alliance between Russia and Swe- at present content himself with den upon the non-accession of saying that they had proceeded Denmark, by which such a fore upon no such principle of policy feiture was to be incurred. Their as that to which the noble earl had lordships, who had with just in- adverted. With respect to the dignation reprobated the principle engagements between Russia and of dismemberment and partition Sweden, aš they had not been under the pretext of moral or phy- communicated to the ministers sical convenience, ought fully to upon authority, he did not feel know upon what grounds they himself justified to comply with proceeded in. sanctioning a treaty his lordship's wishes on that head, that appeared in any degree to re- but he had no objection to lay cognize such a political doctrine; upon the table the substance of they should therefore be further the article to which the present informed of what had lately passed treaty referred. He must decline between our government and that the production of the correspondof Copenhagen, which was known ence with the Danish minister, as to have sent a minister to this it involved topics which, if discourt, during which time hostili- closed, might be prejudicial to ties had been suspended, but had other powers; but the information been since resumed. He hoped required on this point was not nethe noble lard would have no ob- cessary for the consideration of the jection to produce the correspond- present treaty. In reply to the ence between the Danish minister observation made as to the time in and our government; and he also which the treaty was laid on the wished to know how it happened table, he said that it could not be that the treaty before them, which produced till its ratification which had been signed on the 3rd of only arrived on the 10th of May, March, was not laid upon their and some subsequent discussions table till so 'late a period of the rendered it inexpedient to lay it session. Another point on which before parliament sooner than had information was desirable, was how been done. With respect to the far Sweden had actually put in exe- money advanced to Sweden, he cution her engagements by the had no objection to give the fullest treaty, and what sum had been information on that head. As to already paid her on this ground. our engagements with other pow. Further, he thought that our en- ers, all the treaties entered into gagements with Russia, and other were already before parliament ; foreign powers, were necessary to but with regard to any further be known, in order to enter upon discussions relative to co-operaa due consideration of this im- tion, the House must be aware portant subject.

that it would be improper to say The Earl of Liverpool vould any thing at this moment. not anticipate the future discus- Earl Grey expressed himself not sion, in which his Majesty's, ser. entirely satisfied with the extent vants would have an opportunity of information offered to be of fully explaining the grounds of granted, and intimated that when the treaty with Sweden, and would the discussion came on, he should take the sense of the House on the Britain is to be invited to accede subject.

to and guarantee this treaty. By In answer to a question after- a subsequent convention, the Ruswards put 'to lord Liverpool, his sian auxiliary force is augmented lordship affirmed that there was to 35,000 men. The date of this no treaty of concert and subsidy treaty is March 24, 1812. with either Russia or Prussia.

Earl Grey, on June 18th, rose On June 16th, there was laid and first observed that the docubefore parliament a paper con- ment laid on the table was not taining the substance of the en- that which the House had a right gagements between the courts of to look for, as it might reasonStockholm and Petersburgh, so far ably expect the communication of as they are referred to in the treaty the articles themselves, instead of between Great Britain and Swe- the alleged substance of them. den. In this it is stated that the Not, however, to dwell upon

that French government having, by the circumstance, he contended that occupation of Swedish Pomerania, not only hostilities with Dencommitted an act of liostility mark having been continued after against the Swedish government, an offer of peace, but a treaty havand by the movement of its armies ing been entered into with anohaving menaced the empire of ther power for its spoliation, it Russia, the contracting parties en- was become doubly necessary that gage to make a diversion with a it should be proved that Denmark combined force of 25 or 30,000 had refused that justice which Swedes, and 15 or 20,000 Rus- Great Britain had a right to desians upon some point of the coastmand : it was a fact that the ports of Germany; but that, as the king of Denmark had been closed against of Sweden cannot make such the privateers of France, and every diversion consistently with the se- facility given to British commerce, curity of his dominions, so long as as early as the 10th or 12th of he must regard Norway as an February. Soon after, an official enemy, the emperor of Russia en- agent arrived from Copenhagen, gages, either by negociation or who was succeeded by Count military co-operation, to unite Nor. Bernstorf. Hence it appeared that way to Sweden, which acquisition long before the Swedish treaty was is to be considered as a prelimi- concluded, Denmark had by overt nary to the diversion in Germany. acts incontestibly proved her paThe two powers unwilling to make cific disposition towards this counan enemy of the king of Den- try. After some other observamark, will propose to him to ac- tions relative to the right of the cede to this alliance, and offer him House to be fully informed how a complete indemnity for Norway the case stood before it gave its by a territory more contiguous to sanction to a treaty of robbery and his German dominions, provided spoliation, his lordship concluded he will for ever cede his rights on with moving, that an humble adNorway. In case he shall refuse dress be presented to the Prince this offer, they engage to consider Regent, for an account of all comDenmark as an enemy. Great munications that had taken place



