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190

Aurea percussum virga versumque venenis
Fecit avem Circe, sparsitque coloribus alas.
Tali intus templo divom patriaque Latinus
Sede sedens Teucros ad sese in tecta vocavit;
Atque haec ingressis placido prior edidit ore :

Dicite, Dardanidae, neque enim nescimus et urbem 195
Et genus, auditique advertitis aequore cursum,
Quid petitis ? quae caussa rates, aut cuius egentis
Litus ad Ausonium tot per vada caerula vexit? /

Sive errore viae, seu tempestatibus acti, legend may not have been exactly the 193.] Vocavit' by a messenger. “Insame as Ovid's. Otherwise we may take tra tecta vocari Inperat” v. 168. • capta cupidine coniux' closely together, 194.] “ Placido ore” 11. 251, of Diomed. i. q. “capta cupidine coniugii” like 195—211.] Latinus asks the Trojans “coniugis amore” E. 8. 18.

what they want, offers them hospitality, · 190.] In Od. 10. 234 foll. Circe first and remembers that Dardanus, their deigives her victims a magic potion and then fied ancestor, originally came from Italy.' strikes them with her wand. They are 195.] Neque' followed by “et” or restored by the external application of “que” is not uncommon even in prose; another drug, v.392. With'versum venenis' Cic. 2 Cat. 13, “ Perficiam ut neque bonus comp. Hor. Epod. 5.87, “Venena magnum quisquam intereat, paucorumque poena vos fas nefasque non valent convertere hu- omnes iam salvi esse possitis.” See Freund, manam vicem.” “Aurea,' dissyllable, 1. neque. It is not clear whether Latinus 698. Nothing is said in Hom. of the means that he had heard of Troy by material of Circe's rod. Virg. may have fame, like Dido, or that he had heard thought of 'Epuñis xpuo ópšatis, who tells that these strangers were the Trojans. In Odysseus about Circe Od. v. 277, and is the latter case we must understand “admentioned by Circe herself v. 331. Serv. vertitis aequore cursum' rather widely, makes 'aurea' nominative.

the thing meant being 'ye have landed on 191.] Avem,' the picus Martius (see our shores :' though it is conceivable that on vv. 187, 8), an important bird in au- news of their coming may have been regury. Sparsitque coloribus alas' i. q. ceived e. g. from Cumae. Comp. however “dedit ei alas sparsas coloribus.” See Ov. y. 167. Urbem et genus ;' comp. Dido's M. 14. 393 foīl., and comp. E. 2. 41, words 1. 565, “Quis genus Aeneadum, “sparsis pellibus albo.”

quis Troiae nesciat urbem ?” “Auditi, 192.] • Intus’ is generally taken as a heard of, like “audire magnos iam videor preposition for “in:" but Hand 3. 447 cites duces” Hor. 2 Od. 1. 21. • Aequore,' over no clear case of such a use of intus. On the sea, 5. 862. •Cursus,' the reading before the other hand ‘intus' is frequently used Heins., is found in none of Ribbeck's MSS. with 'in' pleonastically, which rather ex- 197.] Virg. probably had in his eye the cludes the idea of its being used for it. It queries addressed to strangers on landing seems best therefore to understand tem- in Hom. Od. 3. 71 foll., 9. 257 foll., though plo' as “in templo," and to regard intus' he has, for obvious reasons, omitted the as pleonastic. Munro on Lucr. 4. 1091 mention of piracy. "Quae caussa rates, cites the present passage along with se. aut cuius egentis vexit' is a confused exveral from Lucr. and one from Livy appa- pression made up of “qua de caussa aut rently as instances of intus' with abl. : cuius egentes rates vectae sunt” and but in all of them with the partial excep- “quae caussa aut cuius egestas vexit.” Had tion of the present intus'comes after its critics dealt with the text of Virg. as they case, and may very well be understood have dealt with that of the Greek drama. adverbially. *Patria sede'=“solio avito” tists, "egestas' would doubtless have been v. 169. It is coupled by 'que' to 'tali substituted. Cuius egentis' asks more templo;' or the whole clause "patria definitely what has been asked more gesedens' is coupled with 'tali templo,' not nerally by “quae caussa.” unlike “extremus galeaque ima subsedit 198.] Tot vada,' 5. 615. Acestes” 5. 498.

