clausos” in Aen. 9. 67, saying that if he had not been aware that the rhythm introduced was an unusual one, he should not have apologized for it. It is really a question of ear : and there are doubtless many ears to which the new line will seem hardly Virgilian, in spite of G. 3. 276 and Aen. 7. 634. “ Via” in the received reading is synonymous with “ratio,” as in. Aen. 12. 405. “ Sic” for “ sed” in v. 146 of Aen. 9 depends on a transposition which we have already seen reason to reject. In v. 226 “et,” though not found in the MSS., is said to be necessary before “ delecta.” I do not know what is the objection to taking “delecta iuventus” in apposition with “ductores,” but I suppose it is either that the leaders would be too old to be designated as “iuventus,” or that the word naturally implies the rank and file, as distinguished from the chiefs. To the first I reply that “iuventus” means little more than fighting men, and that Aeneas and Achates are addressed as “iuvenes” Aen. 1. 321; to the second that Catillus and Coras, who are unquestionably leaders, are called “ Argiva iuventus” Aen. 7. 672. V. 403 is critically difficult, as the MSS. vary, and the best supported reading is not the most likely intrinsically; but that seems no reason for introducing a conjecture. V. 676 “freti armis” is unobjectionable, as the opposition is not between arms and personal strength, but between the protection afforded by walls and that which a warrior can give himself by his use of his weapons. It is conceivable, however, that as in Aen. 4. 11, Aen. 11. 641, and possibly other unsuspected places, “ armis ” may be from “armi.” At any rate we do not need to read “animis.”

As to “transiit” Aen. 10. 785, I must refer to the Excursus on G. 2. 81 in the second edition of my first volume. Peerlkamp's “quamvis dolor alto volnere tardet ” for “quamquam vis alto volnere tardat” (or “tardet”) is really ingenious; far more so than Hoffmann's“ vis alti volneris ardet.” The received reading is difficult : “vis," in Virgil at any rate, is generally used for offensive force, and the intransitive use of “ tardo” is rare, though we might give it its active meaning, and say that his physical strength keeps him back by reason of the wound. On the whole I am not sure that the “perversa ratio” of Servius (as M. Ribbeck calls it) is not right, and that " vis” is not the violence of the wound, as the use of the instrumental ablative instead of the possessive genitive is quite in keeping with Virgil's other manipulations of language.

There is not much force in M. Ribbeck's objection to “acceperit ultro,” Aen. 11. 471, “qui accipit sequitur voluntatem alterius, ergo nihil ultra id facit quod voluit alter.” A person may be compelled to accept a thing, or he may accept it voluntarily; and it is the latter of these situations in which Latinus would gladly have been. “ Asciverit urbi” is better than “acceperit urbi :" the one implies that Aeneas would have been the “gener” of the state (comp. Aen. 11. 105): the latter could only refer to Aeneas' admission within the walls, a much poorer thought. In v. 728 I cannot agree that “iniicit iras” is weak, though Heinsius' “incutit,” if Virgil could only be shown to have written it, would be an exceedingly good word. “Iniicio” is a strong word in itself: the only question is whether it can be used idiomatically with “iras,” and that the dictionaries, with their “iniicere metum,” “ formidinem,” &c., set at rest.

Last of all is a passage in Aen. 12.55, where it is said of Amata, “ ardentem generum moritura tenebat.” M. Ribbeck objects that “moritura” would mean that she was actually going to die, and substitutes “ monitura.” Is it possible ? Virgil, in the rapidity of his passion, says that the queen clung to her son-in-law with the tenacious grasp of one with death before her: the critic says she held him in order to advise or reprove him. Utri creditis, Quirites ?

As I said in my former paper, I have no wish to derogate from the undoubted merits of M. Ribbeck's work: but I cannot but think that such criticisms as many of those which I have been noticing are a serious drawback to its value. English scholarship has not a few deficiencies : is it not preserved from some errors by the practice of Latin verse composition ?



11. 158. Add Tibullus 2. 6. 31, “Illa mihi sancta est, illius dona sepulcro Et madefacta

meis serta feram lacrimis." 686. Virg. may perhaps be thinking of the lavguage of I). 21. 485, where Hera says to

Artemis, 'Ητοι βέλτερόν εστι κατ' ουρεα θήρας εναίρειν, 'Αγροτέρας τ' ελάφους,

ή κρείσσοσιν ιφι μάχεσθαι. 12. 7. Comantes tori’ is probably to be taken (not as in the note, bat) simply as

“masses of hair :” a sense of 'torus' which can be paralleled by Pliny, Ep. 5.8.10, “Hanc (historiam) saepius ossa musculi nervi, illam (orationem)

tori quidam et quasi iubae decent." 357. •Extorqueri,' with the dative of a thing, does not seem to be Ciceronian : Pliny,

Ep. 3. 9. 16 has, however, “cum praerepta et extorta defensioni suae cerneret in

quibus omnem fiduciam reponebat.” (Forc.) 453. Mr. Munro has retracted his emendation “aqua” in the Cambridge Journal of

Philology, 1. p. 117. 518. Mr. Munro writes, “Lerna, at the present day, consists of a series of exceedingly

deep natural canals of beautifully clear water, which might well be called

fumina.' These are formed from a vast series of springs in that part of the plain of Argolis. I do not remember any visible 'flumina' which ran into

them.” 529. Serv.'s interpretation of sonantem' in this passage (as = “recalling in the

sound of his name”) is confirmed by Hieronymus ad Laetam, Ep. 107. (ed.

