of the fortress of Mobile in West adverted to the question of imFlorida. This place, alleged to pressment, and complained of the be within the limits of the pur- continued employment of savages chase of Louisiana by the United in the war, and of the late expediStates, having been hitherto retain- tions for plunder and conflagration ed on various pretexts, a detach. in another quarter. After touching ment of general Harrison's army upon the naval and military sucwas sent against it, which made a cesses of the United States, it prolanding on April 12th. The com- ceeded to a statement of financial mander advancing to the fort with matters; and having remarked that scaling ladders prepared for an as- the late loan of 16 millions of dol- . sault, summoned the Spanish gar- lars was contracted for at no less rison to evacuate the place, with interest than 71 per cent. it strongwhich requisition they complied ly recommended to the legislature and were embarked for Pensacola. raising additional taxes in order to A numerous artillery and a consi- abridge the necessity of recurring derable quantity of ammunition to loans. On the whole it appearwere found in the fortress.

ed from the tenor of the message, In this month the British block. that peace was looked to as the ading squadron in the Chesapeake most desirable object, though the sent some expeditions up the rivers exacerbation of mind towards Great of that inlet, the results of which Britain had not subsided. are reported in our chapter of na- The lakes were now the most val transactions. They were of no active scene of American warfare, other moment than as they might andvarious spirited conflicts, though impress the minds of the people in on a small scale, occurred on their those parts with a desire for the coasts and waters. A party of the termination of hostilities of which American army having taken post they were in danger of becoming near the foot of the rapids of the the victims.

Miami, a river flowing into Lake On May 25th, a message was Erie, col. Proctor, on April 23rd, received by the assembled Congress embarked with a force of regulars from the president of the United and militia, consisting of between States. It began with informing eight and nine hundred, to whom them, that in consequence of an were joined about twelve hundred offer made by the emperor of Rus- Indians; and sailed for the Miami. sia to mediate between the United In consequence of heavy rains he States and Great Britain, three was not able to open his batteries eminent citizens had been com- till May Ist, at which time the enemissioned with the requisite pow. my had so well secured himself by ers for concluding atreaty of peace, blockhouses and batteries, that no on the presumption that the Bri- impression could be made on him. tish cabinet would not refuse the Whilst col. Proctor was still lying acceptance of such a mediation. there, a reinforcement of AmeriThe envoys were also said to be

can troops, to the number of 1,300, authorised to conclude a treaty of under the command of brigadiercommerce with Russia. It then general Clay, descending the river,

made a sudden attack upon him, the detachments from Chippawa aided by a sally of the garrison. to Fort Erie, and by other parties, For a few minutes the enemy was which rendered his whole force in possession of his batteries, and about 1,600 men. With these he took some prisoners; but after a took up a position near the head severe though short contest, they of the lake. The American army were repulsed, and the greatest in the meantime pushed on a con. part, except the party from the siderable bodytowards Queen-town. garrison, were killed or taken. Its whole force was estimated at Their loss was estimated at be- nearly 10,000 men, which rendered tween 1,000 and 1,200, of which them complete masters of the Niaabout 500 were returned as prison- gara frontier. ers. The killed, wounded, and An attempt upon the American missing of the British did not ex- post at Sackett's harbour in Lake ceed 100. Col. Proctor could not Ontario was planned by sir George preserve his situation at the Mia- Prevost about the close of May, mi, being deserted by half of the and its execution was committed militia, and almost all the Indians, to col. Baynes, aided by a fleet of who, he observes, are not a per- boats under sir James Yeo. On manent or disposable force, though the night of the 28th, the expedie occasionally a very powerful aid. tion composed of draughts from It is a subject of regret that they different regiments, and a compashould be at all found necessary in ny of Glengarry light infantry, the contests between civilized na- proceeded from Kingston to the tions.

