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the 5th of September in the per- reached the military, and several sons of two porters, who were officers fell victims to it. The mortakea ill and died within a few tality of the disease was considerhours of each other. New cases able in proportion to the number soon occurring, it was declared affected, but happily its ravages contagious by proclamation, and were not of long duration. On proper means were adopted to pre- December 23, the port was openvent the infection from spreading: ed, and the communication by land AU strangers were'removed from was restored, and clean bills of the garrison, and many of the re- health were issued. At the time sident families quitted it. A laza. of the prevalence of this epidemic, retto was formed on the neutral the fever at Cadiz which has been ground, quarantines were estab. already mentioned, and which was lished in the houses where it had apparently of the same nature, was appeared, and the town was di- in a progressive state, and caused vided into districts under proper all vessels arriving from that port inspectors. The contagion was not to be placed under quarantine. confined to the town's-people, but

CHAPTER

CHAPTER XVI.

American War.-Re-election of Mr. Madison.Repulse of the Ame

rican General Smyth.-- Retreat of Dearborn from Champlain. Report of Committee of Foreign Relations - Additional Blockade of the Coast.-President's Message and Close of Congress.General Winchester's Defeat and Capture.American Post at Ogdenburgh forced.-York taken by the Americans.- Capture of Mobile.-Congress re-assembled, and President's Message.--Affair on the Miami.

-Fort George taken.Attack on Sackett's Harbour.-Action on the Ontario, and at Burlington Heights.-Capture of the Corps under Boestler-Landings in the Chesapeake. Torpedoes and exploding Machines employed.Conclusion of the Session of Congress, and new Taxes.-Occurrences on Lakes Ontario and Champlain.-Failure of Attack on Sanduski.-Reconnoissance on Fort George.-British Force on Lake-Erie captured.-General Proctor's Defeat.-Actions on Lake Ontario.-Invasion of Lower Canada by Hampton repulsed. Wilkinson's Advance by the River St. Luwrence frustrated, and a Corps of his Army defeated. Conclusion of the Campaign.-American System of Retaliation.

WE

E must now turn our eyes occasioned a new trial of strength

upon a theatre of war, the between the war and peace parties, scenes of which afford none of that which was decided by the re-elecimposing grandeur which in some tion of Mr. Madison as President, measure compensates to the mind on December 2nd ; the votes in his the contemplation of human mi- favour being 128, against 89 for sery. It is however too much our his competitor Mr. Clinton. The own concern to be regarded with election of Mr. Gerry for Vicethe indifference of mere spectators;- president was carried by nearly the and the novelty of some of its prin- same majority. In this election, ciples, with the political conside- as in the war question, the voters rationis it involves, render it perhaps on the successful side were genemore interesting to a philosophical rally of the states from Pennsylvaobserver than the perpetual recur- nia southwards, and on the other, rence of resembling events in the of those írom New York northconflicts of long-established pow- wards. Some changes in the Ame. ers,

rican ministry succeeded, which, Before the expiration of the last however, made no change in the year, an election for President and state of parties. Vice-president of the United States A partial action, in which the Vol. LV.

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main body of the Americans under therto prevented an accommodabrigadier-general Smyth was' re- tion. Great Britain, they say, claims pulsed with loss in an attempt to a right to impress her own seaforce the Niagara frontier between men, and to exercise it in AmeriChippawa and Fort Erie, by a can vessels. It insists that every small division of British under American seaman should carry lieut.-col. Bishopp, took place on with him the evidence of his citi. November 28th.

zenship, and that all those who are It was mentioned in the history unprovided with such evidence of the last year, that the Americ should be impressed. Not to'obcan general Dearborn, had advan- ject that such a document may

be ced to Champlain, near the Canada lost or destroyed, on what princiline, for the purpose of crossing. ple does the British government the frontier, and penetrating to require from the United States Montreal. His troops made seve- such a degradation ? Ought the ral reconnoissances beyond the line; free citizens of an independent but the vigorous preparations of power to carry an evidence of their general Prevost to receive them, freedom on the main ocean, and disconcerted their plans; and on in their own vessels ? and are all to November 22nd, general Dearborn be considered as British subjects commenced a retreat with his who do not bear with them that whole army, which he conducted badge? Would Great Britain herupon Plattsburgh, Burlington, and self submit to such an usurpation Albany, where he took up his of authority ? After some more winter quarters.

observations on this point, they go A report from the Committee

on to say,

“ Let it be distinctly of foreign relations, laid before the understood, in case of an arrangeHouse of Representatives in Con- ment between the two nations, gress, on January 29th, merits at- whereby each should exclude from tention, as stating the grounds of its service the citizens and subjects the existing war with Great Bri- of the other, that this House will "tain, and the causes which pro- be prepared, so far as depends on duced the failure of the attempts it, to give it effect; and for that for its extinction. Having noticed purpose to enact laws, with such the refusal of the president to con- regulations and penalties as will be cur in the proposal for an armistice adequate.” They consider it as the made by admiral Warren, because duty of the House to declare, in 'nothing was said in it on the sub- the most decisive terms, that should ject of impressment, the commit- the British government decline tee express their entire approbation such an arrangement, and persist of his conduct, observing, that “to in the practice of impressment

appeal to arms in defence of a from American vessels, the United "right, and to lay them down with- States will resist it unceasingly out securing it, would be consi- with all their force. The report dered in no other light than a re- dwells with a good deal of prolixity linquishment of it." They then on this topic, touching upon no proceed to consider the precise na- other point of difference between ture of that cause which has hi- the two nations; and it concludes by recommending the passing of a to consider as prisoners of war nabill « for the regulation of seamen turalized emigrants, and the emon board the public vessels, and in ployment of savages. Upon the the merchants' service of the United whole, the address breathed a keen States."

