Ipse manu quatiens ostendit ab aethere nubem.
Diditur hic subito Troiana per agmina rumor,
Advenisse diem, quo debita moenia condant.
Certatim instaurant epulas, atque omine magno
Crateras laeti statuunt et vina coronant.

Postera cum prima lustrabat lampade terras
Orta dies, urbem et finis et litora gentis
Diversi explorant; haec fontis stagna Numici,
Hunc Thybrim fluvium, hic fortis habitare Latinos.
Tum satus Anchisa delectos ordine ab omni


rallel to the present passage, and evidently and for 'vina coronant' G. 2. 528. denoting a sunlit cloud. Mr. Long, re. 148–159.] The next morning they marking that the time intended is evening, explore. Aeneas sends an embassy to says “ The phaenomenon is common in Latinus, and meantime makes a sort of southern latitudes, where darkness follows camp-town.' close on sunset, and a black cloud often 148.] ‘Cum prima' is to be taken as begins on a sultry evening to discharge “cum primum.” With the different parts electricity.” “Radiis lucis et auro’ is i. q. of the line comp. 5. 42., 4. 6. “ radiis aureae lucis.” Comp. 5.87, “ macu- 149.] Orta dies,' 12. 114. With losus et auro Squamam incendebat fulgor.” 'urbem et finis et litora gentis' comp.

143.] Ostendit’ perhaps involves the "moenia gentis” above v. 131. sense of “ostentum," i. q. “ prodigium," 150.] • Diversi' of persons 9. 416. but in 5. 443 we have the word simply in Comp. v. 132 above. Three parties are sent the sense of holding up' or 'holding out.' out, as this and the following line show. • Ab aethere'may denote a clear sky: but With 'haec fontis stagna' &c. comp. the word can hardly be pressed : comp. 2. 29, “Hic Dolopum manus” &c. 1. 90, “ Intonuere poli, et crebris micat There seems to be no means of choosing ignibus aether.” În Soph. 0. C. 1456 between Numicî' and Numici,' both ĚKTUTEV aiohp seems to refer to a thunder the forms "Numicius' and Numicus' storm : comp. vv. 1502 foll. Ipse manu' (Sil. 8. 179) being found : Sil. however G. 4. 329 &c.

may have altered the forın to suit his 144.] The MSS. vary between diditur' metre. The position of the Numicius is and deditur' as usual: see on G. 2. 8 much disputed (v. Heyne Excurs. 3 on this &c. Dicitur,'' creditur,' and editur,' are book, with Wagn.'s additions). Westphal also found. •Didere' is a favourite word and Bunbury, approved by Mr. Long, of Lucr. Gossrau quotes Diod. Sic. 4. 47, identify it with the Rio Torto (see Dict. diadobelons tñs ohuns eis änavta Tómov. G. 'Numicius '): others apparently make

145.] · Debita,' v. 120 above. A few it the Rio di Turno, a smaller stream in MSS. have condent. See on v. 99. the same neighbourhood, near Lavinium.

146.] • Instaurant epulas ’is i. q.“vina Wagn. believes the fontis stagna Numici' reponite mensis” y. 134. •Omine magno' to be the Stagno di Levante, not far from may be taken separately, as a sort of abl. the ancient channel of the Tiber, partly on of circumstance: comp. vv. 249, 284. But the strength of vv. 241, 747, where the it seems better, in spite of the position of Tiber and Numicius are mentioned togethe words, to take it with laeti:' comp. ther, a conjunction which may be explained 10. 250, “animos tamen omine tollit.” by the historical connexion, without supProbably Virg. did not distinguish the two posing immediate local proximity. It was constructions as sharply as we should do. in the Numicius that Aeneas ultimately •Omine magno’like “magno augurio” 5. perished in his war with the Rutuli, and 522. Comp. Il. 1. 239, 8 tou méyas on it was his shrine or tomb (Livy 1.2); čo OETAI Opkos. So “omina tanta” 9. 21. which again is in favour of a stream near The fulfilment of the prediction, being a Lavinium as against one close to the Tiber. supernatural event, is an omen of success. 152.] · Tum satus Anchisa' 5. 244, 424.