between Great Britain and Den- common cause with Russia against mark since the commencement of the enemy; and was she not enthe

year, with a view to a pacific titled to some indemnification for arrangement between the two her loss and hazard ! There were powers.

three considerations to be attended The Earl of Liverpool said, he to in discussing the merits of the should confine himself strictly to treaty in question : 1. Were Rusthe motion ; 'and he would repeat sia and Sweden justified in en. that the documents moved for had tering into their engagements ? no connection with the subject that 2. Was, or was not, Great Britain was this night to be debated, since justified in acceding to that treaty? the treaty with Sweden was sub- 3. Did she act wisely and politically stantially concluded before Den- in acceding? With respect to the mark had made pacific overtures first, it was not to be forgotten to. Great Britain. The first com- that Denmark formed part of the munication was received from the confederacy against Russia. She Danishi minister at Stockliolm on engaged to Buonaparte to occupy Feb. 25th. An answer was the north of Germany with her turned on the 28th, which did not troops, of which some countries reach Stockholm till March 4th, were in alliance with Russia, and the day subsequent to the conclu- thus as completely co-operated sion of the treaty now on the with the French as if she had table.

marched with them to Moscow. Lord Grenville spoke in favour She made her election, and was to of the motion; after which the stand by the consequences. As to House divided, contents 27 ; not- the justice of the accession of Great contents, 72; majority against the Britain_to the engagements bemotion, 45.

tween Russia and Sweden, were The Earl of Liverpool then rose we not at war with Denmark? to speak on the main question. Danislı

manned the He began with adverting to the French ships; their ports were terrible storm which was impende shut against us, their privateers ing over Russia, in the last year, were annoying our commerce. when he was invaded by a greater Could it be asserted that we were force than was ever before brought not as much justified in conqueragainst any country. Two things, ing Norway, as in conquering any he said, were necessary to give her other place belonging to Dena chance of successful resistance; mark? The idea of annexing Norpeace with Turkey, and the co- way to Sweden was not new. The operation of Sweden. The first purpose of sir John Moore's expewas effected chiefly by the media- dition had been to co-operate with tion of this country. With regard Sweden in the conquest of Norto the second, France had, by way as an indemnification for the seizing Pomerania, tried the effect loss of Finland. The nominal war of intimidation on Sweden, whilst which afterwards ensued with on the other hand she made large Sweden, had indeed released this offers to engage her friendship. country from any preceding enShe, however, preferred making gagement; but as she had now



