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of a proposed neutrality being com- tories ; and says, that he expects pelled to give way to the plans of the most friendly dispositions from superior power. It was an obvious all true patriots who feel how piece of policy in the French en- much the object of the present peror, who had before him the war, namely, the re-establishment prospect of invasion from different of a just and wise political system quarters, to secure an important for all Europe, is connected with line of frontier by the interposition the future destinies of Switzerland. of a neutral territory; and being He concludes, “ We enter among by title protector of the Helvetic you as the friends of your counconfederacy, he might expect that try, of your name, of your rights; his influence would engage that confident of your good-will and nation so far in his cause, as to co-operation, we will act as such maintain their own right to pre-. under all circumstances; we trust vent the entrance of any foreign also, that we shall evacuate your army on their territories. Doubt.
country as friends, carrying along less, therefore, through his sug. with us your gratitude and benegestion, the Landammap and mem- dictions, when we shall have atbers of the diet of the 19 Swiss tained the great object at which Cantons, issued, on Nov. 20th, we aim.” The declaration alluded an address to their constituents, to, is contained in a note addressed informing them that it had been to the Landamman of Switzerland determined in the diet to notify by the count de Capodistria, and to all the belligerent powers a de- the chevalier de Lebzeltern. Afclaration of the neutrality of Swit- ter reciting the means by which zerland. For the purpose of main- the emperor Napoleon had subtaining this neutrality, an army of verted the ancient constitution of 45,000 men was to be raised, and the country, and destroyed its into form a line on the frontiers :
dependence, they declare that the and posts with inscriptions mark- allied powers cannot admit of a ing the limits of the Swiss terri: neutrality, which, in the actual tory were placed along the north- circumstances of Switzerland, exern boundary. It is probable that ists only in name--that their lmthe troops were chiefly nominal, perial and Royal Majesties solemnand that there was no serious in- ly engage themselves not to lay tention of measuring forces with down their arms before they enthe allied powers if they should sure to the republic those places refuse to admit of the assumed which France has torn from it neutrality. The trial soon arrived; that they will never suffer that for the army of Prince Schwartzen- Switzerland shall be placed under berg appeared upon the Swiss fron- a foreign influence—and that they tier, and that general, on Decem- will recognize her neutrality on ber 21st, addressed a proclamation the day that she shall become free to the inhabitants of Switzerland. and independent. The result of In this
paper, he refers to a decla- these measures is communicated in ration in the name of the allied the despatches of lords Cathcart powers, of the motives producing and Aberdeen. The Austrian forces his entrance upon the Swiss terri- crossed the Rhine at Schaffhausen, Basle, and intermediate places, and The electorate of Hanover has proceeded on their march to the obtained an addition of territory French frontier, observing the by the annexation of the prinstrictest order and discipline. The cipality of Hildesheim, in virtue of Swiss regular troops retired, and a convention between the king of the militia expected to be disem- Prussia and
the Prince Regent of bodied, and no act of hostility oc- England. The Prince, in an adcurred. Count Bubna entered Bern dress to the inhabitants, in the on December 24th, with a strong name of king George III. informs body of cavalry, and on that day them of the change which it styles a revolution took place by which the most desirable and natural state the ancient government of that for them, their country being surcanton was re-established, with the rounded on almost all sides by the acclamations of the people; and it` German provinces of his house, was not doubted that the other which it resembled in usages and cantons would follow the exam- ancient constitution, and of which ple.