199.] “Pelagine venis erroribus actus”

Qualia multa mari nautae patiuntur in alto,

200
Fluminis intrastis ripas portuque sedetis,
Ne fugite hospitium, neve ignorate Latinos
Saturni gentem, haud vinclo nec legibus aequam,
Sponte sua veterisque dei se more tenentem.
Atque equidem memini-fama est obscurior annis— 205
Auruncos ita ferre senes, his ortus ut agris
Dardanus Idaeas Phrygiae penetrarit ad urbes

Threiciamque Samum, quae nunc Samothracia fertur. 6. 532. Errore viae,' mistake of the Cerda comp. Ov. F. 6. 103, “obscurior way, like “errore locorum” 3. 181. Livy aevo Fama.” Scaliger thought the sense 24. 17 has “ errore viarum.”

was “Haud ita multi sunt anni, sed fama 200.] Qualia multa ' is a translation of pervagata non est.” The dimness of the the Homeric phrase olá te torná. Germ. tradition accounts for the appeal to the cites Apoll. R. 4. 1556, which Virg. may Auruncan elders. The 'Aurunci' (or have imitated, ei sé titħode mópous maleoở Ausones) were regarded as a primitive årós, olá Tetolà Av@pwrot xat éovoL &T' people, and identified with the Aboriαλλοδαπή περόωντες.

gines. The tradition was preserved only · 201.] '“Si quando Thybrim ..... by the oldest men of the oldest race. intraro” 3. 501. Portus' of a landing Ut' is epexegetical of 'ita. Coplace in the mouth of a river. “Nilus ... rythus or Cortona being in Etruria, ‘his Per septem portus in maris exit aquas,” agris' must be taken with some latitude. Ov. 2 Am. 13.10, quoted by Forc.

207.] Penetravit,' the reading before 202.7 Comp. 11. 109, “ qui nos fugiatis Heins., is restored by Ribbeck from Med., amicos?" ib. 113, “ rex nostra reliquit Pal., fragm. Vat. &c. for penetrarit' hospitia,” said by Aeneas to the Latins. (Rom.). It is difficult to see how the indi• Ignorate' might mean “mistake their cative could be constructed, as it clearly character :' but it is better to understand does not come under the cases mentioned “ne ignorate Latinos Saturni (esse) gen- on E. 4. 52. Heyne, writing before these tem,' like “scio me Danais e classi- constructions were understood, thought it bus unum ” 3. 602. Med. has 'nec fugite.' savoured of epic gravity. Possibly it

203.] •Saturni gentem' seems to mean might be explained in connexion with descendants of Saturn rather than the na- ‘ita :' 'the old men told the story agreetion of Saturn. Haud vinclo nec legibus'ably with his having made his way'&c.; but is a hendiadys. The ablatives are instru. this would be harsh enough. The abbrevi. mental or modal. Haud - nec' as in 1. ated form is constantly mistaken by tran327., 3. 214, Hor. 1 Ep. 8. 4 foll. The scribers, as Wagn. remarks. Idaeas picture is that of the golden or Saturnian Phrygiae ad urbes' substantially like age, Ov. M. 1. 89 foll.

“ Bebrycia Amyci de gente ” 5. 373, 204.] •Se tenentem,' that keeps itself “Euboicas Cymarum oras” 6. 2, for “Phryfrom wrong, i.q. “se continentem." There giae Idae urbes." is perhaps an allusion to the common 2 08.] “Samum' is the reading of Ribphrase "lege teneri.” Veteris dei more,' beck's MSS., except Med., which has “Sathe rule of the golden age when Saturn mom. Others have · Samon,' which Wagn. reigned. Saturn is called veteris' as the adopts, remarking (Q. V. 4) that Virg., god of the olden time. Comp. “Quis though not consistent in his usage with neque mos neque cultus erat” 8. 316, respect to Greek names, generally prefers of the state of Italy before Saturn. It the Greek inflection in the case of islands. is not said that the Latins had no laws, The island is called Zámos Opnikin in Il. which would be inconsistent with 8. 322, 13. 12. In Hdt. 2. 51 it is EauoOpnikn. but that they were not virtuous for fear of We can hardly suppose Virg. not to have law. But it may be better to acknowledge known that the two names were the same, some inconsistency in the poet.

though, if he did know it, the line seems 205, 206.] “Atque equidem Teucrum very pointless. The ordinary legend was memini Sidona venire” 1. 619, where, as that Iasius settled in Samothracia (note here, atque expresses the appositeness on 3. 168): but Virg. here may mean to of the remark. 'Annis,' by reason of years. include him.

