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Although the splendid services ceeds, “ Your Excellency also of the marquis of Wellington, and knows, that this is not the first inthe necessity of bringing the Spa- stance in whichthat contract,formed nish armies into a state of effectual with so much solemnity, and after operativn, had caused the appoint- such mature deliberation, has been ment of his lordship to the high post violated; and no one can be more of captain-general and commander- fully aware than yourself, of the in-chief of the troops of Spain, yet inconveniencies which thence resymptoms had on different occa- sult to the good of the service. sions appeared of that national jea- Your Excellency is equally well lousy which naturally attends upon acquainted with my natural disa foreigner placed rather by cir- position, and my wishes to conticumstances than by good will in an nue to serve the Spanish nation, office of great authority and trust; as far as my abilities extend: but and his lordship's patience and mo- forbearance and submission to inderation had more than once been juries so great, have their limits; exercised by the contradictions he and I avow that I have been treathad experienced. At length, the ed by the Spanish government in recall, by the Regency, of general those matters, in a manner the Castanos from the army, under the most improper, even simply as an pretext of employing him as a individual.”". We are not informed counsellor of state, obliged lord of the direct result of this letter; Wellington to break silence, and but the name of Giron is afteraddress a public letter to the Spa- wards found in active service with nish secretary at war, Don Juan lord Wellington. O'Donoju, dated from Huarte, ,

For a considerable time past the July 2nd. It begins with referring General and Extraordinary Cortes to the alleged reason of the re- had been the body, by whom the moval of general Castanos, name- great business of the renovation of ly, because he was not at the head Spain, and the formation of its of the 4th army which the Re- constitution, was conducted; but gency had intrusted to him ; and the time was now arrived in which it enters into a particular expla- it was to resign its authority to nation of the causes which occa- the Ordinary Cortes. On the 14th sioned his employment elsewhere, of September the decree of the not at his own suggestion, but that General and Extraordinary Cortes of lord Wellington himself

, who for the close of its sittings being expressed a high esteem for this read, the president Don Jose Mi. officer, as one who had served his guel Gordoa delivered an animated country in close union with him and eloquent oration, in which he during the last three years, without gave a retrospect of the wretched a single difference of opinion be- condition of the country at the tween them in any matter of mo- time of the assembling of the ment. The removal of gen. Giron Cortes, and a summary of what from his command without any had been effected by ibat body motive assigned, is another subject towards its recovery. The folof complaint. His lordship pro- lowing passage sketches the speak.

er's idea of the most essential be- It is gratifying to read the folnefits conferred upon the nation by lowing passage in this patriotic the labours of the Cortes.

effusion :" Great and generous “ To raise the nation from sla- England sees her sons crowned very to sovereignty ; to distinguish with Spanish laurels that shall neand divide the powers hitherto ver fade; and, besides the assist. mixed and confounded; to acknow- ance which she has lent to the ledge solemnly and cordially, the common cause, has the fortune Apostolic and Catholic religion as and glory of having sent the unthe only true one, and that of the conquered Wellington, the immorstate ; to preserve to the kings all tal captain of the allied armies ever their dignity, giving to them un- triumphant." Such, doubtless, limited powers to do good; to must be the general feeling of true give to the press all the natural Spaniards, whatever be the temliberty which the celestial gifts of porary jealousies and bickerings thought and speech should have; between different branches of auto abolish the ancient Gothic re- thority: mains of the feudal system; to

In the interval between the disequalise the rights and duties of solution of the old Cortes and the Spaniards of both worlds-- these assembling of the new for public were the first steps of the Cortes business, a deputation of the in their arduous and glorious ca- former continued permanent for reer, and these were the solid bases the purpose of watching over the upon which were afterwards raised constitution, and being at hạnd the edifice of the constitution, the for particular events. It happened fortress of liberty. O Constitu- that this interference was called tion ! O sweet name of Liberty! for by the following circumstance. O grandeur of the Spanish nation! The removal of the seat of go

After the Cortes had bestowed vernment to Madrid was a quesupon us so many benefits, their in- tion which had been several times satiable thirst of doing good was agitated, and was made an affair not satisfied. They gave a new of party. In this month, the reand more convenient form to the port of a contagious fever pretribunals of justice; they settled the vailing at Gibraltar occasioned an economical goveroment of the pro- alarm of the same distemper at vinces; they succeeded in forming Cadiz, and the council of state a military constitution, and a plan recommended to the Regency the of education and instruction truly immediate removal of all the denational for youth ; they organised partments of government to Mathe labyrinth of the finances; they drid. The populace of Cadiz, filled simplified the system of contribu- with consternation, assembled in tions; and what cannot, nor ever the streets, and vented their inwill be heard without admiration, dignation against the advisers of a is, that in a period of the greatest measure which they regarded as poverty and distress they main- prejudicial to their interests, tained, or rather created, public though without any violent procredit.”

ceedings. The permanent deputation thereupon summoned a upon their representation that no meeting of those members of the other diseases existed in the city Extraordinary Cortes who still than the usual ones at the same remained in the city, 'and di- season, the order for the removal rected physicians and the board of the government was withof health to inquire into the drawn. foundation of the alarm; and

CHAPTER CHAPTER XV.