Vallars. vol. 1, col. 672), “Ante paucos annos propinquus vester Gracchus nobilitatem patriciam nomine sonans.” Mr. Munro, who thinks sonantem' = “talking of,” quotes Martial 5. 17.1, “Dum proavos atavosque refers et

nomina magna, Dum tibi noster eques sordida condicio est,” &c. 621. Mr. Munro remarks that this use of “diversus' is common in the Annals, but the

Annals only, of Tacitus, e. g. 3. 2, “etiam quorum diversa oppida, tamen obvii :"

4. 46, “ fore ut in diversas terras traherentur.” 648. He would write, 'Sancta ad vos anima, a ! atque istius inscia culpae.' “ Could

there be,” he says, “an easier change than this ? Could one of three a's fail to get extruded in MSS.? The kind of feeling expressed by a here would resemble that of Hor. 2 Od. 17.5, A te meae si partem animae rapit.' A is not elided in Tibullus 3. 4. 82, ‘A, ego ne possim tanta videre mala :' and in Horace, Epod. 5. 71, ‘A, a solutus ambulat,' &c. The position of a in the verse would resemble its position in Propertius l. 11.5, · Nostri cura subit memores, a, ducere noctes :' comp. Sen. Medea 1009 (1017), where the best MS., the Florentine, has ‘Si possetuna caede satiari, a, manus :' rightly, I should say. In Ov. 3 Am. 7.55 MSS. read, “Sed puto non blanda, non optima perdidit in me Oscula : editors, . Sed non blanda puto,' &c., quite spoiling the force of “puto.' Lucian Müller, in his text of 1861, reads, much to my satisfaction, 'Sed puto non blanda, a, non optima,' &c. In the poem, which is sometimes printed as the 19th of Catullus, beginning · Hunc ego, iuvenes, locum villulamque palustrem,' surely no one would hesitate to read with Lachmann (Prop. p. 289)

*Hunc ego, O iuvenes :' and my emendation is even lighter." 697. Comp. Il. 20. 423 (of Achilles when he saw Hector coming to meet him), Aůrdp

'Αχιλλεύς “Ως ειδ', ώς ανέπαλτο και ευχόμενος έπος ηύδα κ.τ.λ. 739. The parallel passages should have been limited to the line from Homer.



xi. 88

| Ad, force of, viii. 359

-- force of, in composition, ix. 52

-- aliquem loqui = adloqui aliquem, x.
Ab and ad confounded, ix. 380, 432

Ab origine, vii. 181

- limina, denoting humility in supplica-
Ab usque, vii. 289

tion, vii. 221
Abella, vii. 740

-- lumina, viii. 411
Abies, of a ship of pine-wood, viii. 91 Adclinis, x. 835

--, of a spear of pine-wood, xi. 667 Adcommodus, xi. 522
Abjuratus, viii. 263

Addo, of a speech following an act, xi.
Ablative, rare local uses of in Virgil, x. 361, 95
681: xii. 911

Adeo, used for emphasis, vii. 629 : ix. 156:
of extent, x. 665

si. 314
of attribute, vii. 483

- -, after numbers, vii. 629
of material, x. 138

Adficere pretio, xii. 352
of quality, vii. 225

Adiunctus, of close juxta-position, ix. 69
used for genitive, viii. 694: xii. Adiuro, with accusative, xii. 816
522, 663, 672

Adire, of approaching in worship, viii.
- absolutely of father or origin, x. 544 :

Adjective, emphatic position of, in descrip-
- where dative or in with accusa tions, xi. 626
tive would be usual, x. 681

-- for genitive, x. 520 : xi. 84
without preposition, xi. 175

- from proper name for genitive,
-of the cause hy which a thing is
done, xi. 568

- hypallage in construction with,
Abunde, with genitive, use of, vii. 552. xi. 890
Ac velut, xii. 908

- used for adverb, xi. 426
Accipere, of welcoming, viii. 178 : ix. 233 Adlacrimare, x. 628
- omen, xii. 260

Admisceri, of the mixture of blood, vii.
Accusative, cognate, vii. 460: xi. 573 579