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Hinc illum Corythi Tyrrhena ab sede profectum
Aurea nunc solio stellantis regia caeli

210
Accipit et numerum divorum altaribus addit.

Dixerat; et dicta Ilioneus sic voce secutus:
Rex, genus egregium Fauni, nec fluctibus actos
Atra subegit hiemps vestris succedere terris,
Nec sidus regione viae litusve fefellit;

215 209.] Hinc' is explained by · Corythi him, when he has not been mentioned in Tyrrhena ab sede ;' Latinus means that it the clause, is in the manner of Virg. was from Italian antecedents that he rose •Novis altaribus,' or any other similar to be a god. Hinc' with profectum' pro- epithet pointing indirectly to the person bably, not with “accipit.' *For ·Corythi' intended, would have been a different see on 3. 170 : for •Corythi Tyrrhena sede' thing. •Numerum-addit,' on the other note on v. 207 just above.

hand, in the sense of 'adds his number,' 210.] ‘Stellantis,' glittering with stars; or adds him as an item’ (in prose “nu. not full of stars, which would be “stel- merat illum inter divos qui altaria habent”), latus.” Lucr. 4. 212, “caelo stellante.” seems sufficiently Virgilian, though no * Regia caeli’ G. 1. 503. With solio one has supported this use of numerus' accipit' comp. “toro accipit” 8. 177, pro- by any thing nearer than “sideris in nubably a local abl., like “ gremio accipiet” merum” G. 4. 227, wbere see note. “Nu1. 685, though it may be modal.

mero-addit' would be a possible reading: 211.) “Accipies caelo” (deification) 1. but it is not easy to estimate its external 290. On the other hand the deified per. authority, especially in our ignorance of son is said “deum vitam accipere ” E. 4. the relation which Pal. bears to Gud., and 15. If the present is to be pressed, we altaribus ' = “altaribus positis” would may say that it expresses here the per perhaps be a little harsh. Those who petuity of the divine life, perhaps also the support 'auget' may quote Livy 1. 7, daily feasting. “Numerum-addit:' the “Te (Herculem) mihi mater . . aucturum reading before Heins. was ‘numerum- caelestium numerum cecinit, tibique aram auget. He introduced numero-addit' hic dicatum iri.” from Gud. (1st reading), the object of 212—248.] Ilioneus, as spokesman of • addit' being understood to be illum,' the embassy, explains that the Trojans Dardanus, who is added to the number of were come to ask leave to settle in their the gods by altars, i.e. by having altars ancient country, and presents the gifts raised to him. The editors since his time which Aeneas had sent. have generally preferred 'numerum- 212.] Nioneus (“maxumus Ilioneus”). addit,' supposing it to be found in Rom., is the chief speaker before Dido 1. 521 if not in Med., and explaining it adds his foll., and his speech here is in many points number to (or, as some appear to have an exact counterpart of his speech there. taken it, adds number to,' increases the “Voce secutus' 1. 406. With dicta number of) the altars of the gods. It voce secutus' comp. " Teucri clamore senow appears from Ribbeck that all the quuntur” 9. 636 note. uncials (fragm. Vat., Med., Pal., Rom.) 213.] “Egregium Veneris genus” beread “auget,' and all ‘numerum,' except low v. 556, where however the words are perhaps Pal., which has 'numerum' ironical. Fluctibus acti’1. 333. altered into numero.' •Numerum- 214.] • Subegit' with inf. 3. 257, G. 4. addit' is the second reading of Gud., and 85. -Vestris' not for “tuis,” but referring is found in two other of Ribbeck's cur. to the Latin nation. "Tectis' was read sives. •Auget' is no doubt the easier before Heins. : comp. 1. 627. reading: yet without saying that it is to 215.] This is an answer to “errore viae” be distrusted on that account, we may v. 199, as the line before is to “tempes. still urge, what was urged when the MS. tatibus acti.” “We have not strayed from testimony for it was unknown, that it our course by mistaking the stars or the looks like a correction by some one who landmarks'--the two things by which did not see that divorum' belonged to they steered. Comp. 5. 25. *Sidus’how

altaribus,' not to‘numero;' and it may ever might conceivably stand for a storm further be questioned whether the addi. (stormy season): see 11, 259. For ‘retion of altaribus,' with altars built to gione viae' see on 2. 737. "Fallere re.