Napoleon's Speech to the Senate, and Decrees.--Revolution in Holland.

-Movements of the Crown Prince.- Hanover recovered. Address to the Tyrolese.- Proclamation of Hillar to the Italians.--- Assembly of Sovereigns at Frankfort.-Bremen and Embden liberated. The Dar matian Coast and Trieste possessed by the Austrians.-Progress of the Revolution in Holland.-Breda takon.-Schowen and Tolen recovered.-Declaration of the Allied Powers; and of Napoleon.-Lubeck liberated. Operations of the Crown Prince in Holstein, and Armistice with the Danes.--Origin of the war between Sweden and Denmark.- Surrender of Dresden by the French.-Capitulation of Stettin.--Swiss Neutrality, and its Infraction.-State of Saxony. Frankfort made independent.-Annecation of Hildesheim to Hanover.-Insurrection in Tyrol.-Passage of the Rhine, and France Invaded.--Decree of Napoleon appointing Commissioners extraordinary.--Geneva entered by the Allies.Sicily-Malta.Gibraltar.

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On return of Napoleon, pursued Nov. 14th, Napoleon, seated on his to the very borders of his empire throne, and surrounded by all the by powerful armies united for his dignitaries and great officers, redestruction, could not fail to pro- ceived the senate in full ceremony, duce a strong sensation in the whose president, count Lacepede, minds of the French people, who, made a short address, touching though studiously kept in igno- upon the defection of the allies rance of every unfavourable event, of France, and their refusal to enwere no longer to be deluded ter into negociations for peace, with regard to circumstances and concluding with protestations brought directly in their view. of loyalty. His Majesty the EmThe tone therefore now to be peror replied in the following taken was, an apparent frankness in terms. * Senators, I accept the stating the situation of the coun- sentiments which you express totry, joined with confidence in its wards me. All Europe was with remaining resources, and an ap- us a year ago; all Europe is now peal to all those patriotic senti- against us; it is, because the opiments which operate upon the sub- nion of the world is directed by jects even of despotic governments, France or England. We should, when elevated by ideas of past tlierefore, have every thing to grandeur and success, or roused by dread, but for the energy and the imminent hazard of what re- power of the nation. Posterity will say, that if great and critical cir- posed upon them was the prevalent cumstances presented themselves, sentiment of the Batavian commuthey were not superior to France nity. In the month of February a and Me." To meet the exigencies conspiracy had been discovered at of the time, an imperial decree Amsterdam, for the purpose of was issued imposing 30 additional subverting the existing governcentimes to the duty for the cur- ment, in which a few obscure rent year on doors, windows, and persons' attached to the House of patents, a double personal contri- Orange were engaged; but the bution or property tax, and an ad- punishment of the conspirators had ditional tax on salt. And a decree suppressed the project in its in

a of the senate passed for the levy fancy. At length, apparently froin of 300,000 conscripts, with the no previous concert, but as the repreamble “ Considering that the sult of a sudden burst of public enemy has invaded the frontiers of feeling, roused to action by the arthe empire on the side of the Py- rival of the allied troops on the renees and the North, and that Dutch frontier, on the 15th of those of the Rhine and beyond the November, the people of Amster. Alps are threatened.” By the other dam rose in a body, and with the decrees of the senate, the powers old cry of Orange boven, univerof the deputies of the legislative sally put up the Orange colours, body, of the fourth series, were and proclaimed the sovereignty of prolonged during the whole of the that illustrious House. The popuapproaching session; and the di- lace displayed their hatred of the rect nomination of the president of French by burning the watchthat body was invested in the em- houses of the custom-house offiperor, who before only chose one cers, and three of their vessels ; of five candidates presented to him and one of the officers was killed by it; manifest proofs of the ap- in the scuffle, but this was the prehensions he began to entertain only life lost on the occasion. The of any thing like an appeal to the example of Amsterdam was fol. people!

lowed by the other principal towns An event morę ominous to the of the provinces of Holland and French domination in Europe, and Utrecht. The French authorities more auspicious to the cause of were dismissed without injury, and political freedom, than any which a temporary government was prohad hitherto occurred, was the Re- claimed in the name of the prince volution in Holland, declared about of Orange, composed of the most this time. Nothing could be more respectable members of the old repugnant to the manners and sen- government, especially of those timents of the people of the United who were not employed by the Provinces, or more fatal to their French. On the 16th an adminisinterests as a trading nation, than tration was organized for Amstertheir annexation to the French em. dam under the direction of the pire; and though inability to re- armed burghers, and many of the sist had awed them into submis- leading citizens took upon

them. sion, it cannot be doubted that a selves the care of preserving good rooted abhorrence of the yoke im- order. Similar measures were a

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