Fata Phrygum ! num Sigeis occumbere campis,
Num capti potuere capi? num incensa cremavit
Troia viros ? medias acies mediosque per ignis
Invenere viam. At, credo, mea numina tandem
Fessa iacent, odiis aut exsaturata quievi-
Quin etiam patria excussos infesta per undas
Ausa sequi, et profugis toto me opponere ponto.
Absumptae in Teucros vires caelique marisque.
Quid Syrtes, aut Scylla mihi, quid vasta Charybdis
Profuit ? optato conduntur Thybridis alveo,
Securi pelagi atque mei. Mars perdere gentem


contrast is really the same, as the adverse 40, “ sapere aude.” Toto ponto :' Juno fates of Troy would be the prosperous means that she had proved their enemy in fates of its enemies.

every part of the deep: but the contest is 245 294] This oxymoron is borrowed from represented as extending over the whole

Enn. A. 11. fr. 3 (preserved by Macrob. deep, to give an increased notion of grandeur. Sat. 6. 1), “ Quae neque Dardaniis cam- 301.] Comp. G. 3. 178 note. Cerda peis potuere perire, Nec, cum capta, capi, quotes Catull. 62 (64). 242, “Anxia in nec, cum combusta, cremari.” Heyne re- adsiduos absumens lumina fletus.” “ Caemarks that Virg. has here imitated the lique marisque” 5. 802. rhetorical point and spirit of the tra- 302.] The form of the line is from gedians, especially of Euripides. See In- Catull. 62 (64). 156, “ Quae Syrtis, troduction to Aeneid. “Iliacis occumbere quae Scylla rapax, quae vasta Charybdis,” campis” 1. 97. The whole Troad is sup- as Pierius remarks. posed to take its name from the Sigean 3 03.] “ Portu se condidit alto" 5. 243. promontory (2. 312), as in 3. 108 from ‘Alveo' dissyll. 6. 412. the Rhoetean. The object of potuere oc- 304.] Securus' with gen. 1. 350. cumbere' is 'Phryges,' not capti,' 'Mars' &c. So in 1. 37 foll. Juno compares which is confined to the next clause. For her case with that. of Minerva, who had the general sentiment of the indestructi- been permitted to destroy the Greek fleet bility of the Trojan race comp. the well. for the sin of Ajax, son of Oileus. Serv. known lines Hor. 4 Od. 4. 49 foll.

well remarks that she here chooses in296.] Comp. 2. 632 foll., 664, Hor. stances of destruction by war as there by Carm. Sec. 41 foll., and for the preposition shipwreck. The quarrel between the Cenwith the second of two substantives 5. tаurs and. Lapithae at the marriage of 512., 6. 692.

Peirithous (in which the Lapithae were 297.] Numina' plural of a single god, victorious) is generally, and by Virg. him3. 543, G. 1. 30. With the case ironically self (G. 2. 456), ascribed to the influence put here comp. the more serious language of Bacchus. The only light on this pasof Hera Il. 4. 26 foll.

sage seems to be derived from Serv., who 298.] “ Iaceant perculsa ” 11. 310. has a story that Peirithous invited all the Odiis exsaturata quievi :' comp. 5. 781, gods but Mars to the marriage feast, and 784, 786.

that Mars in revenge for the slight 299.] · Ausa' is constructed with qui- brought about the quarrel : but this looks evi. She negatives the ironical supposi. suspiciously like an adaptation of the very tion that the escape of the Trojans was similar story of Diana's vengeance on owing to her inactivity by pointing to Oeneus of Calydon, who had omitted to what she has done. Peerlkamp inge- sacrifice to her when he sacrificed to all niously conjectures quaene,' which Rib the other gods, Il. 9.533 foll. The ascripbeck supposes to be really identical with tion of a bloody quarrel to Mars is natural

quin. “ Ausus quin etiam ” 2. 768. enough, as the Greeks made him the au• Éxcussos, forced out of, 9. 68.

thor of violent deaths of all sorts (Aesch. 300.] . Ausa,''Thãoa, ‘I who brought my Eum. 355), and even of pestilence (Soph. self to follow them.' Comp. 8. 364, “ Aude, 0. T. 191). hospes, contemnere opes," Hor. 1 Ep. 2.

