Indomiti agricolae ; nec non et Troia pubes
Ascanio auxilium castris effundit apertis.
Direxere acies. Non iam certamine agresti,
Stipitibus duris agitur sudibusve praeustis,
Sed ferro ancipiti decernunt, atraque late
Horrescit strictis seges ensibus, aeraque fulgent
Sole lacessita, et lucem sub nubila iactant :
Fluctus uti primo coepit cum albescere vento,
Paulatim sese tollit mare et altius undas
Erigit, inde imo consurgit ad aethera fundo.
Hic iuvenis primam ante aciem stridente sagitta,



521.] Indomiti,' hardy; much the bris.” Heyne comp. Apoll. R. 3. 1355, same as “duros agrestis” v. 504. Comp. opičev tépi otißapois cakéc001—"Apnos άτρυτος.

Téuevos. “Atra,' dense and so dark, comp. 522.] Burm. wished to read .campis :' v. 466. There may also be a reference to but 'castris apertis ’ is throwing open the the colour of the iron : comp. passages cited gates of the camp. Contrast “ clausa from Books 11 and 12. The outline of moenia” (of the camp) 10. 22.

the image, as Cerda remarks, is from Il. 523.] ‘Dirigere aciem' is a phrase for 13. 338, čopičev máxn pololußpotos ydrawing up an army in battle array, G. 2. Xelnoi. 281. The plural seems to show that both 527.] With 'sole lacessita' Germ. comp. sides are here intended. • Certamine Lucr. 4. 217, “ Corpora quae feriant oculos agresti' seems a general abl. of circum- visumque lacessant.” “Lactat lucem" stance, ‘stipitibus' and 'sudibus ’ instru- Lucr. 5. 576. mental.

528.] The swelling of the quarrel from 524.] •Sudibus praeustis' i. q

« torre

a rustic brawl to a pitched battle is comv. 506, where see parallel passages. pared to the gradual rising of the waves 525.] Ferro' is the emphatic word of in a gale at sea. Med. and Rom. which 'ancipiti' is an epithet, probably (whose conjunction, Wagn. remarks, is meaning double-edged (comp. åupitbuov strong authority) have ‘ponto, adopted tipos), with a collateral signification of by Heins., who took the words “primo deadly, so as to balance the epithets ponto' to mean on the edge of the sea, as

duris' and 'praeustis.' Wagn. thinks prima terra” 1. 541 means the edge of the notion is that of “certamen anceps.” the land, and so to answer to èy aiyano * Decernere ferro’ is as old as Enn., A. 2. in the parallel passage from Hom. referred fr. 11.

to below; while Jahn, also reading 'ponto,' 526.] It is doubtful whether (strictis takes 'primo' as an adverb and opposed to ensibus' goes with seges' or with hor. 'inde.' Heyne and Wagn. (followed by Ribrescit. The ordinary meaning of 'seges' beck) read vento’ from Gud., which has would rather suggest the former, the ordi- ponto' as a variant, and apparently Ribnary usage of construction the latter. beck's other cursives, considering it clear Virg. may very well have intended both, that “ponto’ arose from a recollection of G. at the same time that he thought of the 3. 237, “Fluctus uti medio coepit cum other meaning of 'seges,' the land, not albescere ponto," a constant source of the crop, which would make this passage

On the whole the balance of conparallel to 11. 601,“late ferreus hastis Hor. siderations seems to be in favour of vento,' ret ager.” There is the same question about in spite of its having no uncial authority. 12. 663," strictisque seges mucronibus Pal., we must remember, is wanting, as horret Ferrea.” In G. 2. 142 the warriors well as the fragmentary MSS. For the seem to be called a “seges’ independently whole passage comp. Il. 4. 422, which of their spears, though we must not sharply relates distinctly to the breakers on a distinguish the two notions. Horrescit' shore. as compared with horret' seems to imply 530.] “Fluctus erigit” 3. 423.

« Imo motion : comp. G. 3. 198,“ segetes altae fundo” 2. 419. campique natantes Lenibus horrescunt fla- 531.] “ Primam ante aciem” below v.