220

Consilio hanc omnes animisque volentibus urbem
Adferimur, pulsi regnis, quae maxuma quondam
Extremo veniens Sol aspiciebat Olympo.
Ab Iove principium generis; Iove Dardana pubes
Gaudet avo; rex ipse Iovis de gente suprema,
Troius Aeneas, tua nos ad limina misit.
Quanta per Idaeos saevis effusa Mycenis
Tempestas ierit campos, quibus actus uterque
Europae atque Asiae fatis concurrerit orbis,
Audiit, et si quem tellus extrema refuso
Submovet Oceano, et si quem extenta plagarum

225

gione viae' (to deceive in or in respect of 223.7 Quibus fatis,' what were the the course) occurs again 9. 385, where see fortunes (literally the destinies) of the note.

struggle. “ Acti fatis” 1. 32. 216.] Contrast 1. 377, “Forte sua 224.] · Europae atque Asiae explains Libycis tempestas adpulit oris.' Omnes' uterque orbis, the two divisions of the expresses the national character of the world, Europe and Asia. This view of the movement. Comp. 3. 129, &c. 'Urbem Trojan war as a struggle between Europe adferimur' like "advehitur Teucros” 8. and Asia is quite un-Homeric, and arose in 136.

Greece after the Persian war. See Hdt. 1, 218.] Extremo veniens Olympo' is the earlier chapters. With this image well explained by Gossrau: “Sol si vel ab comp. Hor. 1 Ep. 2.7, “ Graecia Barbariae extremo caelo veniebat, non videbat maius lento collisa duello.” regnum : itaque maxumum erat in omni 225.] Tellus extrema refuso Oceano,' terrorum orbe.” If there is any special the furthest land against which Ocean reference in extremo,' it must be to the beats, or, from which Ocean is beaten great kingdoms of the East. Comp. gene- back :- refuso Oceano' being taken as rally Hor. Carm. Sec. 9 foll. For the an ablative of quality or attributive ablalegendary greatness of the Trojan empire tive with tellus.' The Ocean, as in comp. 2. 556. Hom. Il. 24. 543 foll. is Hom., is supposed to encircle the earth, more moderate.

the extremity of which accordingly repels 219.] ‘Ab Iove principium' was pro- it. For refuso' see note on G. 2. 163, bably suggested to Virg.'s ear by Aratus's “Iulia qua ponto longe sonat unda refuso.” ’Ex Aids åpxáueola (Phaen. 1): comp. ib. Virg. had in his mind Britain or Thule, 5, του γάρ και γένος έσμεν, and see note on though of course he could not put those E. 3. 60.

names into the mouth of Ilioneus. “Sub220.] • Avo,' generally an ancestor. Our movet' and dirimit,' separate from the king Aeneas himself, who sent us hither, rest of the world : comp. with Cerda, is descended from Jove, i. e. more imme- « penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos” E. diately through Venus. •Suprema' is 1. 67; Prop. 3. 1.17, “et si qua extremis not i.q. “ultimus” v. 49, but means tellus se subtrahit oris.” Wagn. and

most exalted,' as in 10. 350, “ Boreae de Forb. think that the Ocean is said to be gente suprema.” Comp. Plaut. Most. 5. 2. refusus,' “quatenus ambiens insulam 20, “quod faciunt summis nati generi. (Britain or Thule) in semet refundi yidebus.” Supremus' is a title of Jove, like tur;" and so Heyne, after Turnebus, inGUIOTOS, “summus :" see Forc. s. v. •Su- terprets the expression like åyóppoos premus. So probably Enn. A. 184, 'Ikeavos in Hom. (II. 18. 399 &c.), the “Nomine Burrus, uti memorant, a stirpe only difference being that this last view supremo,” which Virg. perhaps imitated. supposes the Ocean to encircle the earth. “ Ĝenus ab Iove summo” 6. 123. “ De But these interpretations will not agree gente” 5. 373.

with the clearly parallel passage G. 2. 163. 221.7 • Ad limina' denotes the humility 226.7 There is no elision after · Oceano, of supplicants. Comp. 6. 113, with many the word being treated in Greek. Comp. other instances.

3. 74, G. 1. 437. For the use of the · 222.] For the imagery comp. 5, 693 foll. torrid zone as a type of remoteness comp.