Inmanem Lapithum valuit; concessit in iras

Ipse deum antiquam genitor Calydona Dianae ;
Quod scelus aut Lapithas tantum, aut Calydona merentem ?
Ast ego, magna Iovis coniunx, nil linquere inausum
Quae potui infelix, quae memet in omnia verti,
Vincor ab Aenea. Quod si mea numina non sunt 310
Magna satis, dubitem haud equidem inplorare quod usquam

Flectere si nequeo Superos, Acheronta movebo.

305.] •Inmanem' (gigantic) and an- that the first was the original reading, that tiquam' seem used to magnify the great the second was introduced by some one ness of the enemies whom Mars and Diana who did not understand the construction had been permitted to destroy, compared (Pomponius Sabinus, retaining the accuwith Aeneas —“Vincorab Aenea.” •Dianae' satives, attempts to supply “vidisti”), and seems to be dat. after • concessit,'" in iras” that the third is simply a mixture of the meaning " for purposes of vengeance. two. Ribbeck imagines that Virg. him

306.] Ipse deum genitor,' as Minerva self left a choice of readings, the first and is said to have wielded the thunderbolt second. The inferior MSS. multiply the of Jove, 1. 42.

variations almost indefinitely. ' Quod scelus 307.] The reading of this line is not merentem,' a variety for « cuius sceleris certain. In Priscian's time, as appears poenas merentem :" see on 2.229, and for a from his words p. 1081, there were three further variety comp. 2. 585. readings, Lapithas — Calydona meren- 308.] Comp. 1. 46, “ Ast ego quae divom tem,' 'Lapithis-Calydone merente,' and incedo regina Jovisque Et soror et con• Lapithis — Calydona merentem. Pris. iunx.” • Inausum' reminds us of “ausa' cian thinks that the third can be ex. v. 300. The word occurs 8. 205. plained as a double construction, but pre- 309.] *Potui,' stooped to,' which harfers the first or second. Serv. is for the monizes with infelix.' So perbaps 'potui' second, as the only one which will make 4. 600, had the heart to, “non potui” sense, but as he does not expressly mention being explained like “non licuit” 4. the two others, merely objecting to reading 550. Quae memet in omnia verti,' who • Calydona, it is not clear whether he is have taken every shape, i.e. tried every arguing against one or both. Of the MSS. mode of opposition. Comp. Hdt. 3. 124, Rom. is for the second, unequivocally; mayroin egiveto uz årrodnuñoai tov dolufragm. Vat. is for the third, though its kpátea. Cerda comp. “ Verte omnis tete original reading was ·Calydo;' Med. was in facies” 12. 891, where Aeneas defies originally for the second, except that it Turnus to escape him. read 'merentes,' but its second reading 310.] •I am defeated by one man,' as in is for the first; Gud. was originally for the l. 47 she complains that she cannot prevail third, but 'merentem' has been altered over a single nation (“una cum gente tot into “merente.' Heins. restored the first, annos bella gero”), while Minerva could deand subsequent editors have followed him: stroy the whole confederate fleet of Greece. Ribbeck however recalls the second. The 311.] “Namque aliud quid sit, quod first is decidedly to be preferred to the iam implorare queamus?”10.19. Jurlo here second, as at once neater and more difficult, expresses euphemistically what she says while in external authority they appear plainly in the next line. This use of ‘usquam' to be equal. If the third could be ex- in an affirmative sentence for “uspiam " is plained, it might easily be defended on rare and perhaps poetical. Freund cites external grounds, as the original reading Ov. M. 12. 41, “Unde quod dgt usquam, which was altered in two ways for the quamvis regionibus absit, Inspicitur.” sake of symmetry: but there is nothing 312.] Heyne quotes Aesch. Suppl. 160— in the context to supply any construction 168, as containing a parallel sentiment. for "Lapithis,' and to understand it as an There is almost a play on the sense of abl. abs., borrowing 'merentibus ' from 'movebo,' which = 'flectere' (“Quo fletu “merentem,' would be quite impossible. Manis, qua numina voce moveret ?” G. 4. The most probable view then seems to be 505), and at the same time has the notion


Non dabitur regnis, esto, prohibere Latinis,
Atque inmota manet fatis Lavinia coniunx :
At trahere, atque moras tantis licet addere rebus;
At licet amborum populos exscindere regum.
Hac gener atque socer coeant mercede suorum.
Sanguine Troiano et Rutulo dotabere, virgo,
Et Bellona manet te pronuba. Nec face tantum
Cisseis praegnans ignis enixa iugalis;
Quin idem Veneri partus suus et Paris alter,
Funestaeque iterum recidiva in Pergama taedae.

