« 前へ次へ »
kingdom of Wirtemberg, indeed, is said to exhibit, in the education and religious character of the lower classes, a striking exception to the ignorance which generally prevails, there being few that are unable to read. 'i'he opinion, however, of most men of intelligence and piety in Germany, is, that there is too just cause to fear the resurrection of the Giant Pagan in all his terrors. The Jesuits and the Inquisition are already reestablished. If this should prove to be the event, we may be assured that the vials of the Almighty are not yet exhausted. “ One woe is past,” but other woes shall come hereafter.
'The churches of Paris are empty and neglected. One can indeed hardly desire it were otherwise, under present circumstances. Our Author praises the conscientious efforts of the king to reestablish the altar,' but it is strange fire that is offered upon it. He admits that 'the order of the necessary reformation, has been, to a certain extent, the reverse of what would really have
attained the important purpose designed by the sovereigns.” He subscribes to the inefficiency of forms and rites and ceremonies, when the public sense of religion, from which alone they can derive respect, is extinct.
The attempt to re-establish processions, in which the officiating persons hardly know their places, tales of miraculous images masses for the souls of state criminals, and all the mummery of barbarous ages, is far from meeting the enlarged ideas which the best and most learned of the catholics have expressed."
Our Author conceives that the time is favourable for re• building the Gallic Chureh on a more solid basis than ever,
by leaving room for the gradual and slow reformation intro• duced by the lapse of time.' Is Cousin Paul then a Roman Catholic at the bottom? Or does he think the Roman Catholic religion is good enough for the French nation; or that Presbyterian doctrines, being the indigenous produce of the more orthodox soil of his native country, would not endure a more southern climate! But, to be serious, has our Author never paused to reflect, that, by the very constitution of national churches, no room is left for the gradual and slow reformation, he speaks of? If infallibility be disclaimed by any of them, still the Church can do no wrong, and innovation is deemed to be fraught with danger, if not with impiety. “Semper eadem is inscribed on the banners of every establishment; and to talk of provision being made for gradual reformation, is to disregard the experience of ages.
Paul goes on to say, 'It is with the hearts of the French, and not with the garments of the clergy, that the reformation, or rather the restoration, of religion, ought to commence. The restoration of religion in France ! of a religion too, that needed not reformation! To what remote period in history, or to
what sort of religion, does our Author allude? It cannot be. the religion of the Jesuits, of the Inquisition, of the Virgin Mary—that religion which, in the alternate forms of cruelty and licentiousness, has been the oppressor and the demoralizer of France-that system on which the awful sentence of prophetical wrath has been passed, which our Author wishes to see reestablished on the hearts of the clergy! Go, Cousin Paul, and ask your correspondent, the minister of the Gospel,' whether the restoration, not the reformation of religion, in France, be the object so desirable. He, it is to be hoped, will set you right upon subjects 'which seem so far out of the line of your attention. He will inform you that · The carefully filling up the ranks of the
parochial clergy with men whose patient and quiet attention to "the murals of their flocks might reform the nation, as the duty and prerogative of a bigoted Catholic king, is a scheme worthy only of a Utopian dreamer, or of a man whose notions of religion are modelled on Pope's Universal Prayer.
We wish, however, to part with Friend Paul, from whose volume we have derived so much entertainment, on friendly terms. We shall close our article, therefore, with extracts from bis observations relative to the Protestants of France.
