shouļd suffer death in consequencement should persist in their intenof executing the law of nations tion of retaliation. In this dreadful upon the first 23 confined as Bri. state of mutual menace, affairs were tish subjects, double the number at that time remaining; and should of the confined American officers the threats on each side be brought should immediately be selected for to effect, scenes of blood will enretaliation; and moreover that the sue, worthy only of the times of commanders of his majesty's ar. barbarism. mies and fleets had received orders Of the other maritime events of to prosecute the war with unmi- the American war in this year, retigated severity against all the ci- lations are given in our chapter apties, towns, and villages of the propriated to naval occurrences. United States in case their govern


South America.--Montevideo.-Buenos Ayres.--Santa Martha.-Vene

zuela.-Mexico.- Peru.-West Indies.-Free Trade proclaimed at Porto Rico.- Hurricanes at Dominica, Bermuda, Jamaica, &c. Trinidad, Java.-Reduction of the Sultan of Djojocarta.-Hindostan, -War between Russia, and Persia.-Turkey.Egypt.

UR information of what'has easily supplied than that of the rica during the present year, and no succour except from the mother the latter part of the preceding, country. is scanty and imperfect. We know To the friends of general liberty, in general that a state of civil war a decree dated from Buenos Ayres has been still subsisting in the dif- on February 3rd, in the name of ferent provinces of the Spanish do- the supreme government of the minion on that continent, but of United Provinces of Rio de la its particular events we have only Plata, will give pleasure. It departial and uncertain accounts.. clares all persons free, born on or

By intelligence from Montevideo subsequent to January 31st, 1813, in October 1812, we learn that af- the day on which the general as. ter the departure of the Portuguese sembly was installed. troops from the Spanish territory, Santa Martha was brought over in consequence of the mediation of to the revolutionist party by a force lord Strangford, the revolutionary sent from Carthagena. Whilst it army crossed the Uruguay, and was in their possession, a frigate compelled the small detachments from old Spain, having 300 troops of loyalists to evacuate the port of on board, supposing it to be held Colonia, and other places; and by the royalists, put into the harthat their party in the province bour, when the fort by its fire acquiring confidence, assembled in completely dismasted her, and arms at several points, and plun- obliged her to surrender, with all dered the defenceless towns and the soldiers. On the 5th of March, villages. The siege of Montevideo however, some Indian tribes joinbeing continued by the revolution. ing the royalists, effected the ex. ists of Buenos Ayres, general Vi- pulsion of the Carthagena troops, godet, commandant in the former, with their French commander Lamade a sortie on December 31st, batut; and on the following day in which he incurred a loss of 250 Ferdinand VII. was proclaimed, in killed, wounded, and prisoners. and the people of Santa Martha That of the besiegers is stated at swore allegiance to him. The same 160; but their loss would be more advices related that the city of


Santa Fe had been taken by the withstanding the dissolution of the royalists, and that an expedition confederacy of Venezuela, the inwas fitting out against Carthagena. surgents were still in force at the Complaints were made from the Caraccas, headed by the marquis West India islands, that a number Del Toro and Juan Bolivar, The of privateers from the latter port, latter, with 3,000 men, was said to whose crews consisted of Ameri. be within two days' march of Macans, Frenchimen, and Spaniards, racaybo; and the former had in committed great depredations on different engagements defeated the the coasting trade of the British royalists in Cumana. At Santa islands, and had made descents Martha a convoy had arrived from upon some of them for the pur- Havannah with 500 soldiers, whose poses of pillage.

commander had dispatched a flag Intelligence from the river Plata of truce to Carthagena, offering å in April, mentioned that the evils general pardon to the insurgents, attendant on a blockade had in- on submission. duced many of the inhabitants of Intelligence from Buenos Ayres Montevideo to escape to Buenos to August 1st, stated, that the Ayres, and that the Cabildo had blockade of Montevideo was condeclared an intention of surrep- tinued with unabated vigilance. dering, if not speedily succoured The first remittance of a gold and from Spain. A decree had been silver coisage for the goveroment published at Buenos Ayres, en- of Rio de la Plata had arrived from joining that the consulate of the Potosi at Buenos Ayres. The pieces city should open a register, .con- distinctly marked the prevalent taining the names of all national spirit of independence. They bore merchants resident in it, to be on one side the arms of the genetransmitted to the administration ral assembly, surmounted with a of the customs, while registered sun, and the inscription “ Propersons alone were capable of be- vinces of the river Plate :" on the ing made consignees; and that other, a sun in the centre, with their commission should not be less the inscription, “ In Union and than 4 per cent. upon sales, and 2 Liberty." The new legislative asper cent. upon purchases ; all con- sembly, sitting, permanently at signees taking a lower commission Buenos Ayres, declared its levelto be struck out of the register. ling principle with regard to rank,

The Jamaica papers of June re- by the following ordinance : “ The parted, that news had been re- general assembly ordains, that, in ceived from Havannah that the roy- filling up all offices, whether ecalist army in Mexico was every clesiastical, civil, or military, of where victorious over the insur- every class, rank, or distinction, gents, that the communication be- neither age por gradation be aftween Vera Cruz and Mexico was tended to; but that they be imagain opened, and that it was ex- partially conferred upon persons pected that the new constitution who merit them by superior fitness of Spain would shortly be sworn for such offices, and especially by to by the whole country.. On the their approved valour, patriotic other hand, it appeared that notu zeal, energy, and constancy in supVol. LV.


