Ipse vocat pugnas, sequitur tum cetera pubes,
Aereaque adsensu conspirant cornua rauco.
Hoc et tum Aeneadis indicere bella Latinus
More iubebatur tristisque recludere portas.
Abstinuit tactu pater, aversusque refugit
Foeda ministeria, et caecis se condidit umbris.
Tum regina deum caelo delapsa morantis
Inpulit ipsa manu portas, et cardine verso
Belli ferratos rumpit Saturnia postis.
Ardet inexcita Ausonia atque inmobilis ante;


614.] Vocat pugnas' does not simply gates were thrown open, not burst from mean ‘proclaims war,' though that is really their hinges. We need not inquire how what the image comes to, but expresses the bars were removed. “Rumpit' will the notion that there was some presence then express violent opening. within the gates which the consul had to 622.] Rumpit’ Med., rupit' Rom. : evoke. See on v. 603., 8. 3. •Sequitur, fragm. Vat. Wagn. and Ribbeck adopt takes up the cry: comp. 9. 54, 636. Serv. the former; Heyne retained the latter. however says that the phrases “vocat’ As in other cases (see vv. 458, 9 above), it and sequitur' refer to the special kind of is not easy to choose. Horace (1 S. 4. 60) service called “evocatio” (“nam ad subi- quotes from an old poet “ Postquam Distum bellum evocabantur”) when the consul cordia tetra Belli ferratos postis portasque used the words “Qui rempublicam salvam refregit.” The Scholiasts intimate that esse volt me sequatur.”

the poet is Ennius, and so says Serv. on 615.] The blowing of horns or trumpets this passage. For the double denominafollows the proclamation of war in tion regina deum - Saturnia' comp. 1. 8. 2.

195 foll., 411 foll., 691 foll. Here there is 616.7 Iubebatur indicere bella' im- nothing to difference the second designaplies a constitutional monarchy like that tion from the first : but the repetition of legendary Rome, in which the king leads us to dwell on Juno's personawas the first magistrate, and made peace lity. • Postis ' = “ fores," as in 2. 493 and war by consent of the Comitia Curiata &c. and Senate (see Lewis 1. p. 415), an idea 623.] ‘Inexcita' i. q. “inexcitabilis :"> which is not sustained throughout. La comp. “invictus,” « indomitus ” &c. The tinus makes a covenant with the Trojans word occurs Stat. Achill. 2. 352. “Ante,' on his own authority v. 266, and he is till the sacred gates of War were opened. called “ tyrannus” v. 342.

"Ardet’indicates the instantaneous effect 618.) Pater'expresses the feelings of of the opening. Ribbeck changes the a good king.

order of the following lines, supposing 619.7 “ Triste ministerium ” 6. 223. 624–627 to have been written by the poet • Umbris,' the deepest retirement of the as an alternative with 638–640, which in palace. So Amphiaraus is said “atra sede the autograph copy they preceded, and to tegi ” Stat. Theb. 3. 571, and Oedipus ib. have been transposed accidentally by a 1. 49 is spoken of as “indulgentem tene. confusion of the transcriber between 'signa' bris imaeque recessu Sedis inaspectos v. 628 and ‘signum' v. 637. But 624caelo radiisque penatis Servantem.”

627, really answer not to 638–640, but 620.] The king refusing to perform his to the whole 629-640, combining, what second and indispensable function, and in the longer passage are kept separate, nobody, according to Roman ideas, being preparing for the fight and actually taking able to perform it for him, Juno descends the field. The scouring of shields and to remove the obstacle to war. “Morantis,' sharpening of axes would precede, not “ bella differentis” Serv. “ Caelo de- follow, the sounding of the trumpet. The lapsa” 5. 722.

simple fact is that Virg. has chosen to give 621.] • Inpulit,' thrust open : comp. 1. a brief general description first, a more 82 note. “Ipsa manu" Ĝ. 4. 329° &c. detailed one after. It is possible of course • Cardine verso' (3. 448) implies that the that he may not have intended both to