shewn such a determination to co- deserved to be purchased at aloperate in the common cause, she most any price. He concluded by had a strong claim on our liberality moving an address of thanks to the to promote her views in any legi- Prince Regent for Jaying this treatimate contest. With respect to ty before parliament, and to assure the policy of our acceding to the bis Royal Highness of their readiengagements between the two ness to co-operate with him to powers, there was no object, ex- carry.the same into effect. cept the independence of the Pen- Lord Holland, after some preliinsula, so important to Great minary remarks on the moral na Britain, as that Norway should ture of the question, as affecting belong to a power able and will. the reputation of the country, obing to preserve its independence served that the noble earl had against France. It was a country somehow overlooked the million of full of harbours, from which we English money that was to be paid procured a considerable part of to Sweden. He then stated the our naval stores. He did not mean outline of the treaty, as he underto say, that for this reason solely stood its stipulations. Besides this Denmark ought to be deprived of sum of money we were to cede it; but till that nation was pre- the island of Guadaloupe, in perpared to sacrifice its German do- petuity to Sweden, and assist her minions for its insular security, it in despoiling her neighbour of a must be dependant on France. part of his hereditary dominions ; The noble lord then made some and we were never to make peace observations to show that even in unless Sweden voluntarily gave up the last year the conduct of Swe- her claims, or was put in possesden had been of material service sion of Norway. In return, Sweto Russia, and that Denmark had den was to do what she was al. made no overtures till after the ready obliged to do by treaty, and almost complete destruction of the to give us a right of entrepôt at French invading armies. The three ports, but this only for 20 question, he said, came to this; years, although the cessions made how far the Swedish government to her were for perpetuity. The had shewn a disposition to perform treaty before the House refers to the treaty ? and he endeavoured to a former treaty concluded between prove from facts that its exertions Russia and Sweden last year; yet had been hearty and zealous. As it is asserted to have been neces. to the compensation given to Swe- sary to secure the co-operation of den by the cession of a West In- Sweden, Russia had in fact dedia island, he said it was not a rived all the advantage from this new idea, and that there never treaty. By an act of robbery and was an occasion in which such a plunder, she had wrested from her measure was more important or ally, part of his dominion; and inless detrimental to this country. stead of restoring it, bad agreed The return, that of opening a dé- with this ally to rob a third party. pôt for British commerce in Swe. It had been asked, were not we at den, was such an effectual revers- war with Denmark? He would ing of the continental system, as aşk, were the two allies so? Не

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believed there was still a Danish tinguished, and her people to be minister at Petersburgh; there cer- conveyed against their will to the tainly had been one after the 3rd rule and obedience of another soof March. What an argument vereign? How we could reconcile would it afford for universal rob- the spoliation and dismemberment bery, if a weak power was to be settled by this treaty, with our own despoiled on the principle of this policy with respect to the contitreaty! The Prince Royal had said nent as set forth in our declarathat Norway was a necessary ac- tions against the infringements and cession to him, and that he could violations of France, he should undertake no expedition to the leave the noble earl to decide. He continent without this security understood that this cession was from the designs of Denmark. made a sine qua non, and that Nothing of this is effected. Nor- Denmark had no option, but either way and Denmark have become to cede Norway with a good will, his enemy, but he has got Guada. or to have it taken from her by loupe and a million a-year, and all force. If there were now a negodanger vanishes. By the treaty ciation for peace, Great Britain with Russia, Sweden was bound could no longer speak of the reto furnish a certain force to co- establishment of the ancient states operate in Germany, but not till of Europe, if she was pledged to 15,000 Russians should march the dismemberment of one of the against Norway, at a time when oldest. After various other obthe greatest army ever assembled jections to the treaty, urged by his was marching to Moscow. It lordship with great force and elomight be said, it was not their bu- quence, he concluded with movsiness to canvas engagements being by way of amendment a long tween two foreign nations; but address to the Prince Regent, the when these were referred to in substance of which was, to express order to justify the excessive en- their deep regret and sorrow at gagements we had entered into the principles on which it was

, they should be considered with formed, principles irreconcileable relation to the principles and policy with the laws of nations, and the of these nations. The indemnity true feelings of national honour to be offered to Denmark was re- and public morality; it also remarkable. It has been asserted flected on the cession of Guadathat she must necessarily be depend- loupe as altogether unwarranted, ant on France, whilst her territo- and on the subsidy, as inconsistent ries were contiguous to the north with the financial difficulties unof Germany; yet it was in Ger- der which the country was labourmany that she was to receive her ing; and it concluded with a reindemnification. His lordship spoke quest to his Royal Highness to in terms of warm encomium on suspend the execution of the the efforts which Russia had made treaty. to secure her independence; but, The Earl of Harrowby made a he asked, was not that principle reply, which was chiefly a repetias sacred when applied to Norway; tion of the arguments used by lord was her independence to be ex- Liverpool.

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