it once, for more than a century, The fate of Saxony is left un- made a part. It is probable they determined, and it is probable will not find themselves losers by that its sovereign will be one of the transfer. It seems to be inthe principal sufferers for the part tended that the electorate shall taken in the contests of the year. henceforth be the residence of a The government has for the pre- prince of the blood as its governor. sent been conferred upon prince The duke of Cambridge has been Repnin, who, on December 9th, appointed to that office, who made made a speech to the deputies of his entrance into Hanover on Deall the colleges of the administra- cember 19th, accompanied by count tion at Dresden, in which he ac. Munster, and was received with quainted them, that the allied so- every demonstration of the public vereigns had ordained that the joy. kingdom of Saxony should be go- Mention has already been made verned in their names until a ge- of an exhortatory address from an neral peace; and that the conti. Austrian minister to the Tyrolese, nued enmity shown by the Saxon for the purpose of rendering them government to their cause till the tranquil during the present state of last moment, had obliged them to things. It was doubtless suggested
by an indication of some revoluFrankfort has the pleasing pros- tionary movements, and it afterpect of being restored to its ancient wards appeared that they were not prosperity and independence in the to be suppressed by such means. vicissitude of events. The high A hatred to the Bavarian dominion, powers who have honoured it with and a desire to return under that their presence, published, on De- of Austria, seem to have been the cember 14th, an ordinance, by incitements which drew a number which the city with the territory of young men from the valleys of formerly belonging to it is declared the Tyrol, who set up the standard a separate government, with a free of insurrection, and advancing to constitution peculiar to itself, un. Inspruck, attacked the Bavarian der their protection.
troops in that capital, and obtained
take this step:
temporary possession of it. These 30 in number, to be accompanied proceedings occasioned two pro• by as many law officers. By a subclamations to be issued in Decem- sequent decree an adjournment of ber 12th, addressed to the Tyrol- the legislative body was declared. ese, one from marshal count Bel. The last important event of the legarde, commander of the Austrian year ihe entrance
into army destined against Italy, who Geneva of an advanced guard was taking his way through that of the allies, the French garrison country; the other, from the Ba- of which had retired
upon its varian general-commissary, baron appearance. At this momentous von Lerchenfeld, in which the period, when France, which had insurgents were reminded of their for so many years, with her insaduty, and threatened with force of tiable avidity for conquest, been arms should they delay to return extending her victorious arms to their allegiance. Later advices through every neighbouring state, stated, that these addresses had pro- beheld herself in turn invaded from duced the desired effect, and that her barrier of the Pyrenees,
and the the insurgents were quietly going river which she had once fixed as back to their houses.
her eastern boundary, we close our The passage of the Rhine into account of the German and Spanish the French territory was the object campaigns. which principally occupied the al- Few incidents worthy of record lied armies on its bank during the have occurred during the present last month of the year. It was year in the parts of Europe not effected with little or no opposition directly engaged in that war which at various points,not a single French has been the common concern of army appearing in the field to de- so large a portion of it. The island fend the frontier. The strong fort of Sicily, though its future desof Huningen in Alsace was invest- tiny is probably deeply involved in ed, and the allied troops spread the final event of the war, is one over that province, and Franche of those parts: its singular and Comté. In these alarming circum- equivocal situation rendering it rastances, Napoleon issued a decree, ther a passive spectator, than an
а dated December 26th, the tenor agent, in the scenes transacting on of which strongly marked his sense the great theatre. In the history of the impending dangers. He of the last year, the formation of -announced by it the mission of se- a Sicilian constitution analogous to
nators or counsellors of state into the English, and supported by Brithe military divisions, in quality tish influence, the attempts of the of his commissioners extraordinary, queen to raise an opposition to it, armed with powers relative to pro- her removal from court, and the viding and organizing the means of temporary renunciation of the regal defence, which in effect suspend- authority by the king in favour of ed all the magistracies and other his son, were briefly recorded. The authorities in the country, and ex- notorious incapacity of the king tended the immediate agency of was supposed to preclude any idea military despotism to every part. of his return to power; but on The commissioners nominated were the 9th of March a royal despatch was issued at Palermo, in which rendered this part of the scheme the king of the two Sicilies is made abortive. But the machinations of to inform his people, that his health, faction were not confined to enterthe ill state of which had induced prizes of this kind. In the parliahim to disburden himself of the ment which opened in July, a numcares of government, being now ber of disaffected persons had prore-established, he had resolved to cured themselves to be returned as resume the functions of royalty. It representatives to the House of was very