Pars pedes ire parat campis, pars arduus altis
Pulverulentus equis furit; omnes arma requirunt.
Pars levis clipeos et spicula lucida tergent
Arvina pingui, subiguntque in cote secures;
Signaque ferre iuvat, sonitusque audire tubarum.
Quinque adeo magnae positis incudibus urbes
Tela novant, Atina potens Tiburque superbum,
Ardea Crustumerique et turrigerae Antemnae.


stand, though the possibility is infini. “conferre signa"), with the notion also of tesimal; but in that case we must suppose course of the pride taken in displaying or that he wrote the lines in the order in advancing the standards. Med. has ‘iubet,' which we have them, but that on revision the same variety as in 4. 498, from which he would have left out vv. 624-627, if not Heins. plausibly suggests 'lubet,' a variety V. 628.

actually found along with iuvat’ 9. 514. 624.7 “Pedes apparat ire ” 10. 453. “It But the copyist may have thought of 8. campis” 4. 404. Pars arduus' &c. is a 498, “signaque ferre iubent." Generally mixtureof two common constructions, “pars we may comp. Hor. 1 Od. 1. 23, “Multos ardua” and “pars ardui” (nom. masc.), castra iuvant et lituo tubae Permixtus resulting, no doubt, from the use of “pedes' sonitus,” which may have been in Virg.'s immediately before. For 'arduus' comp. mind. v. 285, “Sublimes in equis redeunt.” 629.] Quinque adeo,' literally, as many • Pulverulentus furit’should, as Forb. says, as five great cities : but ‘adeo' should in be taken closely together, as if it were fact merely be rendered by an emphasis on “furendo pulverem excitat:" this will re- 'quinque: see on v. 427., 3. 203. «Positis move the difficulty of the two epithets, incudibus :' they set up anvils, for which • arduus altis equis' alone being opposed they had previously had no occasion. Forb. to 'pedes.

comp. Ov. F. 4. 473 “ Antraque Cyclopum 625.] Requirunt' i. q. “quaerunt:” positis exusta caminis.” comp. v. 460 &c. Macrob. Sat. 6. 1 . 630.] Tela novant' like “transtra quotes from Ennius (A. 6. fr. 10), “ Balan- novant” 5. 752. Comp. Hor. 1 Od. 35. tum pecudes quatit: omnes arma requi- 38, “O utinam nova Incude diffingas re

tusum in Massagetas Arabasque ferrum.” 626.] “Tergunt' was introduced by Atina is apparently regarded by Virg. as Heyne, from a misunderstanding of the a Latin city, though it seems to have been critical notices of Pierius and Heins. It originally Volscian, while historically it was is really supported only by a correction in Samnite (Dict. G. s. v.). Tibur is called Gud., by some MSS. of less authority, in- 'superbum' doubtless with reference to cluding Canon. and Balliol, and by some its position, though Serv. fancies there is notices in the grammarians, who speak of an allusion to an answer given by the it as equally adinissible with “tergent,' Roman senate on one occasion to a Tiburthough Serv. says 'tergo tergis' is obso- tine embassy, “superbi estis.” lete. Levis' and 'lucida’ are of course 631.] ‘Ardea' above v. 411. •Crusproleptic.

tumeri? would seem to be the inhabitants 627.] Serv. quotes Suetonius de Vitiis of Crustumerium, the people being menCorporalibus to prove that arvina' is the tioned instead of the town on metrical hard fat between the skin and the flesh: grounds: they are however generally called others however, he says, gave the name to “Crustumini," and the place is sometimes lard. The only other writers who use it, called “Crustumium,” which would have Prudentius and Sidonius Apollinaris, make suited the metre. For the questions about it a synonyme for fat. Subigunt,' rub its origin see Dict. G. It was said to have down, and so, whet. So it is used of been conquered by Romulus along with kneading bread: see Freund. For ‘securis' Antemnae and Caenina, all of which took see on v. 510.

up arms to avenge the rape of their women 628.] This line describes the march of at the Consualia (Livy i. 9 foll.). There the assembling troops. “Signa ferre,' to are similar questions about the origin of advance, 8. 498 (comp. “inferre signa,” Antemnae (Dict. G.). Sil. 8. 365 calls it



Tegmina tuta cavant capitum, flectuntque salignas
Umbonum cratis ; alii thoracas aenos
Aut levis ocreas lento ducunt argento;
Vomeris huc et falcis honos, huc omnis aratri
Cessit amor; recoquunt patrios fornacibus enses.
Classica iamque sonant; it bello tessera signum.
Hic galeam tectis trepidus rapit; ille frementis
Ad iuga cogit equos; clipeumque auroque trilicem

“prisco Crustumio prior.” It was so 'ocreas' were so pronounced or changed called from its position “ante amnem,” e. g. into “lamnas” (see Marius Plotius below the confluence of the Anio and De Metris pp. 247, 251 of Gaisford's Tiber.