Natorum Tyrrhei fuerat qui maxumus, Almo,
Sternitur ; haesit enim sub gutture volnus et udae
Vocis iter tenuemque inclusit sanguine vitam.
Corpora multa virum circa, seniorque Galaesus,
Dum paci medium se offert, iustissimus unus
Qui fuit Ausoniisque olim ditissimus arvis :
Quinque greges illi balantum, quina redibant
Armenta, et terram centum vertebat aratris.

Atque ea per campos aequo dum Marte geruntur,
Promissi dea facta potens, ubi sanguine bellum



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673., 9. 595, apparently meaning no more nation (v. 571) at his fall. Heyne remarks than in the first rank of combatants. that it is Homeric to interest us by de“Stridens sagitta” 9. 632.

scriptive touches in the individual com532.] Some inferior MSS. have ‘Al- batants : comp. e. g. Il. 5. 152 foll., 612 mon.' Heins. restored • Almo.' Gossrau foll. Perhaps the poet was thinking here remarks that Virg. gives several of his of Axylus, 11. 6. 12 foll. It may be characters the names of rivers, as here remarked that the river Galaesus runs ‘Almo,' v. 535“Galaesus,” v. 745 “Ufens, through a country very rich both in v. 752“Umbro," 11. 670 “Liris.” • Fuerat' corn and pastures, and especially famous may be simply i.q. “erat” (Madv. § 338 for its sheep: comp. Hor. 2 Od. 6. 10 obs. 6): but there is more force and pathos and the commentators thereon. · Diin Forb.'s explanation, that he ceased to be tissimus arvis :' “ Dives agris, dives posithe eldest at his death. Comp. 12. 519. tis in foenore nummis” Hor. A. P. 421.

533.] · Haesit volnus,' a sort of confu- Elsewhere Virg. has the construction with sion between the arrow and the wound. the gen., e.g. 10. 563, “ditissimus agri

Enim’ is an imitation of Hom., e. g. 11.5. Qui fuit Ausonidum.” Some MSS. here 40. • Udae' belongs more properly to have agris,' which is found as a variant 'iter,' though perhaps it includes the in Gud. Olim,' like . fuerat,' is pathetic: sense of flexible: comp. úypov åeldelv. before that moment he was the wealthiest

534.] *Tenuem vitam :' comp. G. 4. 224. Intercludere” is more common in 538.]“ Redibant,' i. e. from pasture; and the sense of cutting off than “includere,' perhaps from their summer pasture on the but several instances of the latter are hills, comp. Hor. Epod. 1. 27. given in Forc. These particular descrip- 539.] Ôn this and the previous line tions of wounds are, of course, in imitation Serv. remarks “Duo dixit a Catone meof Hom., though it is a mitigated imita- morata, qui interrogatus qui esset patertion.

familias, respondit, eum qui bene pascit 535.] ‘Corpora’sc. "sternuntur,” sup- et bene arat.” plied from v. 533.

540 – 571.] Allecto reports her success 536.] ‘Dum paci medium se offert’ de- to Juno, who tells her she has done enough scribes both the action and purpose of and must return below. She vanishes in Galaesus throwing himself between the a sulphurous pool.' combatants to mediate. Offert' as well 540.] The commentators compare Il. 5. as 'medium' will suit both meanings: 84, ons oi uèv_Trovéovto: but the parallel comp. 6. 291, "strictamque aciem venien. is not close. Virg. however no doubt stutibus offert.” The dat. 'paci’ is i. q. “ad died the Homeric transitions. “Atque pacem,” or “ad pacem faciendam :" but ea diversa penitus dum parte geruntur," the construction is probably helped by the 9. 1. · Aequo Marte’ is probably the analogy of such phrases as « morti se Homeric ομοίϊος πόλεμος. Neither had as offerre,” &c.

yet been routed, though we gather in the 537.] Comp. 2. 426, “Rhipeus, justis- sequel that the advantage was with the simus unus Qui fuit in Teucris et servan. Trojans. Comp. 10. 755,

“ Iam gravis tissimus aequi.” The justice and wealth aequabat luctus et mutua Mavors Funera,” of Galaesus both render him a natural and the following lines. mediator and increase the pity and indig- 541.] · Promissi facta potens' for “