- cognate, in apposition to the Admovere, of victims, xii. 171
action of the verb, ix. 53

Adnixus, with ablative, xii. 92

cognate, after nitor, xii. 386 Adnuere, with infinitive, xi. 20: xij.
- cognate, after labo, x. 283.

and ablative, interchange places, Adparere, of servants, xii. 850
viii. 180

Adsensus varius, x. 97 : contrast dis-
- in apposition to the sentence, sensus varius, xi. 455
viii. 487

Adsidere with accusative, xi. 304
Acer, in contrast with lentus, vii. 164

Adspectare, of gazing at from far, x. 4
Acerbus, of premature death, xi. 28, Adusque, xi. 262

Adverbs formed from participles, x. 405
Acies inferre pedestris, x. 364

Aegis, of Jove, viii. 354
Aclys, the, vii. 730

- of Pallas, viii. 435
Acrisioneus, vii. 410

Aeneadae, viii. 341
Actium, battle of, described as on Aeneas' | Aeneas, visit to Evander, viii. 102
shield, viii. 675

-, shield of, viii. 447, 626
Actius, adjective, viii. 675

-, his reputation for piety, xi. 292
Actutum, ix. 255

Aeneia nutrix, vii. 1



Aeneid, the, want of finish in its later | Amplexus petere, viii. 615

books, vii. 430, 664: viii, 380: ix. Amplification, turn for, in Virgil, xii. 899

Amsanctus, derivation of the name, vii.
, the, discrepancies between Book 565
III. and other parts of the poem, vii. Amyclae, x. 564

Anachronisms in Virgil, vii. 186
Aequalis caterva, x. 194

Anceps, vii. 525
Aequati numero, sense of, vii. 698

Ancilia, the, viii. 664
Aeratus = aereus, xi. 656

Anfractus, a curve, winding way, xi. 522
- , of Aeneas' shield, x. 887

Anhelare, viii. 421
Aestus, of fluctuation in opinion, xii. 486 Animi, genitive with epithet, ix. 246 : x.
Aetherios orbis, of the heavenly bodies, 686 : xi. 417: xii. 19
viii. 137

Animis = animose, xi. 18, 438
Aetherius sol, viii. 68

Animos tollere, ix. 637
Agere, of leading to battle, vii. 804: viii. | Animus, vii. 356

-- of liberality, xii. 23
- used for ducere, x. 514: xii. 530 | Ante, without specified object, ix. 315 : xii.
Agger, in general sense, x. 24
Agitare with infinitive, ix. 187

- alios, pleonastic after superlative,
- of pursuit, xi. 686

vii. 55
Agricola contrasted with arator, x. 805 - tubam, proverbial expression, xi. 424
Agrippa, viïi. 682

Antecedent repeated in another form, vii.
Agylla, vii. 652: viii. 479

Ait, introduced towards the end of a speech, Antemnae, vii. 631
xi. 24

Antonius, viii. 685
Alba succeeds to Latium, and Rome to Aperiri, of dawning, viii. 681
Alba, vii. 602

Apex, viïi. 664
Alban kings, xii. 826

of the top of a helmet, x. 270
- mount, = Homer's Ida, xii. 134 Apollo, worship of, at Soracte, xi. 787
Albani loci, ix. 388

Åptare, with dative, x. 131
Albunea, locality of, vii. 82

Ara Maxuma, the, story of its origin, viïi.
Alienum volnus, x. 781

Alipes used absolutely, vii. 277

Arabus, vii. 605
Aliquando = olim, viii. 602

Arcadians, painted arins of, viï. 588: xii.
Alituum genus, viii. 27

Allia, vii. 717

Arces, of mountain heights, vii. 696
Alliteration, rhetorical use of, ix. 89 Ardea, vii. 412

-- , intentional, xi. 151, 160, 627 | Argiletum, viii. 345

- , expressive use of, ix. 340, Argumentum, in sense of a subject for art,

vii. 791
Alma = parens, vii. 644

Argyripa, xi. 246
Alta petere, of forward motion, viï. 691 Aricia, temple of Diana at, vii. 764

-, of an eagle's flight, ix. 564 Arietare, xi. 890
Alta petens, different senses of, vii. 362 Arisbe, ix. 264
Alta silentia, of Juno, x. 63

