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ground before that city, and with men, which chiefly fell upon the drew into the suburbs and their Austrians. different works. At this time sir C. On the following day the French Stewart says, that perhaps the his- became the assailants. Napoleon, tory of war does not afford a period supported by an immense artillery, in which two great armies stood moved to the attack of the allies, committed to such bold operations. who occupied a very extended po: It had been the business of se- sition on the heights surrounding veral months, during the occupa- Dresden. The battle was chiefly tion of Dresden by the French, to carried on by cannonade, though strengthen it with fortifications, on charges were made in different which all the art of the engineer parts by the allied cavalry, whieh had been bestowed, and Napoleon had to contend with bad roads and was within its walls with a force incessant rain. The main bodies of estimated at 130,000 men. The infantry on each side did not come determination of the allied gene- into contact. Among the disasters rals to make an assault upon it, of the day was the mortal wound cannot therefore but be regarded received by the celebrated General as of extraordinary boldness. An Moreau, who had left his retreat attack upon the Grossen Garten, in America to visit his old fellowor gardens in front of the town, soldier, the Crown Prince of Swe. on the morning of the 27th, by den, and had engaged in that party the light troops of Witgenstein which he regarded as the true cause and Kleist, was attended with of liberty and mankind. As he some loss. At four in the even- was conversing with the emperor' ing of that day, the allied army, of Russia, a cannon shot which in different columns, moved to the passed through his horse carried grand assault under a tremendous off one of his legs and shattered cannonade. The Austrians took the other; and after suffering two an advanced redoubt not 60 yards amputations with great fortitude, from the main wall, and the troops he died of the consequences, uni. on all sides with the most un- versally regretted by those whom daunted courage approached close he had joined. The result of the to the town. But the enemy re- day was, that the allies retreated in tired from their outworks only to the evening, with an acknowledged take shelter behind new defences, loss of 6 or 7,000 men. The French and the thick walls of the town accounts of the two actions swell resisted the impression of the ar- the losses to an exorbitant amount. tillery. At the approach of night That the check was severe, appeara sortie was made by the Frenched from the retrograde movements guards, amounting to 30,000 men, of the allies, which were directed with the intention to separate the upon Bohemia, across the range allied troops, and to take one wing of mountains which separate that in front and rear. This was frus- kingdom from Saxony. It was not trated by a skilful disposition, but to be expected that they should reno hope now remained of carry- treat unmolested, from such an ing the place. The loss in this as- enemy as they had to contend with. sault is estimated at about 4,000 A large division of the French ar
my, under generals. Vandamine Blucher having been again attack and Bertrand, crossing the Elbe at: ed on August 22nd, near Goldberg, Pirna and Konigstein, pre-occu. after a sanguinary conflict retired pied the pass in the mountains at upon Jauer. On the 25th, marshal: Osterwalde, through which the Macdonald, who occupied a very Russian column under count Os- strong position near that place,adterman was to proceed on the vanced with the expectation of road to Toplitz; and it became carrying it; but he was himself necessary for the Russians to force attacked by Blucher on the 26th, their way with the bayonet. The and after a severe action, termireserves of the Russian guards were nated only by the night, the French sent to their support, and during were driven back upon the Kats. the greatest part of the day on bach. That river being swoln by the 30th, they remained in action rains, and its bridges being broken, with the enemy.
The king of afforded no passage for. artillery : Prussia, who was at Toplitz, made so that on the following and sucvery able dispositions to reinforce ceeding day, the combat being reOsterman, and the result of the newed, the French incurred a loss day was, the loss of 3,000 killed and estimated at 18,000 prisoners, inwounded of the Russians, and a cluding a general of division and much greater of the French. The two generals of brigade, 103 pieces following day proved decisive re- of cannon, a great quantity of amspecting this division of the enemy, munition and provision, iwo ea. whose rapid advance rendered an gles, and other trophies of victory. attack upon them necessary, in or- The allies continued to advance der to give time for the retiring till, on September 2nd, Blucher, columns of the allies to fall back, encamped near Gorlitz in Lusatia, and to extricate general Kleist, was able to congratulate his troops who was still engaged in the on the deliverance of Silesia from mountains. The French had taken the enemy. a strong position at Kulm, three The Crown Prince of Sweden, German miles from Toplitz, when whom we left posted in advance an united force of Russians and of Berlin for the defence of that Austrians, under Miloradovitch and capital, had his head-quarters on Coloredo, commenced their attack. August 30th at Belitz, to the south In the midst of it Kleist was seen of Potsdam. Parties from his army descending the mountains on the had been successful against the rear of the enemy, who, thus as- French, and were in possession of sailed on all sides, was completely several places further southward. put to the rout, the immediate The Prince, on September 4th, befruits of the victory being the cap- ing on his march, with an intenture of Vandamme and six other tion of crossing the Elbe, and progeneral officers, all his baggage, ceeding towards Leipzic, was in60 pieces of artillery, and about formed that the enemy, after mak. 10,000 prisoners.