Quattuor in medio dirimit plaga Solis iniqui.
Diluvio ex illo tot vasta per aequora vecti
Dis sedem exiguam patriis litusque rogamus
Innocuum et cunctis undamque auramque patentem. 230
Non erimus regno indecores, nec vestra feretur
Fama levis, tantique abolescet gratia facti,
Nec Troiam Ausonios gremio excepisse pigebit.
Fata per Aeneae iuro dextramque potentem,
Sive fide seu quis bello est expertus et armis :

235 Multi nos populi, multae—ne temne, quod ultro 6. 796 foll. The sentiment is repeated sovereigns. Comp. 1. 572, “Voltis et from 1. 565 foll. For the zones comp. his mecum pariter considere regnis ?” where G. 1. 233 foll. Plagae' of the zones Oy. as elsewhere what Dido offers is what M. 1. 48. Virg. may possibly have thought Ilioneus now asks. Nec vestra feretur of Lucr. 5. 481, “Maxuma qua nunc se Fama levis. Nor light will be the reputaponti plaga caerula tendit.”

tion which our praises will gain you among 228.] *Diluvio' carries on the metaphor men.' A similar promise is made by Aeneas of tempestas ;' but we must take it of a to their benefactress Dido 1. 607 foll. But swollen river or torrent, not of rain, which the clause, taken in connexion with the would be unpoetical. Comp. Hor. 4 Od. preceding one, may refer to the glory 14. 25, “ Aufidus- saevit horrendamque accruing to the Latins from their union cultis Diluviem meditatur agris.” “Cam- with the Trojans : in which case we may pos' renders such a metaphor appropriate. comp. 4. 47 full., and read 'tantive' in the Some in Serv.'s time actually took 'di. next line. luvio ex illo ' with the preceding sentence, 232.] • Levis :'« neque enim leve nomen ex quo mundus est constitutus, hoc est, Amatae” below v. 581. 'Abolescet,' ex quo Chaos esse desiit.” “Per aequora “apud nos.” “Et bene apud memores vecti’1. 376.

veteris stat gratia facti ?” 4. 539. Rom. 230.] Wagn. comp. the phrase “aqua and one of Ribbeck's cursives have 'tan. et igni interdicere.” The sense of the tive,' which most editors prefer. passage apparently requires 'innocuum? 233.] Comp. 1. 68, “ Ilium in Italiam to be taken actively, where we shall hurt portans.” no one,' rather than passively, “where no 2 34.] Fata Aeneae' like “Priaini fa. one will hurt us,' as Serv. and others prefer torum" 2. 554. Aeneas is of course (as in 10. 302); but Virg. may have in- throughout the Aeneid the special care of tended both senses. Ilioneus speaks of destiny. Compare the later Roman the shore, as he had already complained practice of swearing by the Fortune of the 1. 540, “ hospitio prohibemur arenae,” emperor. “Per fortunas" is an adjuration referring here probably to the camp- in Cic.'s letters (Att. 5. 11.1 &c.). Dexsettlement on the coast, which he may tram :' Dido adjures Aeneas “per dextram have thought was the destined city. See tuam” 4. 314. generally the passage from Cic. quoted on 235.] This line is apparently connected 1. 540. The lines are almost translated closely with 'potentem, powerful whether in an excellent couplet in Dean Stanley's tried in friendship or in war. Fide,' Oxford Prize Poem, The Gipsies : “ They probably constructed like "bello et armis' claim no thrones, they only ask to share with expertus,' though it might go with The common liberty of earth and air.” 'potentem,' the construction being changed

231.] •Indecor' or 'indecoris' is a in the next clause. Fabricius thinks Virg. rare word; Virg. however uses it in four has imitated Cic.'s language to Caesar (ad other places, 11. 423, 845., 12. 25, 679. Fam. 7.5), “manum tuam istam et vic*Regno ’ is probably dat., on the analogy toria et fide praestantem.” Comp. Ilioneus of the construction of “decorus,” which on Aeneas 1. 544. however is once found with an abl., Plaut. 236.] Multi :' the only offer of the Mil. 3. 1. 25. Ilioneus apparently means kind actually mentioned in the Aeneid is • we shall be no disgrace to your kingdom,' that of Dido Populi – gentes’ is pronot 'we shall not be unworthy of being bably a mere verbal variation. «Ultro,'

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