Scriptt. Latt. Rei Metr., Diomedes p. 495). 632.] The alliteration, which was doubt. Serv.'s remark “est autem spondaicus et less intended, may reinind us of Lucr. 2. reciprocus versus” (“reciprocus" rhyming, 618, “ Tympana tenta tonant palinis et alluding to “lento-argento”) only means cymbala circum Concava.” “Tegmina that there is a spondee in the 5th place. capitum' vv. 689, 742 below.

"Leves ocreas” 8. 624, where the metal is 633.] The frame-work of the shield was gold and electrum : comp. 11. 488. made of twisted osiers, which were covered 635.] 'Huc cessit:' the esteem in which with hides and finally bound round with agriculture was held is swallowed up in metal (Dict. A. *Clipeus'). Hence inéa the enthusiasm for war. They cease to is used for a shield Eur. Supp. 697, Tro. make agricultural implements, and per1201. We may say either that “ umbo” is haps, though this is not expressly stated, put for the whole shield, or that 'cratis turn them into warlike weapons, as in umbonum’ is the wicker-work to which G. 1. 508, where the imagery is generally the boss was fitted. Lersch §. 31 comp. parallel (comp. especially v. 506, “non Caes. B. G. 2. 33 “partim scutis ex cor. ullus aratro Dignus honos”). With huc tice factis aut viminibus intextis, quae cessit,' which implies that one feeling has subito, ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, passed into the other, comp. 8. 395, “fi. pellibus induxerant,” arguing that it was ducia cessit Quo tibi, diva, mei ?” Virg. the “scutum,” not the "clipeus,” that was seems generally to have had in his mind so constructed. Others comp. the Persian the description in Lucr. 5 of the gradual géppov, Hut. 7. 61, of which crates' may discovery of the use of metals, “Nunc be a translation. “ Cráteras aenos” 9. iacet aes, aurum in summum successit 165.

honorem” (v. 1275: comp. the following 634.] It matters little whether “lento lines, where honore’occurs twice), “Inde argento' be taken with 'ocreas' as a minutatim processit ferreus ensis Versamaterial abl. or with ducunt. The que in opprobrium species est falcis aenae” former would be more symmetrical : but (vv. 1293, 4, quoted as parallel by Macrob. the latter is more in accordance with Virg.'s Sat. 6. 1). love of variety, as if “ducunt thoracas 6 36.] ' Recoquunt ensis' like “diffingas aere” had preceded, and is supported by ferrum” Hor. 1 Od. 35. 39, quoted on v. Pliny 7. 37, “[Alexander] edixit ne quis 630 above. ipsum alius quam Lysippus ex aere 637.] •Iamque' second in a clause 3. duceret ;" Appul. Flor. 1, “ qui solus effi. 588., 5. 225. “Classica ” G. 2. 539, here giem regis Polycletus aere duceret,” used in its strict sense of the sound of the quoted by Forb. Ducere’ in these cases horn which called the Romans together to is to extend by beating, and answers nearly battle or other assemblies. "Tessera,' to our sense of exaúvelv, as “ducere Dict. A. s. V., originally a cube used as a murum” (1. 423) does to another. The token or tally, hence, as here, a watchword, spondaic metre expresses the slowness of which passes, 'it,' from man to man. the process. Forb. asserts that ocreas' The preparations are over, and the actual is to be pronounced as a dissyllable, being march begins. apparently misled by one or two of the 638.7 * Tectis' from his house, from the early writers on metre, who quote this line chamber where it is stored. as one which would be purely spondaic if 639.] ‘Cogit : brings together, implying


Loricam induitur, fidoque accingitur ense.