ing a demonstration of passing to In the mean time the arms of the left side of that river, had sudthe allies were crowned with suc- denly returned to their entrenchcess in another quarter. Generalments in advance of Wittenberg.
Conjecturing their intention to be the enemy's loss in killed, woundeither to attack the combined ar- ed, and prisoners, at from 16 to my as it was crossing the Elbe, or 18,000 men, with more than 50 to push for Berlin, he made a pieces of cannon, and 400 ammuhalt, and soon learned, that the nition waggons. The loss of the enemy was marching upon Zahne, allies fell almost solely upon the where a corps belonging to count Prussians,who had from 4 to 5,000 Tauentzein's division was posted. killed and wounded. This battle They attacked that post in the was fought near the village of evening of the 4th, but without Dennewitz, whose name it bears.
On the 5th the attack The French retired upon Torgau, was renewed with a force so supe- still pursued by the light troops of rior, that the post, and another at the combined army, who made Seyda, were carried. On the 6th, 800 prisoners close to the tête-duthe Crown Prince having collected pont of that town. Whilst these the Swedish and Russian armies events were passing in this quarupon the heights of Lobessen, was ter, the prince of Eckmuhl (Dainformed that the enemy's whole voust) in the night between the army, consisting of 70,000 men, 2nd and 3rd of Sept. evacuated and composed of the corps d'armée Schwerin in Mecklenburgh, and reof the marshal duke of Reggio, treated in two columns to Ratzeof the generals Bertrand and Reg- burg, the division of general Loinier, of the duke of Padua, and son at the same time retiring from a body of Polish horse, the whole Wismar to Schoneburg. At this under the command of the mar- place the Danes separated from shal prince of Moskwa, Ney, was the French, and marched to Luin full march upon Juterbock. He beck, where they left a garrison, immediately directed gen. Bulow, The whole French corps afterwith the Prussians, to attack the wards fell back behind the Stecke. Aank and rear of the enemy, be- nitz, where they entrenched theinfore Tauentzein, who defended selves, having suffered considerable the approaches of the town, should loss in their precipitate retreat. be overwhelmed by numbers. The These important successes to the action soon commenced between allied arms more than compenthe enemy and the Prussians, who sated their failure before Dresden, sustained with great firmness the and on the 4th and 5th of Septemforce of superior numbers, whilst ber, the combined army in Bohethe Swedes and Russians, after a
mia made a forward movement, long march, were getting into or- the effect of which was, to recall der of battle. Part of their cavalry Napoleon from a meditated attack arriving at full speed checked the upon Blucher, who had fallen back efforts of the enemy, and as soon before the superior forces brought as the columns began to appear, against him. The Russians and the day was decided, and the Prussians, under Barclay de Tolly French beat a retreat. They were and Witgenstein,re-entered Saxony vigorously pursued; and the re- by Peterswalde and Marienberg, sult on the 8th, was a return of and pushed advanced posts within
sight of Dresden; while prince Nollendorff in considerable force, Schwartzenberg, with a large part and on the 17th Napoleon made of the Austrian army, marched by an attempt to turn the flanks of the Aussig and Leutmeritz, and threw allies, and at the same time to a great force on the enemy's right force their centre, in which he in Lusatia. On the 8th Witgen: seems to have, had some partial stein's corps, and a part of Kleist's success; but a tiovely and skilful under the command of gen. Ziethe movement of count Coloredo deen, which had advanced to the feated the plan, by attacking the Elbe above Dresden,were attacked enemy's column which had gained by a strong body of the enemy, the right, and which was obliged which obliged Witgenstein to eva. to retreat with the loss of 2 or 3,000 cuate the village of Dohna, and prisoners. The French still reretreat towards Peterswalde, Piroa tained possession of Nollendorff being still occupied by Zeithen. and the heights, from which, howThe enemy continued to advance ever, they withdrew on the 20th, on the 9tli
, while the allies fell falling back towards Dresden. At back, disputing every inch of length the whole measured back ground. The Austrians, who had their steps to the Elbe, in wretched advanced to Leutmeritz and Aussig, condition, and having suffered
now ordered to counter- severe losses among the mountains, march, and the allies began to as well from want and fatigue, as collect all their forces near Toplitz, from the enemy. By this expein order to resist the numerous dition nothing more was effected forces of the enemy, with Napo- than giving a temporary check to leon in person, who seemed to pur. the allies in their efforts to regain pose a general attack. By the 12th the command of the Elbe and they had advanced close to Kulm; expel the French from Saxony. but at this time above half the Blucher at this time was posted Austrian corps had rejoined the at Bautzen, where he maintained a army, and had taken a position communication with the grand with it. After a reconnoissance, allied army. The Crown Prince therefore, the French emperor had his head-quarters at Zerbst, thought proper to commence a and held advanced posts on the retreat.