Haec ubi dicta dedit, terras horrenda petivit :


of stirring up or setting in action. Virg. Hecuba the daughter of Cisseus. Hom. may have thought of the phrase návra Il. 16. 718 makes her the daughter of Kiveiv mét pov, which Cerda comp., and of Dymas, in which he is followed by Ov. M. the language of Zeus to Hera 11. 8. 478 11. 762. This legend of Hecuba's having foll.

dreamed that she was pregnant with a 313.) •Regnis Latinis,' from becoming burning torch before she brought forth king of Latium : he had already found Paris is alluded to by Enn. Alex. fr. 8, and entrance into the territory. • Esto' 4. by Cic. de Div. 1. 21. •Ignis iugalis,'the 35.

conflagration caused by the union of Paris 314.7 · Lavinia coniunx,' his marriage and Helen, which Hecuba is said to have with Lavinia. “Manent inmota tuorum brought forth in bringing forth Paris. Fata tibi” 1. 257. •Fatis' is here abl. The torch seems to have portended marof instr. or circumstance with ‘manet.' riage, which was the source of the con

315.) For the notion that fate cannot flagration, as well as the conflagration itself. be averted, but can be delayed, comp. And this will give a double sense to‘taedae' 1. 299, Hdt. 1.91. "Tantis' seems meant below. to give a natural reason why they miguut 321, 322.] Venus shall have (or, has) be delayed. "Trahere seems better taken such another offspring of her own. What with “res” than 'moras,' though “trahere follows is an explanation of “idem partus,' moram” is found. With moras addere' 'et' being epexegetic, and taedae' anGossrau comp. Ov. Her. 19. 8, “parvi tem- swering to face. “Quin' confirms and poris adde moram.”

adds to what has gone before. The parallel 316.7 Sheincludes Latinusin her enmity, is of course between Paris and Helen on one and threatens in fact that he and Aeneas side and Aeneas and Lavinia on the other, should be kings without nations.

Aeneas is called a second Paris in a dif317.] · Mercede suorum' may either be ferent connexion by Iarbas 4. 215. price paid by their subjects, or their sub- 'Funestae’ seems to be an epithet, not a jects paid as a price by themselves. predicate, and in Pergama' is constructed The latter is perhaps better. For in- with taedae,' or with the verbal notion stances of this sense of merces' as the which has to be supplied to the sentence. cost of an advantage see Forc.

* Recidiva :' note on 4. 344. 318.] Comp. for sanguine dotabere' 323–340.] •Juno calls up the Fury Aesch. Ag. 406, ãyovo á ' ('En évn) avri. Allecto, and bids her sow enmity between Depvov 'iniw peopáv. For "Rutulo' we the Latins and the Trojans. should have expected · Latino :' but Juno 323.] Juno follows her complaint, as in has passed from the thought that the Book 1., by appealing for aid to one of the people of the two kings shall be destroyed inferior powers; but her appeal to the to the more general thought that the powers of hell is of course the last resort bridal shall take place after bloodshed and shows that destiny is about to be

319.] •Tantum :' nor is Hecuba the only accomplished. “Ubi’ is constructed, like one that gives birth to a firebrand. “Face “postquam,” with the perf. in some cases praegnans Cisseis” 10. 704.

where we should use the pluperf. See 320.] Virg., like Euripides, and (accord. Madv. § 338 b. · Horrenda apparently = ing to Serv.) Ennius and Pacuvius, makes “torva,” as in 11. 507. VOL. III.