147.] For 'crateras statuunt' see l. “Ordine ab omni :' ex omni qualitate 724 (nearly identical with the present line), dignitatum: quod apud Romanos in lega


Centum oratores augusta ad moenia regis
Ire iubet, ramis velatos Palladis omnis,
Donaque ferre viro, pacemque exposcere Teucris.
Haud mora, festinant iussi rapidisque feruntur
Passibus. Ipse humili designat moenia fossa,
Moliturque locum, primasque in litore sedes
Castrorum in morem pinnis atque aggere cingit.
Iamque iter emensi turris ac tecta Latinorum


tione mittenda hodieque servatur," Serv. were liable, according to the practice of Comp. however 11. 331. Lersch § 53 re- antiquity, to be treated as enemies. marks that the number sent here and 11. 156.]Festinant iussi,' they hasten 331 is much larger than any known to their inission. have been sent by the Romans, who seem 157.] For the custom of solemnly tracfrom Livy generally to have sent three: ing out the site of cities comp. 5.755 note. he suggests however that the number may "Humili,' shallow. Tac. A. 1. 61 has have been taken from the hundred senators “humili fossa” and Pliny Ep. 8. 20.5“huof Romulus, or may be the number ten mili radice.” Comp. the double sense of (which he argues from Livy 33. 24., 37.55 “ altus.” This first settlement, distinct to have been the ancient number of an from Lavinium, was part of the common embassy) multiplied into itself, and remarks version of the legend: see Lewis p. 332. generally on Virg's partiality for the According to Cato ap. Serv. and Livy 1. 1 number 100.

it bore the name of Troia. 153.] Oratores, 8. 505., 11. 100, 331. 158.] Molitur locum,' breaks ground, It was an old Roman word for an ambas- by digging entrenchments and foundasador : see Varro L. L. 7. 3, § 41, where tion. Comp. G. 1. 494, “Agricola incurvo Ennius is quoted, Cic. 2 Legg. 9. Moenia terram molitus aratro." Moliri' is regis,' Laurentum, v. 63.

used for the same thing above v. 127. 154.] “ Velati ramis oleae” 11. 101. Primas’ of the first settlement, not, as The expression seems parallel to intrplous Heyne, i.q. “primo litore," on the edge of kládolo iv ECOTEuMévoi Soph. O. T. 3, which the shore. So “prima tecta” v.127 above. is now generally understood as = kiádous 159.] •Castrorum in morem,' i. e. like a ÉGEOTEMMÉvous éxovtes. The token of peace Roman camp, with its fossa, agger, and was an olive-branch borne in the hand, 8. vallum, and its internal divisions and ar116, 128., 11, 333, sometimes wreathed rangements, including the praetorium in with wool (8. 128). To this wreathing the centre, 9. 230. The site chosen also ÈFFOTEMuévoi is generally understood to seems to have been one which aRoman strarefer: and the same may be the case with tegist would have approved, the camp being 'velatos. “Velamenta” is the regular defended on one side and at the same time term for tokens of supplication, Livy 24. supplied with water by the river. See 30., 29. 16., 30. 36., 35. 34. cited by Lersch § 44. Virg.'s castrimetation, like Lersch 9.52, and Plaut. Amph. 1.1.101 has his discipline and tactics, is that of his “velatis manibus orant.” But the “vela- own, not of the heroic age. Pinnae' are tio” may be merely the covering afforded by taken by Lersch as i. q. “vallum;" they the leaves of the boughs : an interpretation are distinguished from “ vallum” however which would agree with some words in Livy by Caes. B. G. 7. 72 (comp. ib. 5. 40), 30. 36, “ velata infulis ramisque oleae Cars and appear from Varro L. L.5. 142 (Müller) thaginiensium occurrit navis," and with the to have been the battlements of a wall or use of “ velare” in Virg. (note on 2. 249). parapet. Mr. Long thinks that as Virg. There is a sort of parallel ambiguity in the does not mention the “vallum” he means Greek use of otédos &c.: see Conington on the pinnae' to include all that is placed Aesch. Cho. 95. • Rami Palladis,' G. 2. 181. on the agger.