Arma, of a single piece of armour, viii.
Altars of turf, xii. 119

- touched in swearing, xii. 201

-- sequi, x. 10
Alternus, adverbial, xi. 426

Armare manus, ix. 115 : xi, 682
Altus = noble, x. 126, 374: xii. 546

-- rates = to man the ships, x.
- , epithet of Apollo, x. 875

Alveo, a dissyllable, vii. 303

Armentalis, of a brood mare, xi. 571
Amarus, in mental sense, xi. 337

Armour of Turnus described, vii. 785 toll.
Amasenus, the, vii. 685

Arms, sound of in the air as a portent,
Amazons, the, xi. 659

viii. 528
--, painted arms of, xi. 660

- hung up on the stern of a ship, x.
Ambrosia, xii. 419

Amiternum, vii. 710

Arripere, of rapidly occupying a place, ix.
Amnis, of river water, vii. 465

13: xi. 531
Amor, of eagerness, viii. 163

Arrows, use of poisoned, ix. 773
- - edendi, Homeric, viii. 184

Arruns, his prayer to Apollo characterized,
o habendi, viii. 327

xi. 793
-- unus, ix. 182

Ars magistra, viü. 442: xii. 427


, viii. 198

Arva, x. 78

Bellator equus, x. 891 : xi. 89
Arvina, sense of, vii. 627

Belli commercia, x. 532
Arx summa, ix. 86

- portae, the gates of Janus, vii. 607
Asper victu, of hard fare, viii. 318

- rabies, viii. 327
Aspernari, of rejecting entreaty, xi. 106 signum, viii. 1
Aspicere contra, xi. 374

Bellipotens, of Mars, xi. 7
Ast before a consonant, x. 743

Bellum, for battle, viii. 606
Astrorum decus, of the moon, ix. 405 Bene emere, ix. 206
At non, in interrogation, vii. 363 : ix. 144 Berecyntia, ix. 82
Ater, of an advancing army, vii. 525 : xii. | Bibere, of the spear, xi. 804

Biforis, of the sound of a flute with two

stops, ix. 618
Athos, quantity of final syllable in, xii. Bimembris, viii. 293

Bipatens, x. 5
Atina, a Latin city in Virgil, vii. 630 Bipennis, in original adjectival sense,
Atinas, xi. 869: xii. 661

xi. 135
Atque, force of, vii. 205

Birds of Diomede, xi. 273
-, introducing new element in descrip Birth of men from stocks and stones, idea
tion, xii. 531

of, viii. 315
Attactus, vii. 350

Biting the ground in death, x. 489: xi. 418
Attollere fasces, vii. 173

Bonus = propitious, xii. 179
Attonitus, of being under strong divine Bubo, xii. 862
influence, vii. 580

Bullets, belief that they melted in passing
Attorquens, ix. 52

through the air, ix. 588
Auctor, x. 67

Buxum, of a top, vii. 382
of an authority for a fact, x. 510 | Buxus, of a flute, ix. 619
Audax, epithet applied to Turnus, vii. 409 : - -, X. 136

ix. 3.
Audere, force of, vii. 300

, of making a moral effort, viii. 364
Augustus, nearly = sanctus, vii. 170 Cacus, story of, viii. 194
Augustus, foreign wars of, alluded to, vii. Caecum, referring to the back, x. 733 .

Caecus Mars, ix. 518
---, represented on shield of Aeneas, Caelum aspicere, of a dying person, x. 781
viii. 678

Caeruleus, epithet of water-gods, viii, 64
Aureo, a dissyllable, x. 116

Caerulus, dark, of a cloud, viii. 622
Aurora, for the East, viii. 686

Caesars, the, spoken of as imperial and
Aurum, for a thing made of gold, vii. 245 divine, vii. 101
Aurunci, the, vii. 206, 727

Caieta, vii. 2
Auspicium, xi. 347

Camilla, vii. 803
Aut, for neque, after non, x. 529

-- explanation of the name, xi. 543
---, after nec, xi. 802

Canere, of prophetic utterance, viii. 534 :
dut-aut, separative, followed by que-que,

x. 417
conjunctive, vii. 164, 165

- ,. of anticipation, xii. 28
Aut, distinguishing two ways of expressing -, used in general sense of predict-
the same thought, xi. 392

ing, vii. 271
Avecta tollunt = tollunt atque avehunt,

of prediction, with notion of mea-
xi. 205

sured utterance, xi. 399
Aventinus, vii. 657

- , of military music, x. 310
Avertere, of carrying off plunder, viii. Capere = suscipere, vii. 403
208: x. 78

Captivus, of things, vii. 184
Avus, used loosely, x. 76: comp. x. 619 Captus, Virgil's use of, viii. 311
Axe, the, national weapon of the Italian | Capua, origin of the name, x. 145
rural population, vii. 627 : xi. 656 Caput = fountain head, xi. 361 : xii. 572

--, used in execrations, xi. 399

--, of the ends of a bow, xi. 861

-- urbibus, viii. 65

Capys, x. 145
Bacchanalia, the, vii. 385

Carmental gate, the, viii. 338
Bacchic orgies, description of, vii. 385 Carmentis, prediction of, viii. 340
Bay-tree, in Latinus' palace, vii. 59 Carbaseus, xi. 776
Bellator = bellans, xii. 614

Carbasus, viii. 34

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