king of Prussia, baron Humbolt; filled with artillery and ammuniof the emperor of Austria, the tion, and an extensive enrolment count Metternich. Meantime all or insurrection was organized in Hungary. On the other side, Ba. consented to an alliance which varia took the alarm, and levied might incline the stronger and additional forces, besides placing victorious party to a

course of its fortresses in the best condition. moderation and justice; an effect

At length the armistice termi- which he had the more reason to nated without having produced expect, as at that time the emperor the effect of opening a road to Napoleon had attained that point peace; and Barclay de Tolly, now at which the preservation of his commander-in-chief of the allied conquests was a more natural obarmy, announced from his head- ject than a struggle after new quarters at Reichenbach to the possessions. In 1810, however, French general, the prince of Neuf- he resolved to unite a considerachatel, the re-commencement of ble portion of the north of Gerhostilities on August 17th. On many, with the free cities of Ham. the 11th count Metternich deli- burg, Bremen, and Lubeck, to the vered to the count de Narbonne mass of the French empire, withat Prague, a declaration of war by out any other pretext than that Austria against France. This im- the war with England required it. portant document, styled a mani. The manifesto proceeds to make a festo, began with adverting to the number of observations on the efpart which Austria had been com- fects of this usurpation, particularly pelled to take in the wars that for on the alarm it might justly excite twenty years past had desolated Eu- in Prussia and Russia, and consirope, during which his imperial ders it decisive of a future rupture majesty's only object had been, self. between Russia and France. It preservation, and the maintenance then touches, in the way of apoof the social system, without any logy, upon the part Austria had views of conquest or aggrandize- been obliged to take in the war ment. He then took notice of the with Russia, and on the events of cession of his provinces on the that war. Its result was a confeAdriatic, which was the result of deracy which presented a point of the war of 1809, and which would union to the neighbouring states; have been a still more sensible and in all parts of Germany the blow, had not at the same time desires of the people anticipated the whole continent been closed the proceedings of their governby a general destructive system ments. The Austrian cabinet, as prohibiting all commercial inter- far back as December, took steps

Convinced of the impos- to dispose the French emperor to sibility in the existing state of Eu- peaceful policy, but to all its adrope of any improvement in its vances the answer was, that he political condition from the exer- would listen to no proposals of tions of individual powers, and peace that should violate the inthat a peace of some continuance tegrity of the French empire, in was necessary for the restoration the French sense of the word. This of his own and the neighbouring was the more mortifying to Austria, states, he made a sacrifice of what as it placed her invitations to peace, was dearest to his heart, and “ex- made with the consent of France, alted above all common scruples," to other courts, in a false and dis



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advantageous light; and when á office of mediator, with the prominister was sent to London to in- traction of the armistice. Another vite England to share in a nego- attempt for including the British ciation for peace, the British mi- government in the negociation is nistry replied, “that they could then mentioned, to which Naponot believe that Austria still enleon at first gave his approbation, tertained hopes of peace, when the but after various delays, finally reemperor Napoleon at the same fused to grant passports to the pertime expressed sentiments which sons who were to proceed through could only tend to the perpetuation France to England for the purof war." It now became evident pose. Other circumstances are then that either by negociation or by mentioned, to shew that France was force of arms a new state of things disinclined to take any serious step must be effected. Austria made to facilitate a treaty. At length preparations for war, which even “ the Congress was at an end, and Napoleon acknowledged to be ne- the resolution which Austria had cessary. The actions which brought to form was previously determined, on the retreat of the ailies, and the by the progress of the negociation, armistice, rendered it still more by the actual conviction of the impossible for the emperor of Aus. impossibility of peace, by the no tria to remain an inactive spectatore longer doubtful point of view in The state of the Prussian monarchy, which his majesty examined the in particular, attracted his atten- great question in dispute, by the tion, its restoration being the first principles and intentions of the step towards that of the political allies, wherein the emperor recogsystem of Europe. As early as the nised his own; and finally, by the month of April, Napoleon had former positive declarations, which suggested to the Austrian cabinet, left no room for misconception.” that he regarded the dissolution of Such was the general substance that monarchy as a natural con- of this state paper, in which, sequence of its defection from though ably drawn up, may be disFrance, and that it now only de- cerned the difficulty of conciliating pended on Austria to add the most the past measures of a temporising flourishing of its provinces to her policy, with the principles of jus

, own state, a sufficient indication tice, and regard to the public good, that no means were to be neglected which are represented as having to save that power either by ne- dictated so important a change. It gociation or arms. The manifesto is manifest, however, that, as in then takes notice of the congress the case of Prussia, the new prosof Prague, which, when first pro- pects opened of freeing the Euposed by Napoleon, was perfectly ropean continent from an unknown to the Austrian cabinet, whelming power, wielded by in. which became acquainted with it satiable ambition, were the real only by the medium of the public motives which induced Austria to papers. It states the reasons for desert her connection with France, ihe emperor's concurrence in this and join the allies ; and if an apoproject, and his acceptance of the logy were necessary for this conVOL. LV.



duct, the same which applied to depended upon is contained in difPrussia would serve for her. The ferent despatches from sir Charles circumstance itself was decisive of Stewart. From these, it appears, the future contest; for such a that the first object of the alliesweight thrown into a scale already was, to attack the enemy in front nearly upon the balance, could not and rear if he should still maintain fail to make it preponderate. A his forward positions in Lusatia treaty of alliance between Austria, and on the right bank of the Elbe. Russia, Prussia, and Great Britain, For this purpose, while the main was the concomitant of this de- Russian army under Barclay de claration.

Tolly, and the Prussian corps of The Prince-Royal of Sweden, Kleist, with the whole Austrian with the title of generalissimo of army, were to act from Bohemia, the combined army of the north under the chief command of prince of Germany, addressed a procla- Schwartzenberg, Blucher's corps mation to his troops from Oranien- d'armée, composed of a division burgh, on August 15th, in which of Prussians, and two Russian dihe called upon their exertions for visions, was to move from Silesia, restoring the liberty of Europe. and threaten the enemy in front. He was at Potsdam on the follow. Blucher accordingly advanced,and ing day, and on the 18th removed the enemy abandoning Buntzlaw his head-quarters to Charlotten- after destroying their works, he burg. As advice had been received arrived on the Bober. that the enemy were assembling there attacked by the French in in force at Bareuth, with the in- great force on August 21 st, Napotention of making a push on Ber. leon himself being said to have lin, he concentrated his army be- commanded in person, and after a tween that capital and Spandau, severe contest, Blucher retired with to the number, it was said, of loss. The grand armies on the Bonearly 90,000 men. Napoleon was hemian side passed the frontiers at this time actively occupied, on the 20th and 21st, and were sometimes on the banks of the met by the enemy on the frontiers ; Bober, sometimes upon the de- and although the latter contested bouches from Bohemia, and some- every inch of ground, they were times on the Elbe, and various driven back towards Dresden from military operations took place, the all their positions. The principal results of which were stated in the action was between the right corps French papers as favourable to of the allies under Witgenstein, their arms. The two allied em- which had pushed before the rest, perors and the king of Prussia had and the French under Gouvion St. an interview in the middle of this Cyr, which terminated in the remonth at Prague, at which capital treat of the latter. The allies conseveral detachments of the Aus; tinued to move forward, till, on trian guard arrived. Their con- the 26th, their respective advanced ferences, terminated in a plan of guards encamped on the heights offensive measures, of which the above Dresden. On the following relation probably most to be day the enemy abandoned their

He was

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