155.7 Dona :' comp. 11. 333. Viro' 160—194.7 · The ambassadors arrive, seems added to bring out the honour in- and are admitted to an audience of king tended to Latinus. Pacem exposcere,' Latinus, who is sitting in an ancient tem3. 261. Pacem'to be taken strictly, not, ple, adorned with figures of his divine and as Heyne, i. q. “ foedus et amicitiam.” human ancestors.' Landing as strangers on the coast, they 160.] • Iter emensi,' 11. 244. •Turres



Ardua cernebant iuvenes, nuroque subibant.
Ante urbem pueri et primaevo flore iuventus
Exercentur equis, domitantque in pulvere currus,
Aut acris tendunt arcus, aut lenta lacertis
Spicula contorquent, cursuque ictuque lacessunt:
Cum praevectus equo longaevi regis ad auris
Nuntius ingentis ignota in veste reportat
Advenisse viros. Ille intra tecta vocari
Inperat, et solio medius consedit avito.

Tectum augustum, ingens, centum sublime columnis, 170 ac tecta, 12. 132. Et tecta’ is here the well stand for boxing, of which “icere” is first reading of Med. and Gud. For "La- used (comp. 5. 377, 428, 444, 457, 459), tinorum' Med. from a correction and and tautology would thus be avoided. “Láothers have •Latini, obviously a change cessunt (alius alium) cursu’like “provocare to get rid of the hypermeter: see on v. beneficio,” “bello.” So “contendere cursu.” 237 below, 6. 33. So some give • Latinum. 166, 167.] Cum 'refers to iamque' •Latinorum’ is supported by Sery., as well v. 160, the words 'ante- lacessunt' being as by Med. originally, Pal., Rom. &c. parenthetical. “As they approached the

161.] Muroque subibant,’ 9. 371, city, one of a party of youths whom they where as here there is a reading 'mu. found exercising before the walls galloped rosque,' supported here by Rom. Serv. off to announce their arrival.' Wagn. distinctly acknowledges the dative. Comp. thinks that ‘re' in reportat' and si3. 292. Wagn. makes a doubtful distinc milar words denotes the representation or tion between “subire loco," to approach, repetition by the messenger of what he has and “subire locum,” to enter a place. Gud. seen or heard; but it seems more natural has a variant propinquant.

to say that the words were originally ap162.] This picture was probably sug- plied to one sent to fetch tidings, and gested by the Campus Martius: but there thence to all who brought tidings, whewas a similar public ground for exercise ther they had been sent to fetch them or (T poartelov) before other cities. Heyne not. Praevectus’ riding in advance of the comp. Hesiod, Shield 285, Tol 8aŭ ipo- rest. “Ad auris’ with reportat.' “Referatis trápoide nóanos NWO (TWY ¿Tißávtes ad auris” E. 3. 73. On ingentis ’Serv. reObveov.

marks, “ Ex stupore nuntii laus ostenditur 163.7 “Exercentur agris,” G. 4. 159, of Troianorum : et bene novitatis ostendit the bees. Here equis' is abl. instr. opinionem: ingentis enim esse quos primum Elsewhere (v. 782 below) the man is said vidimus opinamur.” “In veste,’ 4. 518. to exercise the horses. Currus :' the car 1 68.] ‘Intra tecta vocari Inperat:' comp. is said to be broken in, as in G. 1.514, not 1. 520, “Postquam introgressi et coram to hear the reins. So 12. 287, “ Infrenant data copia fandi.” “Tecta’ is explained alii currus.”

by v. 170. 164,5.] Virg. first enumerates the several 169.] ·Solio avito, as well as regia parties, 'aut-aut’ (comp. G. 4. 167), then Pici, seems inconsistent with v. 61 foll. passes into a description of the various occu- where Latinus himself is made the founder pations of the whole, .que-que. “Inten- of Laurentum. “Medius'=“mediis tectis.” dunt acris arcus” 9.665. The epithet seems Comp. 1. 505 note. The description there, nearly=“durus,” but with a greater notion where Dido receives the Trojans in the of activity, as if the bow had an energy ofits temple, is closely parallel to this. own. Perhaps a contrast is intended with 170.7 This edifice combines the temple

lenta spicula' “ lenta bastilia” 11. 650., and the senate-house. Virg. has also em12. 489), the darts being regarded as pas. ployed it as a sort of museum of Roman sive and owing their force to the arm that antiquities. Some have thought that he bends them. 'Lenta' itself would most had in his mind the temple of Apollo built naturally mean flexible. •Contorquent,' by Augustus close to his own house on the 12. 490., 2. 52 note. Ictu’ is commonly Palatine, where he often convoked the explained = “iaculatione,” after Serv., Senate. Embassies in particular were condenoting at a mark : but it might equally stantly received in temples, especially in