Elbe, some detachments of his On the 15th prince Schwartzen- cavalry acting on the left bank of herg caused a general charge to be that river. Count Walmoden, made on the enemy wherever an commanding a body of allies on advantageous opportunity could be the lower Elbe, having been infound, and several vigorous attacks formed that Davoust had detached were the result. · Count Pahlen the generalofdivision, Pecheux,with was opposed by a French advanced his corps, to the left bank ofthe Elbe, corps under general Bonnet,which in order to clear it, and advance tomade a good stand, but was at wards Magdeburg,crossed that river Jength obliged to retire. On the on September 14th near Domitz, 16th the French occupied the and marched to meet him. On the mountain and heights in front of 16th he brought the enemy to action, whom he entirely defeated quarters there. The situation of and dispersed, with a loss of from the French was rendered more cri1,500 to 2,000 in killed and wound. tical by the parties of the allies ed, and 1,500 prisoners, with eight which were spreading in his rear, pieces of artillery.
and impeding all communication The allies now began to put in between them and France. Platoff execution a grand plan of co-ope- covered the country on the Saale ration, which was to be decisive of and Mulda, and between them and the result of the campaign. A the Elbe, with detachments of his large force, composed of Russians Cossacks. The Russian general and Prussians, with the entire Czernicheff, after three successful Austrian
army of Bohemia, de actions, pushed on to Cassel, which bouched from the passes through he entered by capitulation on 30th the Erzegeberg,
and marched by September, the petty king Jerome Chemnitz and Freyberg towards having only two hours before taken Leipzic. The intelligence of this his Aight towards Frankfort. It movement determined the Crown was not long, however, before he Prince to attempt the passage of was replaced in his capital. In the the Elbe. As he was making his north of Germany the allied arms preparations, he received informa- obtained the same superiority ; and tion from general Blucher of his general Tettenborne, on October intention to move his army to the 14th, entered Bremen by composi. Elbe, and cross that river at Elster. tion, the garrison being allowed to This he effected on October 3, and depart on condition of not serving was immediately after engaged against the allies for a year. with the 4th French corps under Leipzic being the point to which general Bertrand, which was in the great efforts of the allies were trenched at a neighbouring village. directed, the possession of which A sanguinary conflictensued, which was of the highest importance to terminated in the rout of the each party, Napoleon found it neFrench with great loss. Blucher cessary on October 7th to quit afterwards fixed his head-quarters Dresden in company with the king at Kremberg, and pushed his of Saxony, and take post at Rochcavalry to Duben, within twenty litz, about forty miles to the west miles of Leipzic. The Crown of that city, and twenty-five to the Prince in the meantime, whose south of Leipzic. He there asadvancedguard, after taking posses- sembled his forces to the supposed sion of Dessau, had been obliged number of 180,000 men, excluto relinquish it, caused a bridge to sively of his garrisons, which might be thrown over the Elbe, lower amount to 30,000 more. They down at Ackėn; and learning the were chiefly stationed on the right success of Blucher, he passed his bank of the Mulda, on a line pawhole army on the 4th, partly at rallel to that of the Elbe. Leipzic that place, and partly at Rosslau. is placed nearly midway between The French, under Ney, now re- the Mulda and the Saale ; the pastreated from Dessau,lest they should sage of the latter river, therefore, be placed between two fires, and by the army of the Crown Prince, the Crown Prince took up his would enable him to advance upon