Imbuit et primae commisit funera pugnae,
Deserit Hesperiam, et caeli conversa per auras
Iunonem victrix adfatur voce superba :
En, perfecta tibi bello discordia tristi;
Dic, in amicitiam coeant et foedera iungant.
Quandoquidem Ausonio respersi sanguine Teucros,
Hoc etiam his addam, tua si mihi certa voluntas:
Finitimas in bella feram rumoribus urbes,
Accendamque animos insani Martis amore,
Undique ut auxilio veniant: spargam arma per agros.
Tum contra Iuno; Terrorum et fraudis abunde est :
Stant belli caussae : pugnatur comminus armis;


aequo Marte”

pos facta,” or the simple "potita.” Comp. she moves being expressed in the verb of Hor. 1 Ep. 1. 13 “Victor propositi and motion. Any thing like understanding « victrix v. 544. So Ov. M. 4. 510 speaks 'per' twice, as some grammarians proof the Fury as “victrix iussique potens.” pose, or taking 'caeli convexa' in apposi

542.] • Imbuit' probably contains the tion to 'auras,' which is Heyne's view, two notions of embruing (“imbuere manus, seems quite out of the question. Canter arma sanguine:" comp. vv. 547 — 554) ingeniously supposed “per auras' to have and of setting on foot, using or doing for been corrupted from 'peragrans' or ' perthe first time, kaivoûv (comp. Prop. 5. errans. Ribbeck thinks there is a lacuna. 10. 5 “ Imbuis exemplum primae tu 545.] · Perfecta bello,' consummated in Romule palmae," and Catull. 62 (64). 11). or by war. “ Primae pugnae,” the beginning of the 546.] “ Ac si dicat, Ita bella conmovi, battle ; she leaves the field while it is still ut ne tuo quidem inperio possint in pacem undecided, “

v. 540. But redire. Et hoc est, adfatur voce suthe words may mean that this was the perba." Serv. first act in the war. • Committere funera 547.] Heyne altered the old pointing, pugnae' is a variety for “committere which joined this line with the preceding: pugnam," "funera' however being im- The connexion seems to be ‘now that I portant, and indeed emphatic, like 'san- have done thus much, it will be easy for guine' in the line before, referring to the me to do more,' an ostentatiously liberal deaths of Almo and Galaesus. Markland offer to exceed what she had promised. rather ingeniously conj. ‘munera, a me- * Ausonio sanguine’ seems to imply that taphor from gladiators, which might be the bloodshedding had been on one side. supported by Hor. 1 Od. 28. 17 Dant 548.] · His' refers to the contents of alios Furiae torvo spectacula Marti.” the line before. “Tua si mihi certa

543.] ‘Convexa' is the reading of all voluntas” 4. 125 note. the MSS. except Med. first reading "con- 549.] 'Rumoribus :' comp. 9. 464., 12. versa,' and the second Moretan, which 228, and the description of Fame in has .connexa,' as well as of Probus, Book 4. Asper, Donatus, and Serv. Wagn. and 550.] “ Incenditque animum famae veForb., supposing convexa’ to have arisen nientis amore

6. 889.

“ Insanus amor from « caeli convexa 4. 451, have Martis ” E. 10. 44. adopted 'conversa,' which Wagn. interprets 551.] Spargam arma per agros,’ “convertens se a terris,” a sense which, even stronger than “sere crimina belli” v. 339 if it can be given to 'conversa’alone, is very above, which Serv. comp. poor. On the other hand it is very diffi- 552.] For this use of abunde' with a cult to construe'convexa,' unless we may ex. gen. see Hand Turs. 1. 71. • Ac' was read plain it by the analogy of “ devexus” G. 4. before Heins., whether from any MS. is not 293, “Usque coloratis amnis devexus ab In- known. • Terrorum et fraudis ;' there is dis,” and suppose it by a ratherextraordinary enough of false panic without any fresh combination of ideas to have reference to rumours (v. 549). Comp. v. 578., 4. 187. the flight of the Fury up the slope or cope ‘Fraudis' however may merely=“noxae.” of heaven, the shape of that over which 553.] Stant' i.q. “suni,” with an


Quae fors prima dedit, sanguis novus imbuit arma.
Talia coniugia et talis celebrent hymenaeos
Egregium Veneris genus et rex ipse Latinus.
aetherias errare

licentius auras
Haud Pater ille velit, summi regnator Olympi.
Cede locis. Ego, si qua super fortuna laborum est,
Ipsa regam. Talis dederat Saturnia voces ;
Illa autem attollit stridentis anguibus alas,
Cocytique petit sedem, supera ardua linquens.
Est locus Italiae medio sub montibus altis,


» G. 3.