Urbe fuit summa, Laurentis regia Pici,
Horrendum silvis et religione parentum.
Hic sceptra accipere et primos attollere fasces
Regibus omen erat; hoc illis curia templum,
Hae sacris sedes epulis ; hic ariete caeso
Perpetuis soliti patres considere mensis.
Quin etiam veterum effigies ex ordine avorum
Antiqua e cedro, Italusque paterque Sabinus
Vitisator, curvam servans sub imagine falcem,


that of Bellona, which was outside the gested by Mr. Long), opposed to the walls, Livy 30. 21, Festus s. v.“Senacula.” “triclinia.” The practice appears to be priSee Lersch § 15. Augustus' (con- mitive, as well as considere’ instead of nected with “augurium”) is nearly equi- “accumbere.” Ov. F. 6. 305, “Ante focos valent to “sanctus,” Ov. F. 1. 609.“ Sub- olim scamnis considere longis Mos erat, et limibus alta columnis” Ov. M. 2.1. mensae credere adesse deos." There seems

171.] · Urbe summa,' ev ten åkpotóren, no need to suppose an allusion to the daily for which ¿v módel å kporárn occurs Il. entertainment of privileged persons as in 22. 172. Some inferior MSS. and Diomedes a Prytaneum : the reference is rather to p. 498 read “media,' from 1.441. 'Regia,' an occasional sacrificial banquet. his hall of state, where he sate as king. 177.] Ex ordine,' in a row, between

172.] •Silvis,' the sacred grove round the pillars of the portico. They are not in the temple. For such groves round temples the order of succession. See vy. 45 foll. in cities comp. 1. 441., 9. 86. «Horrendum 1 78.] The reading before Heins. was silvis et religione parentum' is equivalent 'ex cedro.' Soine copies leave out the to “cinctum silvis horrendis et religiosis,” preposition. Wood was the material of * religione' probably referring to the awful statues before marble, and cedar was antiquity of the grove. So on 8. 598, chosen as the most durable wood. “Tunc “lucus-religione patrum late sacer.” For melius tenuere fidem cum paupere cultu

horrendum comp. Lucan 3. 411, “ Ar. Stabat in exigua ligneus aede deus” Tibull. boribus suus horror inest.”

1. 10. 19. Mr. Long refers to Pausanias 173, 174.] · Primos' is for “primum.” 8. 17. 2, tois åv@pórous Td åpxasov, “Attollere fasces, to have the fasces raised όποσα και ημείς καταμαθείν εδυνήθημεν, or borne before them. Comp. the oppo- tooáde nv åd av &bava êTOLOŪVTO, &Bevos, site phrase "submittere fasces.” “Omen KUTÁLogos, ai kédpoi, Tà opúïva, ý ouirat, erat, it was a custom without observing Ô iwtós. This mixture of the eponyms which the reign would not have come and gods of different races, Italus, Sabinus, menced auspiciously: not merely, it was a Saturnus, Janus, goes to prove that Virg. lucky thing to do it. Here each king, as was rather a lover of antiquity than an he would have a happy reign, assuined the accurate antiquarian, as some have consisceptre and the fasces. The assuinption dered him. Italus has been referred to 1. of the sceptre and fasces would of course 533: see further Lewis vol. 1. pp. be the coronation of a Roman king. Hic' 276—279. Sabinus, according to Cato ap. is the emphatic word: the coronation, to Dionys. H. 2. 49, was the son of Sancus, be auspicious, was to take place here. who is generally identified with the “dius

175.] For 'hae' Rom. has haec,' Fidius.” The hiatus after 'cedro’ is Greek. which may be plural. “Sacrae epulae, 179.] Vitisator is applied to Bacchus in otherwise « epulum," a banquet given in a fragment of Accius quoted by Macrob. honour of a god, to attend to which was Sat. 6. 5. “Vitis sator” Lucr. 2. 1168. the business of the “epulones.” “Ariete The pruning-hook is elsewhere the familiar caeso,' after the sacrifice. "Perpetuis attribute of Saturn, G. 2. 406, and Peerlmensis' is explained by Heyne as long kamp wishes to re-arrange the passage so tables, at which they sat in an unbroken as to invest him with it here. But the row (comp. “ perpetui tergo bovis” 8. Sabines were wine-growers. •Curvam 183, «s perpetuas ollas,” a continuous row servans sub imagine falcem,' holding as of “ollae” in a Roman tomb, Fabretti a statue (“sub imagine' comp. 6. 293) the Inscr. p. 11 ed. 1699, a reference sug- pruning-hook which he held in life.