spirit of resentment against this A public notification was issued nation ; and we have to lament by the Prince Regent on March that the continuance of the war 30th, that necessary measures had during this year has unhappily exbeen taken for blockading the asperated the feelings on both sides, ports and harbours of New York, and produced situations, hereafter Charleston, Port Royal, Savannah, to be mentioned, scarcely compaand the river Mississippi. These tible with civilized hostility. The were additional to the blockades of Congress closed its session on the Chesapeake and Delaware. March 5th, without passing the

A proclamation issued by the prohibitory bills recommended by governor of Bermuda, reciting a the President.

. British order of council providing The attempts of the American for the supply of the West India army against Canada, in the meanislands by a trade under special li- time, produced nothing but discences from the ports of the United appointment and defeat. General States, but confining such licences Winchester, with a division of the to those of the Eastern states ex- American forces consisting of more clusively, produced a message from than 1,000 men, advanced in Jathe President to the House of Ree nuary to the attack of Fort Depresentatives on February 24th, troit, and obtained possession of couched in terms of indignation French-town, twenty-six miles from and reproach which denoted the that place. Intelligence of this acuteness of his feelings with re- circumstance being conveyed to spect to any, attempt for separating col. Proctor, he hastily assembled the interests of different parts of all the force within his reach, the union, and particularly when amounting to no more than 500 favouring that part in which he regulars and militia, and about 600 was conscious of being unpopular. Indians, and marching to the eneHe concluded with suggesting to my, attacked them on the mornCongress the expediency of a pro- ing of Jan. 22nd. Being posted in hibition of any trade whatever by houses and enclosures, they made the citizens of the United States a desperate resistance, chiefly under special licences, and also a through dread of falling into the prohibition of all exportation from hands of the savages, but at length the United States in foreign bote about 500 of them surrendered at toms. This matter was also touched discretion, and the remainder, atupon in Mr. Madison's inaugural tempting to retreat were almost speech at the Capitol, on occasion all cut off by the Indians. General of taking his oath of office, on Winchester was among the capMarch 4th. The other topics were tives, being taken by a Wyandot the practice of imprisonment, the chief, who delivered him to the refusal by the British government British commander. The loss of

the king's troops was 24 killed, men, and the approach to the shore and 158 wounded.

of the remainder of the assailants, The Americans posted at Og- induced the British to retreat to denburgh, near the river St. Lau. their works. When the Americans rence, having availed themselves had advanced within 60 rods of the of the frozen state of that river to main work of the town, an exmake frequent predatory incursions plosion took place from a magaupon the inhabitants on the Cara- zine, the effect of which was, to dian border, sir G. Prevost, arriv. injure or destroy about 100 of the ing on February 21st at Prescot, assailants, and 40 of the defenders. opposite the enemy, directed an General Pike lost his life on this attack of his position at Ogden- occasion, and was much regretted, burgh, which took place on the as a brave and skilful officer. following day under the command Commodore Chauncey in the meanof major Macdonnel, of the Glen. time had worked into the harbour garry light-infantry fencibles, at with his flotilla, and opened a fire the head of about 480 regulars and upon the British batteries. General militia. After a brisk action of an Sheaffe, after the explosion, hour's continuance against 500 of marched out of the place with the the Americans, in which the bra- regulars, and left the commander very of the assailants in making of the militia to capitulate. All way through deep snow under a resistance now ceased, and the galling fire was conspicuous, the terms of surrender were agreed post was carried, with the capture upon, by which all the military of 11 pieces of cannon, all the and naval men and officers (about ammunition and stores, and 74 300 in number) were made priprisoners, and the destruction of soners of war, and the public iwo armed schooners, two gun stores were delivered up to the vicboats, and the barracks.

tor. A large ship on the stocks, A success to the Americans much and much oaval stores, had been more than counterbalancing this set fire to before the surrender, loss, was the capture of York, the but a considerable quantity of micapital of Upper Canada, seated litary stores and provisions remainon Lake Ontario. General Deare ed undamaged. . About this time, born, in a letter to the secretary at the Americans becoming fully senwar, relates that arriving by water sible of the importance of gaining at the place in the morning of a naval superiority upon the lakes April 27th, he began landing the in their attempts on Canada, introops under a heavy fire. The vited a number of the seamen of British commander in York was their ports whom the stagnation general Sheaffe, whose force is of trade had thrown out of emstated at 700 regulars and militia, ployment, to man the small craft and 100 Indians. These he had building on the shores of those

. stationed in the woods near the great waters. landing-place, and a spirited re- We

among the Amesistance was kept up, till the land- rican successes, whatever be its ing of general Pike with 7 or 800 future consequences, the capture

may notice

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