• Buonaparte, whose system of national religion included universal toleration, extended his special protection to the professors of the reformed doctrines, and by an organic law concerning worship, published in the year X, guaranteed to them the free exercise of their religion, being the first public indulgence which had been extended to them since the revocation of the Edict of Nantes. A system of consistories was established for their internal church government; and so highly were they favoured, that the public exercise of the catholic religion, by processions or other ritual observances performed without the walls of the church, was positively prohibited in such towns as had consistorial churches belonging to the protestants. This distinction in favour of a body of subjects, amounting, it has been computed, to two millions of souls, attended by the triumph conferred by the interdiction of the catholic rites where their eyes could be offended by them, raised the spirits of the protestants as much as it exasperated and depressed those of the catholics. They took their ranks in political contest accordingly; and although interests of vå. rious kinds prevented the rule from being absolute, yet it was observed, during the last convulsions of the state, that the catholies of the South were in general royalists, whereas many of the protestants, in gratitude for past favours conferred on their church, in jealousy of the family of Bourbon, by the bigotry of whose ancestors their fathers had suffered, and confiding in the tolerant spirit of Buonaparte, lent too ready and willing aid to his usurpation. During that event, and those which followed, much and mutual subject of exasperation has unfortunately taken place between these contending parties. Ancient enmities have been awakened, and, amid contradictory reports and statements, we can easily discover that both parties, or individuals
at least of both, have been loud in their appeal to principles of moderation when undermost, and very ready when they obtained the upper hand to abuse the advantages which the changes of the state had alternately given to them. This is a deep and rankling wound, which will require to be treated with no common skill. The protestants of the South are descendants of the ardent men who used to assemble by thousands in the wilderness--I will not say with the scoffer, to hear the psalms of Clement Marot sung to the tune of Reveillez vous, belle Endormie—but rather, as your Calvinistic heroes of moor and moss, in the days of the last Stuarts, are described by a far different bard, dear in remembrance to us both, for the affectionate sympathy and purity of his thoughts and feelings; when in the wil. derness
larose the song, the loud
Caught doubtfully at times the breeze-borne note.” On the other hand, the catholics are numerous, powerful in the hope of protection and preference from the crown, and eager to avenge in. sults, which, in their apprehension, have been aimed alike at the crown and the altar. If we claim for the protestants, whose nearer approach to our own doctrines recommends them to our hearts as objects of interest, the sympathy which is due to their perilous situation, let us not, in candour, deny at least the credit of mistaken zeal to those whom different rites divide from us. In the name of that Heaven, to whose laws both forms of religion appeal, who has disclaimed enforcing the purest doctrines by compulsion, and who never can be worshipped duly or acceptably by bloody sacrifices, let us deprecate a renewal of those savage and bloody wars, which, founded upon difference of religious opinion, seem to convert even the bread of life itself into the most deadly poison. British interference, not surely so proposed as to affront France's feelings of national indea pendence, a point on which late incidents have made her peculiarly irritable--but with the earnest and anxious assurances of that good. will, for which our exertions in behalf of the royal family, and our in. terest in the tranquillity of France, may justly claim credit,- might, perhaps, have some influence with the government.' pp. 401–405.
• It is certain, that the security of the protestant religion abroad is now, as in the days (of Charles the Second) a wall and defence unto that which we profess at home; and at all times, when England has been well administered, she has claimed and exercised the rights of intercession in behalf of the Reformed Churches. pp. 405-406. Art. VI. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London.
For the Year 1814. Parts I. and II. 4to, G. and W. Nicol.
London, 1814. (Chemical and Physiological Papers ). A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equiralents. By William
: Hyde Wollaston, M. D. Sec. R. S. THIS most ingenious instrument will be found to possess a
value almost incaleulable in the hands of the practicai chemist. It is formed on the principle of the Common Sliding Rule, and resembles that instrument in its mode of application. The establishment of the atomic theory, or the theory of volumes, of the substantial truth of which we apprehend there is now no doubt in the mind of chemists, has laid a foundation for so great a degree of precision and accuracy in its results, that it will be resorted to on most occasions, as a substitute for experiments or calculations which would occupy a large portion of time, even in the hands of the most expert chemist. We cannot give a better idea of its practical value, than by using the illustration of its ingenious inventor.