Luctificam Allecto dirarum ab sede dearum
Infernisque ciet tenebris, cui tristia bella
Iraeque insidiaeque et crimina noxia cordi.
Odit et ipse pater Pluton, odere sorores
Tartareae monstrum : tot sese vertit in ora,
Tam saevae facies, tot pullulat atra colubris.
Quam Iuno his acuit verbis, ac talia fatur:
Hunc mihi da proprium, virgo sata Nocte, laborem,
Hanc operam, ne noster honos infractave cedat


324.] ‘Allecto’for • Alecto,ʻlike Homer's relative of pater. Other accounts as. άλληκτον πολεμίζειν for άληκτον. So signed a different parentage to the Furies Orph. Arg. 966, Toldóvn Te kal’AXANKT (see Dict. M. •Eumenides'), Serv.e.g.speakkal dia Méyaipa. The names of the Furies ing of them as daughters of Acheron and are not given in the poets before the Night. We must suppose them then in Alexandrine period, Müller Diss. Eum. Virg.'s view to be the children of Pluto § 78. For · dearum,' ósororum' was the and Night, though to a Greek this would old reading and that of Heyne, and is sup. have involved a confusion between the ported by Med. second reading, Rom., and older and younger gods. •Pluton,' the Gud. second reading. Wagn. introduced Greek form: so Hor. 2 Od. 14. 7, “illacri

dearum' from fragm. Vat., Med. first mabilem Plutona.” reading, and Gud. first reading. "Sororum' 328.) • Ora,' aspects, nearly the same as is less likely, on account of sorores' fol- “voltus ;" *facies,' forms. “Faciem mulowing so near in v. 327, and was probably tatus et ora” 1. 658. •Tot sese vertit in introduced from v. 454. We have “dea ora' seems to be an allegorical expression dira” 12. 914. “Dira’ is sometimes used parallel to “tibi nomina mille, mille noabsolutely as a name for the Furies, 4. 473, cendi artes” v. 337. This multiformity is 610. •Dirus' appears to mean rather a substantive part of the Fury's horrors, awful and appalling than horrible (see 8. and there is no need to fetch an epithet for 350), so that dirae deae' would nearly 'ora’ either from “saevae' or from the correspond to oeuval Deal. Luctificus' general context. Comp. generally v. 447 occurs in Cicero's translation from Aesch. below, “ tot Erinys sibilat hydris, Tantaque Prom. Unbound, Tusc. 2. 10. Comp. se facies aperit.” “luctificabilis,” Pers. 1. 78.

329.7 Atra' belongs in sense to colu325.] •Infernisque tenebris' epexege- bris. Rom. and some other MSS. have tical. Tristia bella' E. 6. 7, Hor. A. P. ora.' 73.

330.] Rom., Gud., and others have 326.] Irae’denotes open violence, op- dictis? for verbis.' posed to “insidiae,' treachery. Comp. the 331.] Comp. 12. 846, Aesch. Eum. use of “irasci” for attacking, 10. 712. 69, Nuktos malalal maides. • Proprium,' • Crimina,' grounds of quarrel, and so especial, for herself alone (see the next quarrels simply. Comp. “crimina belli” line); opposed to the duties of Allecto in v. 339.

the moral world. Donatus explains pro327.] Comp. Aesch. Eum. 73 (Apollo of prium' peculiar to thyself: "ergo non the Erinnyes), Miohuar' åvopwv Kal Oew laborabis, quia nihil peto alienum a te,” an 'Olvuriwr. Virg. was also thinking of interpretation also given by Serv. as an Il. 20. 65, tá te otuyéovou oeoi trep. alternative. “Dare laborem' on the anaHeyne comp. Il. 5. 890 (Zeus to Ares), logy of “ dare munus” &c., combined with 'EXOLOTOS de uot cool Dewv, of 'OXvutov“ dare operam,” which is a phrase for ěxovo iv Aiel gáp tou špis te plan, 6. taking trouble. Rom. has laborum,' deuol te páxai te, from which vv. 325, 6 which could not well stand. There is the are evidently taken. Virg's sentiment is, same variety in E. 10. 1. of course, stronger than either. “Pater 332.] For the sentiment comp. 1. 48, is probably to be understood strictly, as “ Et quisquam numen Iunonis adorat,”' &c. Orph. Hymn. 69 calls the Eumenides åyval The construction of 'ne' after “dare Ouyatépes Meyerono Alòs xoovioio Depoe operam 'is common. •Infracta cedat loco' pórns ro, and ‘sorores' is the natural cor- is well explair.ed by Heyne as an ampli335

Fama loco, neu connubiis ambire Latinum
Aeneadae possint, Italosve obsidere finis.
Tu potes unanimos armare in proelia fratres
Atque odiis versare domos, tu verbera tectis
Funereasque inferre faces, tibi nomina mille,
Mille nocendi artes. Fecundum concute pectus,
Disiice conpositam pacem, sere crimina belli ;
Arma velit poscatque simul, rapiatque iuventus.