harbour, hoping to land before The Americans, having collect- the enemy should be sufficiently ed, a powerful force by land and apprized of the attack, to line the water at the head of Lake Onta- woods on the coast with troops ; rio, effected a landing near Fort but a strong current and the darkGeorge on the Niagara, on May ness of the night frustrated this 27th, under cover of the fire of purpose, so that at the dawn of their fotilla and batteries, and pro- day, the Americans were fully preceeded to the attack of the place. pared for their reception. The They were very gallantly opposed advance was however made with by the troops under col. Vincent, great gallantry, along a narrow the commander, who, for some causeway, connecting the island time checked their advance; but with the main, and through a thick the superiority of numbers being wood, obstinately defended by the such as rendered a lasting 'resist- enemy, who were at length driven ance impossible, he ordered the to their blockhouse and fort, after guns to be spiked, and the ammu- setting fire to their storehouses near nition destroyed, and evacuated the the fort. As it was impossible for fort, having in the defence sus- the expedition with the means it tained a loss of about 300 in kill-possessed, to attain any further ed, wounded, and missing. In his object, and damage was continuretreat he was joined by lieute- ally sustained from the enemy's cannant-colonel Bishopp, with all non, the troops were re-embarked,


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with the loss of about 260 in killed, adversaries. General Dearborn then wounded, and missing.

concentrated his forces at Fort On June 3rd, the British gun. George ; and colonel Vincent, in boats on lake Ontario, supported consequence, made a forward moveby detachments from the garrisonment from the head of the lake in of Isle au Noix, made prize of order to support the light infantry two American armed vessels, of 11 and Indians who were employed guns and 50 men each. An action in cutting off the supplies of the greatly to the credit of the British Americans. On June 24th, troops occurred on June 6th, at occurrence took place which gen., Burlington Heights near the head Dearborn in his dispatch terms of the same lake, where colonel " unfortunate and unaccountable.". Vincent was posted with a division He had detached, on the evening of troops. Receiving information of the 23rd, lieut..col. Bæstler, that the Americans had advanced with 570 men, to, march by the from Forty-mile Creek with 3,500 way of Queens-town to the Beaver infantry and 250 cavalry, and 8 or Dams, eight or nine miles thence, 9 field pieces, for the purpose of in order to disperse a body of attacking him, he sent lieut-col. British collected there for the purHarvey with two light companies pose of procuring provisious. This to reconnoitré, and from his re- detachment was attacked by the port was led to determine upon a Indians from an ambuscade in the nocturnal attack of the enemy's woods, and retired to clear ground, camp, about seven miles distant. whence the commander sent exA force not exceeding 704 fire. press for a reinforcement. In the locks was destined to this enter- meantime lieut. Fitzgibbon arriva prize, which terminated in a com- ing with a British force, the Ame. plete surprize of the enemy, who rican leader seems to have lost his were driven from their camp, with presence of mind, and without the loss of three guns and a brass waiting for succours, agreed to a howitzer, and two brigadier-ge- capitulation, by which iwo fieldnerals with more than 100 officers officers, 21 other officers, 27 nonand privates made prisoners. The commissioned officers, and 482 priBritish afterwards marched back vates, were surrendered prisoners to their cantonments, and the Ame- of war, with their colours and two ricans, still greatly superior in num- field-pieces. bers, after re-occupying their camp About this time, admiral sir in order to destroy their incum- J. B. Warren lying in the Chesabrances, commenced a precipitate peake, on the intelligence that the retreat to the place whence they enemy were fortifying Craney

island, the possession of which was The appearance of the squadron necessary to enable the light vesof sir J. Yeo off Forty-mile Creek sels to proceed up the narrow determined the Americans to a fur channel towards Norfolk, directed ther retreat, in which almost the a landing of the troops under sir whole of their camp equipage, Sidney Beckwith, on the nearest and a quantity of stores and pro- point to that place; but upon apvisions, fell into the hands of their proaching the island, the shoalness


of the water, and the strength of casioned to the Americans by the the enemy's defences, rendered the desultory warfare, induced the enterprize too difficult to be un- President, who had failed in his dertaken with any prospect of suc- attempts to pass another bill of cess ; so that the troops were or- embargo, to issue, on July 29th, dered back, after some loss had a strict injunction on all naval ofbeen sustained from the sinking officers to exercise the utmost vigitwo boats. An attack upon an lance in stopping and detaining American post at Hampton on