Saturnusque senex Ianique bifrontis imago,
Vestibulo adstabant, aliique ab origine reges,
Martiaque ob patriam pugnando volnera passi.
Multaque praeterea sacris in postibus arma,
Captivi pendent currus, curvaeque secures,
Et cristae capitum, et portarum ingentia claustra,
Spiculaque clipeique ereptaque rostra carinis.
Ipse Quirinali lituo, parvaque sedebat
Succinctus trabea, laevaque ancile gerebat
Picus, equum domitor; quem capta cupidine coniunx


180.7 For Saturnus and Janus see the Greek ships. Heyne thinks they are Dict. M.

taken from pirate ships destroyed on the 181.] This and what follows open a coast. The house of Pompey was decorated vista of previous history far more exten- with the beaks of ships captured in his war sive than what is sketched in vy. 45 foll. against the pirates, Cic. Phil. 2. 28. It is probably not without reference to the « Tribulaque traheaeque” G. 1. 164, · feelings of Augustus that Virg. gave this where, as here, the double letter helps the picture of national and patriotic glory and ictus in lengthening the syllable. senatorial dignity under a monarchical 187, 188.] Heyne is probably right in rule. “Ab origine,' 1. 642. Comp. the taking succinctus trabea et lituo' as a word “ Aborigines."

zeugma, though it is a strong one. Forb. 182.] This line is nearly a repetition of considers •Quirinali lituo' as an abl. of 6. 660, “Hic manus ob patriam pugnando quality, or an attributive abl. Virg. may vulnera passi.” Martiaque' fragm. Vat. have intended the latter construction to (2nd reading), Pal., Rom., Gud., “Martia help out the former. Romulus was an qui' fragm. Vat. (1st reading), Med. augur, and founded the city by help of the Comp. 6. 772. The former reading is art. Hence the lituus (augur's staff or more harmonious and better suited to the crook) is called “Quirinalis. Ov. F. 6. sense, distinguishing the warriors from the 375, “lituo pulcher trabeaque Quirinus.” kings, who seem to have been mainly But the epithet comes in rather strangely peaceful. With ‘Martia volnera' comp. here. Gossrau wishes to take Quirinali' Apntpatos.

of Mars, comp. Dion. H. 2. 48, supposing 183.] •Sacris in postibus arma.' Comp. Virg. to refer to some unknown story 3. 287., 5. 360. `In postibus' = “in fori- which associated the lituus' with Mars.

He remarks that the pie into which Picus 184.] Captivi pendent currus. The was turned is known as “picus Martius” ancient chariots were so light that Dio- (Pliny 10. 18, Ov. F. 3. 37), and that med (Il. 10. 505) thinks of carrying off Picus is represented as a Salian priest that of Rhesus on his shoulder. •Captivi' with the ancile. The “trabea,' a toga of things 2. 765. The 'securis,' battle with horizontal stripes of purple, was the axe, was the weapon of Asiatic nations garment both of the kings and of augurs, (“Amazonia securis” Hor. 4 Od. 4. 20) though it seems to have been purple and and of the primitive nations of Europe, white for the kings, purple and saffron for in whose barrows it is often found. It is augurs. The epithet parva' probably rethe weapon of the Italian shepherds, below fers to the scanty size of the primitive, vv. 510., 12. 306, and of Camilla 11. 696. compared with the more luxurious, toga.

Curvae' from the shape of the axe. For the ancilia, see Dict. A. head.

189.] “Equum domitor'is the Homeric 185.] Cristae capitum' like “iubas intódamos. Picus is called “utilium bello capitis” 9. 638. Portarum,' the gates studiosus equorum” Ov. M. 14. 321, in the of captured cities. •Claustra portarum' story of Circe's love for him, and ib. 343 =“portae.”

he is represented as on horseback. Circe 186.] Ereptaque rostra carinis. It is appears from Ov. 1. c. to have been only in remarked that these naval spoils are an love with Picus, and to have turned him anachronism : though Hector (Il. 9. 241) into a bird because he preferred the nymph threatens to cut off the ăkpa Kópvußa of Canens. But possibly Virgi's view of the


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