improbable that this Commons, where, as well as in the should be a spontaneous move- Upper House, an opposition to the ment; and accordingly we are in. measures of administration bad formed in the following month, been organized, which obliged the that it was the result of a counter- Sicilian ministers to tender their revolutionary project planned by resignation to the hereditary the queen and count Palermo, the prince. The offer had been ac. defeat of which terminated in the cepted, and a new ministry had king's total abdication, and the been appointed ; but the same spiqueen's retiring to Sardinia, from rit of opposition was said still to whence she proceeded to Zante in be prevalent in both houses about June, where she took up her resi- the commencement of August. This dence. The state of the island now situation of affairs perhaps hasappeared sufficiently tranquil to tened the return of lord W. Benpermit lord William Bentinck to tinck from Spain in the following part with a large detachment of month. From that time we have the English troops for the Spanish no particular accounts of the state service in Valencia, and to follow it of Sicily, which may therefore be in person ; but the flame of party presumed to be externally tranwas only smothered, not extin- quil. guished. In the month of July it A visitation of that terrible disis stated that a commotion took case, the Plague, in the island of place at Palermo, which was the Malta, spread alarm through all first explosion of a conspiracy hav- the neighbouring ports and islands ing for its object the subversion of in the Mediterranean, and was rethe government, and the overthrow garded with particular interest in of the English interest. The con- England on account of the British spirators had laid a plan of setting troops-stationed in it, and its comfree a gang of desperate criminals mercial connexions with this counconfined in the principal gaol, pre- try. From a relotion communicated viously to which, they attempted by Mr. Green, the head of the mito seduce the Sicilian and Italian litary medical establishment in soldiery in the barracks from their Malta, who had acquired previous allegiance, by sending a rabble to experience of the plague from his infuse discontent among them, and service in Egypt, it appears that gain them over by presents of mo- having, in company with Mr. Iliff, ney, provisions, and clothes, of apothecary to the forces, visited, on which articles they had been left April 6th,
the two persons who first sscantily furnished. The exertions, died under suspicious circumhowever, of general Macfarlane, stances, the captain and a seaman of a vessel coming from Alexandria, infected on that morning. Fort they were so well convinced of the Manuel was allotted for the receppestilential nature of the symptoms, tion of persons not yet infected, that they recommended burning who had been in infected houses ; the ship and cargo, and putting in but it became necessary at length practice the preventive measures to send infected persons thither, which were afterwards resorted to. whence numbers died in it. Great Either, however, from neglect of difficulty was experienced in putthis advice, or from the introduc- ting into execution the orders for tion of new infection, the disease preventing communication between gained a footing in the island, and families and individuals of the difother deaths occurred about the ferent districts, the lower classes beginning of May attended with being less afraid of the disease, circumstances still more decisive. than averse to strict rules of conThe Maltese physicians, with that. finement; the mortality, however, reluctance to pronounce a dreaded was not great in proportion to the name which has often been preju- vast populousness of the island, in dicial in the beginning of a pesti- which respect it is equalled by few lential contagion, chose to employ places in the globe. Up to the the term of malignant contagious 18th of June it is stated at 518. fever in reporting the existence of At the end of July the deaths had an infectious disease; which pro- amounted to 2,400. Those in Auduced a solemn protest from Mr. gust were returned at 1,042. They Green, dated May 13th, against began to diminish in September, the use of an indefinite appellation and towards the end of October which might delude the public were reduced to two or three daily. with respect to the real nature of On November 3rd, sir T. Maita distemper that ought to be called land, the governor, issued a proby its proper and common name of clamation, stating that no new case the Plague. Previously to this, how- of the plague had occurred in Vaever, on May 5th, the government letta (the capital) or Floriana for had issued a proclamation announc- more than a fortnight, and that ing the disease, and recommending there was every reason to hope precautionary measures, which were that the inhabitants of the island observed only by the English, as would shortly be relieved from the the small number of deaths ren- restraints which had been necessary dered the natives incredulous as for their security. It does not apto its true designation. From this pear that during the whole time time it spread over the whole of its prevalence it got into the island, but its ravages appear to quarters or barracks of the British have been most considerable in the troops, though a few of the foreign crowded streets of the city, where soldiers were infected. many whole families were swept
Gibraltar was this year again away. A letter, dated June 17th, visited by a contagious and fatal says, that a habitation in the Stra- disease which, though at first reda Pozza had originally 52 inba- ported to have been the plague, was bitants, all of whom were dead recognised as a fever similar to except a little girl, and she was that of 1804. It first appeared on