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super est

additional notion of fixity. Comp. Hor. may be used here to avoid that special 1 Od. 16. 17, “ Irae — altis urbibus ul- meaning, though it may be equally well timae Stetere caussae cur perirent Fun. referred to metrical convenience or poetical ditus,” from which Virg. may have taken variety. The sense obviously is . Be gone the phrase. “Certandum est comminus from hence.' Canon. has loco, omitting armis ” 12. 890.

ego,' unmetrically. 'Laborum,' the war: 554.] · Prima' with ‘fors' (comp. 2. 387) comp. v. 481. “Fortuna laborum rather than with 'quae.' • Sanguis novus, 452. Virg. probably imitates Il. 1. 522 the first blood, is said with reference to the (Zeus to Thetis), 'Allà uèv vûv aŰTIS sense of 'imbuit,' i. q. “auspicatus est,” årbotixe, uh oe vohon "Hpno šuol ke mentioned on v. 542. The meaning is ταύτα μελήσεται, όφρα τελέσσω, as Cerda not that the chance weapons of the rustics remarks. For the tinesis (v. 508) have been stained with blood, but comp. 2. 567, E. 6. 6. that the quarrel which was begun acci- 560.] * Regam' =“dirigam,” 9. 409 dentally has proceeded to bloodshed. &c. Dederat:' in these cases Virg. uses

555.] *Connubia' was retained by the perfect and pluperfect tenses indifHeyne : coniugia' however is found in ferently. all Ribbeck's MSS., the best authority for 561.] Snakes in her wings are a new fea'connubia' being the first Mentelian. ture: the allusion cannot be to the snakes Connubia' may have been introduced in her hair. Doubtless they supply the from 4. 316.

place of feathers, as feathers answer to 556.] _“Egregium' ironical, as in 6. hair. “ Stridentibus alis” 1. 397, of the 523. “Rex ipse Latinus” above v. 432. ordinary rushing sound of wings. Here “ipse' seems merely to give dig- 562.] Med. and Rom. have 'super,' nity.

which Ribbeck adopts, as in 6. 241, 750, 557.] See Wagn.'s remark quoted on 787. 1. 680. Strictly speaking, the Fury was 563.] Some MSS. and the old editions not wandering above, but in the upper air. have in medio.' Heins. ejected in.' The opposition is between the light of day, Amsanctus is fixed by Cic. de Div. 1. 36, as shared by men and gods, and the dark. Pliny 2. 95, in Hirpini, and therefore ness of the world below. Jupiter, as • Italiae in medio’ is said only with resummi regnator Olympi,' prevents the ference to the breadth, not to the length of Fury from trespassing on his domain. Italy. I am indebted to Mr. Long for Comp. Aesch. Eum. 365 foll., and indeed some extracts from a paper by Mr. Hami)the play generally. •Aetherias auras :' see ton in the London Geographical Journal on 1. 546 * Errare licentius' combines vol. 2. p. 62, describing the place. It is the notions of free movement (“errare' as in a small pond, in the smallest dimension E.1.9) and wandering from the proper place. about twenty paces, and not more than

558.] Pater ille : comp. 2. 779, and thirty in the longest. “ The water see on v. 110 above. “Regnator Olympi bubbles up with an explosion res

resembling 10. 437. The first Mentelian, a variant in distant thunder.” “On one side of the Gud., and others, have 'ipse ;' Gud. also pond “is a constant and rapid stream of gives 'superi’ as a variant.

the same blackish water rushing into it 559.]. “Cedere loco” is a phrase for giv- from under” a “barren rocky hill,” under ing way in battle, and perhaps the plural which the pond is : “ but the fall is not


Nobilis et fama multis memoratus in oris,
Amsancti valles; densis hunc frondibus atrum
Urguet utrimque latus nemoris, medioque fragosus
Dat sonitum saxis et torto vertice torrens.
Hic specus horrendum et saevi spiracula Ditis
Monstrantur, ruptoque ingens Acheronte vorago
Pestiferas aperit fauces, quis condita Erinys,
Invisum numen, terras caelumque levabat.