port of the good cause of the li- ple in his rear had joined the remo berty of the United Provinces of volutionists, and that the whole of the River Plate.” In this, how. Peru was expected to follow the ever, they seem not to have gone example of La Plata. It is indeed further than the principles gene. evident from the circumstance of rally professed in popular govern- the coinage above mentioned, that ments, and particularly by the Spa- Potosi was under the influence of nish Cortes.

that party. Though much confuThe Chilese at their principal sion seems still to prevail in the settlements are said to have de- different provinces, the general clared themselves independent, and state appears to be, that the inde- : to have opened their ports to all pendent cause is gaining ground nations.

to the south of the isthmus, and By further accounts from Car- that of the mother country in Mexthagena, it would appear, that the ico. The day of trial as to the insurgents were gaining ground in final event will not, however, ocVenezuela. They had taken the cur, until Spain, liberated from her town of La Guayra, with public French war, and settled under her property to a large value. The new constitution, shall have leisure royalist commander at San Carlos to give her full attention to the afhad evacuated it on the approach fairs of her colonies. of the Carthagena troops, and be- The Spanish West-India island ing pursued, was entirely routed. of Porto Rico, which had hitherto General Bolivar had entered Vac laboured under many impolitic relencia on August 2nd, without op- strictions on its commerce, expeposition, and found in it a large rienced the benefit of the liberal park of artillery, and a great quan- and enlightened sentiments pretity of arms and ammunition. The vailing in the cortes and regency troops of the royalist general Mon- of Spain, upon the arrival of its teverde were dispersed, and he new intendant-general, Alexandro had taken refuge at Porto Cabello. Ramirez. In a proclamation issued The war still bore its vengeful by him on March 13th, he acand sanguinary character; for it quaints the inhabitants, that in the . is mentioned that all the Europeans orders of the regency for the eslately arrived at Venezuela had tablishment of this intendancy, he been put to the sword by the is strictly charged." zealously to union army. A letter from Trini- devote himself to promoting all the dad in September states, that the improvement of which the rich whole control of the Spanish main soil of this island is susceptible; was in the hands of the insurgents, and that by giving a strong imwho carried on their trade chiefly pulse to its internal and external * with the island of Grenada.

commerce, the supreme governFrom Peru nothing has been re- ment may soon have the satisfaction ported, except that the conse- of seeing that affluence and prosquences of a victory of Belgrano perity brought to its height, which over the troops of Lima, were, that it desires may be the portion of the royalist general Goyeneche had such worthy subjects.". In conseretreated from Potosi, and the peo- quence, he promulgated a set of

regulations, the purpose of which from the fall of buildings, or the is, to confer on every port in the force of wind impelling them over island the same commercial privi- the cliffs. At Prince Rupert's Head, leges as were given to the capital; the barracks and other edifices were to allow free commerce to all Spa- unroofed, and two ranges of offinish, friendly, or neutral vessels in cers' rooms were entirely blown all the ports, and free communica- over the hill, with the loss of some tion from one port to another; to lives, and various casualties. In permit the exportation of all na- the towns of Roseau and Charlotte tive and manufactured produce of Ville much serious injury was inthe island, including uncoined gold flicted both on persons and proand silver; to assign fixed duties perty, the latter almost beyond on certain articles of export, with calculation. The government-bouse, the promise of moderating all ex- with all its out-buildings, was laid isting duties that shall appear ex- prostrate, and the governor, with cessive; and to facilitate the dis

his family, was driven to take patch of business at the custom- shelter in the fort ; and the greater houses. Don Ramirez immediate- part of the public edifices were ly after addressed a letter to the either destroyed, or left in a ruinduke of Manchester, governor of ous condition. In the country, the Jamaica, informing him of the devastation was equally extensive; grant of a free trade for all English works and mills were destroyed, vessels to every harbour in Porto canes torn up or lodged, coffee Rico, without requiring particular plantations, gardens, and plantain licences, and relieved from all walks levelled. The sea in the former shackles upon importation meantime rose suddenly, and rolled and exportation.

enormous waves to the shore, shak. Some severe, though partial in- ing to their foundations all the jury from hurricanes, has been sus- erections on the beach. In some tained this year in the West-India places the surge ascended 150 feet islands. At Dominica, on July 23d, beyond high-water mark, demoafter a series of rather calm wea. Jishing every boat, launch, and ther, attended with great heat, a

The vessels at anchor proviolent storm began soon after vidently cut their cables, and stood day-light, which presently raged out to sea. On the same day a with an uncommon degree of fury. violent gale was experienced at The barracks and quarters of the St. Christopher's, which drove all troops stationed at Morne Bruce, the shipping on shore, where many early began to give way to the vessels were entirely destroyed. tempest, and almost the whole Bermuda had the misfortune to buildings were levelled to the experience, on July 26th, a hurriground, among which was a hos- cane more dreadful in its effects pital then containing above fifty than had been known for a long patients. Besides the great loss of period. A pleasant breeze at dayproperty incurred, both public and break gave a welcome relief from private, a considerable number of the sultry heat which had for some persons were killed and wounded time prevailed; but it soon aug,


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