Exin Gorgoneis Allecto infecta venenis
Principio Latium et Laurentis tecta tyranni
Celsa petit, tacitumque obsedit limen Amatae,


fication of “infringatur” or “inminuatur.” any thing in it. See Macleane's note on It is opposed of course to establishment on Hor. 1 S. 3. 34, “ denique te ipsum Cona solid foundation. We may contrast Lucr. cute,” which Heyne comp. There may be 5.1164, “Quae nunc in magnis florent sacra a further notion of arousing what is dorrebu' locisque.” “Loco cedit” 9. 220. mant. Gossrau quotes an imitation in

333.] *Neu connubiis,' &c. would appeal Sil. 2. 539 foll., where Juno similarly to the malignity of the Fury. Comp. v. excites Tisiphone against the Romans, 329. ‘Ambire Latinum connubiis' may “quidquid scelerum, poenarum quidquid be simply construed to conciliate or gain et irae Pectore fecundo coquitur tibi, conover Latinus by this marriage; though gere praeceps In Rutulos, totamque Erebo there may be also a reference to “ambire demitte Saguntum.” connubium,” like “ambire magistratum.” 339.7 • Disiice' = “rumpe.” Sil. 2. The plural “connubiis' (their marriages) 295 has “disiectaque pax est,” doubtless perhaps has something of bitterness in it, an imitation. •Pacem conponere' occurs as also has 'obsidere,' to beset.

again 12. 822. “Sere crimina’like “serit 335.] Unanimes,' the reading before, rumores” 12. 228. Heins., is found in one of Ribbeck's 340.] Juno says in effect, Cause a sudcursives.

den quarrel that may lead to bloodshed 336.] · Versare' hardly = “vertere,” to before Aeneas and Latinus can interpose.' overturn (v.407), but rather i.q. “turbare.” The wish, the demand, and the taking of • Verbera' and 'faces' are the whips and the demand for granted are to be contorches of the Furies (comp. vv. 451, 457), temporaneous. "Arma volunt” 12. 242. and here that which the whips and torches Poscat,' apparently of Latinus and Aeallegorize, whether the madness of crime neas, like “bellum poscunt” below v. 584. or the fires and lashes of remorse. “Fune. Some of Pierius' MSS. gave “Troiana reas' is only the same as “atro” v. 456 iuventus” for rapiatque iuventus.' and “atris” 4. 384. Another view makes 341-372.7 • Allecto goes to Latinus' 'verbera' quarrels and funereas faces' palace, and plants a snake in the bosom the funerals of those who are slain. But of the queen, who inveighs against the besides the fact that ‘verbera’and faces' Trojan alliance, reminds her husband of are the undoubted attributes of the Fury, his promise to Turnus, and attempts to

verbera' is never used in Virg. in the explain away the oracle.' general sense of blows, but only of a whip 3 41.] •Infecta venenis' instead of or lash.

“cincta serpentibus veneno infectis,” be337.] Nomina mille' alludes to the cause the venomous serpents on her head variety of names, expressive of their were part of herself, vv. 346, 450. Comp. various attributes, which were given to Claud. in Rufin. 1. 66, “tortos serpentum the gods, and from which they were called erexit hiatus, Noxiaque effudit concusso Tolvárvuoi. Your power is felt under a crine venena.” “Gorgoneis’ is properly thousand names;' a reason why she would an epithet of the serpents, like those of find it easy to gratify Juno.

Medusa. 338.] Concute : the metaphor is pro- 342.] Tyranni :' v. 266 above. bably from the shaking of a cloak, or some- 343.] Tacitum' has been interpreted thing of the same kind, to see if there is either as in a retired part of the house

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