all vessels and craft proceeding, June 26th, was more successful. or apparently about to proceed, This post, defended by a consi- towards the blockading ships ; it derable corps, and commanding being ascertained that such interthe communication between the course had been carried on to a upper part of the country and great extent both by natives and Norfolk, was thought by the ad- foreigners, thereby conveying promiral a proper object for an at- visions and intelligence to the enetempt; and accordingly, he em- my. Attempts were also publicly barked sir S. Beckwith's troops on encouraged for the destruction of board the light squadron com- the British men of war upon those manded by rear-adm. Cockburn, on stations by torpedoes and other the night of the 25th, which were explosive machinery, which, if landed at day-light the following considered as unfair modes of hosday to the Westward of Hampton. tility, were, unfortunately, first enWhilst the enemy's attention was couraged by the English ministry engaged by a fire from the armed (See Parliamentary Debates). One vessels upon the batteries, the of the concealed methods of doing troops unobserved gained their mischief practised by the Ameriflanks, and the action which en- cans, appears to merit unqualified sued terminated in obtaining pos- reprobation from its truly insidisession of their camp and batte- ous character. A schooner was fitries. Some loss was sustained by ted out from New York, laden with the British, but much more by provisions and stores, under which the Americans. The capture of the were deposited several casks of islands of Ocracoke and Ports. gunpowder, with trains communimouth on the coast of North Ca- cating with a piece of clockwork rolina, in July, by admiral Çock.. contrived to go off at a certain burn's squadron, has been men- time. The vessel was thrown in tioned under our head of naval the way of the Ramillies, which transactions. On the whole it may sent a boat to take possession of be remarked, that although the her, when she was deserted by coasts and inlets of this part of her crew, and brought near the America were kept in continual man of war. Fortunately, the capalarm by the motions and enter- tain, sir T. Hardy, directed that prizes of the blockading squadrons, she should be placed alongside of yet nothing was effected that can a captured sloop, and not of the be regarded as important towards Ramillies. A dreadful explosion the general result of the war. The soon took place, which proved losses and disquiets, however, oc- fatal to the second lieutenant and ten seamen who were on board; dation, prohibiting the use of Bri"the loss would have been much tish commercial licences. From all more serious had she been close these measures may be seen the to the Ramillies.

rapid approach to the condition of The extra session of Congress an old belligerent, by a new state, which concluded in August, con- the peculiar felicity of whose siducted its business with unaccus- tuation appeared to be that of bee tomed dispatch, and with a degree ing placed beyond the sphere of of unanimity proving, that however perpetual hostility which involves reluctant a people may be to com- the greatest portion of the world. mence a war, when actually en- We now revert to the occur. gaged in it, and especially when rences on and near the Canadian it is brought to their own doors, lakes, which continued to be the they will generally concur in mea- most important scene of warlike sures rendered necessary by the action during the American camcircumstances. The establishment paign of this year. of a system of war-taxes capable A detachment of troops of difof defraying the interest of the ferent descriptions, from the cenexisting debt and of future loans tre division of the British army in was the principal business of the Upper Canada, was embarked unmeeting; and though there were der the command of lieut.-col. considerable differences of opinion Bishopp, early on the morning of as to the fittest objects of taxation, July 11th, for the purpose of dethe majority gave their support to stroying the American naval esthe measures proposed by the com- tablishment at Black Rock on Lake mittee of ways and means. The Ontario. The detachment landed duties imposed were, on licences to unperceived before day-light, and retailers of wines, spirituous liquors, immediately proceeded to attack and foreign merchandize ; on li- the batteries, which they carried cences to distillers of spirituous lic with little opposition, the enemy quors; on sales by auction of mer- retreating with precipitation. They chandize, and ships and vessels; on then set fire to the block-houses, sugar refined in the United States; barracks, and navy-yard, with a on bank notes and certain nego- large schooner; and the stores ciable

paper; and on imported salt: which could be got off were carthese to continue in force during ried across the river, but before the present war, and a year after they could be taken away, the its termination. A further loan was Americans, reinforced by a body authorised of 7,500,000 dollars for of Indians, advanced, and rendered the service of the present year,and it expedient for the troops to rethe first quarter of the next. A treat to their boats. They recrossed variety of acts were also passed re. the river under a heavy fire, which lative to the prosecution and con- occasioned a considerable loss, the duct of the war, and the provision commander himself being severely for widows and orphans; and wounded; the purpose of the engreater encouragement was given terprize was, however, in great to privateers in respect to prizes. measure effected. An act also passed, conformably to Sir G. Prevost, in a letter from the President's former recommen: the head-quarters at Kingston, da


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