Nec minus interea extremam Saturnia bello
Inponit regina manum.

Ruit omnis in urbem


old “

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more than a few feet.” “A little above the apertures. The latter name, and that are apertures in the ground through which of “Charoneae scrobes,". are said by Pliny warm blasts of sulphuretted hydrogen gas 2. 93 to have bee generally given to are constantly issuing with more or less places of this kind. Comp. Lucr. 6. 762 noise.The name is derived from the foll., where the supernatural explanation

am”-“circum ” and “sanctus." is protested against. For saevi' Wagn. 565.] ‘Valles' nom. sing., as in 11.522, rightly comp. v. 84, “saevam mephitim.” where see note. “Frondibus' may go either Spiracula mundi” Lucr. 6. 493. with 'urguet' or with 'atrum.

569.] Monstrantur,' 6. 440. “Rupto 566.] · Latus nemoris,' a woody steep Acheronte, formed by the bursting up of cliff: comp. Hor. 2 S. 6. 91, “ Prae. Acheron : ‘rupto’ like “rupto turbine” 2. rupti nemoris dorso," and note on v. 82 416. Turn. comp. åtopřát II. 2. 755, which above. •Medioque' sc. 'nemore.' Freund however is rather the arm of a river. seems wrong in explaining ‘fragosus' here 'Anbotaoua, as used by Plato, Phaedo 61 of sound, though probably we are meant (see the passage quoted on 6.551), seems a to be reminded of that sense of “ fragor.” better parallel. Here it doubtless means full of breaks, 570.) • Pestiferas :' Mr. Hamilton says which is its general sense. In Val. F. 2. the vapours are at times fatal. Med., Gud., 622., 4. 261 it may have the sense of and others have condit,' a natural error, sound, but it inay equally well refer to mentioned as a various reading by Serv. the broken waves, if it is not to be taken 571.] Wakef. and Jahn make ‘numen actively, ship-wrecking. Some MSS. have acc. after 'condita,' which would be harsh. fragosis.'

Rom. and others have levavit,' which 567.] Saxis et torto vertice,' doubt would be easier, as “levabat' is not suffiless refers to the bubbling up of the water ciently supported by 11. 827, “linquebat among the rocks.

habenas," where we are meant to dwell on 568.] Horrendum et saevi' is the the gradual relaxation of Camilla's grasp reading of all Ribbeck's MS$. but one in death. Perhaps one may say that the (Pal. and Vat. and Verona fragmm. are description of Amsanctus has the same wanting), which omits et.' Serv. says effect here, making us linger on the conthat ancient copies read specus horren- templation of the Fury's disappearance: dus,' which doubtless shows that they or the point may be the gradual relief had not the copula, though it has been caused by her removal. suggested that the copyists may have 572-600.] • The Latins, backed by thought that 'us' could be elided. •Et' Turnus, clamour for war against the was omitted by Heins. and Heyne, who Trojans. Latinus resists long, but evenread 'monstratur;' but the authority seems tually yields under protest, abandoning the insufficient, especially as the copies which conduct of affairs to others.' omit 'et' do not agree in reading ‘mon- 572.] ·Manum extremam,' 'ultimam,' strantur.' Rom. is the only one of Rib- summam imponere' is a common plırase beck's MSS. that has 'monstratur,' and for completing a thing: see the Dicit retains eti' Specus' is fem. in tionaries. The metaphor is taken, as Serv. Ennius, Pacuvius and Attius, masc. in and Donatus remark, from a work of art. ordinary Latin, neut. here and in Sil. “ Nec minus interea” 6. 212. 13. 425. “Specus ’is the pool, 'spiracula'

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