• The means by which this is effected, may be in part understood, by inspection of the Plate I. in which will be seen the list of substances intended to be estimated, arranged on one or the other side of a scale of numbers in the order of their relative weights, and at such distances from each other, according to their weights, that the series of numbers placed on a sliding scale, can at pleasure be moved, so that any number expressing the weight of a compound, may be brought to correspond with the place of that compound in the adjacent column. The arrangement is then such, that the weight of any ingredient in its composition, of any re-agent to be employed, or pre cipitate that might be obtained in its analysis, will be found opposite to the point at which its respective name is placed. In order to shew more clearly the use of this scale, the Plate exhibits two different situations of the slider, in one of which oxygen is 10, and other bodies are in due proportion to it; so that carbonic acid being 27.54, and lime 35.46. carbonate of lime is placed at 63. In the second figure, the slider is represented drawn upwards until 100 corresponds to muriate of soda; and accordingly the scale then shews how much of each substance contained in the table is equivalent to 100 of common salt.
:. It shews, with regard to the different views of the analysis of this salt, that it contains 46.6 dry muriatic acid, and 53,4 soda, or 39.8 sodium, and 13.6 oxygen; or if viewed as chlorid of sodium, that it contains 60.2 chlorine, and 39.8 sodiumWith respect to re-agents, it may be seen that 283 nitrate of lead, containing 191 of litharge employed to separate the muriatic acid, would yield a precipitate of 237 muriate of lead, and that there would then remain in solution nearly 146 nitrate of soda. It may at the same time be seen, that the acid in this quantity of salt, would serve to make 232 corrosive subli. mate, containing 185.5 red oxide of mercury, or would make 91.5 muriate of ammonia, composed of 6 muriatic gas, (or hydro-muriatic acid) and 29.5 ammonia.
The scale shews also, that for the purpose of obtaining the whole of the acid in distillation, the quantity of oil of vitriol required is nearly 84, and that the residuum of this distillation would be 122 dry sulphate of soda, from which might be obtained by crystallization, 277 of Glauber salt, containing 155 water of crystallization. These, and many more such answers, appear at once by bare inspection, as soon as the weight of any substance intended for examination, is
1. The min Thoinson, pecies of con
made by the motion of the slider correctly to correspond with its place in the adjacent column.' ,
The mere enumeration of these advantages, is sufficient to prove its great and inestimable importance. Analysis of a New Species of Copper Ore. By Thomas
Thoinson, M.D. F.R. S. L. and E. : The mineral of which this paper contains an analysis, was .. discovered about the year 1800, by Dr. Benjamin Heyne, in the Peninsula of Indoostán, near the eastern border of the Mysore. It is an anhydrous carbonate of copper; and consequently constitutes a species perfectly distinct from the two native carbo. nates of this metal already known, the malachite, and the blue carbonate, which are both hydrous carbonates, one containing twice as much water as the other. From the analysis of Dr. Thomson, this ore is composed of carbonic acid 16.70, peroxide of copper 60.75, peroxide of iron 19,50, silica 2.10, loss. 95, in 100 parts. And as an integrant particle of carbonic acid weighs 2.751, and an integrant particle of peroxide of copper, weighs 10, these numbers bear the same proportion to each other, that 16.7 does to 60.75; so that no reasonable doubt can exist that the carbonic acid and oxide of copper are combined in the ore, and that the other constituent parts are only in a state of mechanical mixture. All the specimens seen by Dr. Thom
son, were amorphous. '' · The Bakerian Lecture : on some new Electro-chemical Phe
nomena. By William Thomas Brande, Esq. F. R. S.
Prof. Chem. R I. The experimental investigation of the chemical agency of the electrical fuid, has led, as might be expected, to the observation of some phenomena of a singular and unexpected kind, and which have not appeared to be easily explained on the generally received theory.
Mr. Cuthbertson had remarked, that when the flame of a candle is placed between two surfaces in opposite states of electricity, the negative surface becomes most heated; which he regarded as affording evidence of the passage of the electrical fluid from the positive to the negative surface. And Mr. Erman has shewn, that some substances are unipolar in regard to Voltaic electricity, or are only susceptible of transmitting one kind of electricity.
Mr. Brande has endeavoured in this communication, to prove that these phenomena accord with the ordinary laws of electrical action; and he has at least rendered it probable that some of them are referrible to these laws. He made a number of expe.. riments with the flame of different substances placed between
tion of the ected to the