Pandite nunc Helicona, deae, cantusque movete,
Qui bello exciti reges, quae quemque secutae
Conplerint campos acies, quibus Itala iam tum
Floruerit terra alma viris, quibus arserit armis;
Et meministis enim, divae, et memorare potestis;
Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur aura.

Primus init bellum Tyrrhenis asper ab oris


that a pair are to be yoked. The more great historical period of Rome. "Tantum' ordinary expression would be “sub iuga was a reading before Pierius. cogit,” as in Moretum 113. Stat. Theb. 7. 644.] Comp. G. 2. 167 foll. of the na136 (quoted by Forb.) has “alienaque tions and families of Italy. • Alma'i. q. cogunt Ad iuga cornipedes," an imitation “parens.” “Quibus arserit armis’expresses which shows that ad iuga ’ here does not generally what is expressed more in dego with 'frementis,ʻlike “fremit ad caulas” tail in the two previous lines, “arma' 9. 60. “Auro trilicem Loricam :" see on being the Virgilian accompaniment to 3. 467.

'viri,' as in the first line of the Aeneid 640.7 “Fidum ensem” 6. 524.

and elsewhere. • Arserit’ probably includes 641—646.] ‘Sing, Muses, of the Italian both martial enthusiasm and the flashing chiefs and their followers.

of armour. 641.] This invocation is of course from 645.] úneis yap deal ¿OTE, Tápeoté TE, that in Il. 2. 484 foll., preceding the cata. Yote TE návra Il. 1. c. Virg. has chosen logue of the ships. It is generally briefer two verbs which suggest the connexion of than its prototype; but the subject to be memory with the Muses : see on v. 45, E. narrated is indicated at greater length. 7. 19. The notion is that an account involving 6 46.] ñueîs khéos olov åkovouev, oudé much statistical detail requires the special τι ίδμεν ΙΙ. 1. c. aid of the goddesses of memory and song. 647—654.] • Mezentius and his son Lau‘Pandite Helicona’ like “panditur domus sus lead an army from Agyllae in EtruOlympi” 10. 1, as if the gates of Helicon ria.' held in song. Wagn. well comp. Bacchy- 647.] Init bellum,' begins the war. lides, fr.14 Bergk, où dè gåp gợotov åpshtwv “Prima pares ineunt gravibus certamina &TTÉWV trúnas e Eeupeiv. The notion is pro- remis” 5. 114. "Tyrrhenis ab oris :' bably a complex one, of free utterance and “oriundo Tuscus, non qui nunc de Tuscia of expounding things unknown. The venit, quem antea pulsum a civibus conformer is the image in Pind. 0. 6. 45, stat” Serv. This is possible enough which Wagn. thinks inapplicable, xps (comp. G. 3. 2, “ Pastor ab Amphryso"): Toivuv múnas ģuvwv å varrit vánev aurais: but even if the words are constructed with comp. the opening of Whytehead's Cam- 'init,' they need not be pressed to mean bridge Installation Ode, “Fling the gates that Mezentius came direct from Etruria. of music wide, Hold back no more the The name of Mezentius comes from the rush of song.” “Movete’ like “moveo" early legends, though his part in the story v. 45, whether in any way connected was differently represented by different with the preceding image is not clear. persons, some making him kill Aeneas in There is a plausible variant ‘monete' a battle subsequent to the Trojan settlein fragm. Vat. and Gud., recognized also ment in Latium. See Heyne, Excursus 3 by Serv.: comp. v. 41. Wagn. rightly on Book 8, Lewis 1, p. 338. So, rejects it, but is perhaps too scrupulous according to another account, Lausus when he questions its Latinity. Heins. was killed later by Ascanius (Dict. M. conj. “cantuque monete,” which is actually S. v.). Serv. remarks on the whole catafound in Canon.

logue that Virg. mentions some whom 642.] · Exciti,' the long penult. as in 3. he does not name afterwards in his nar676., 10. 38: comp. v. 623 above. •Bello,' rative, while some who are named afterprob. dat., as in v. 482 &c. Comp. gene- wards are not mentioned here, which rally vv. 37 foll. above.

he calls “poetae affectatio, nam am643.] •Iam tum,' even then, before the blysiam” (apparently some word con1650

Contemptor divom Mezentius agminaque armat.
Filius huic iuxta Lausus, quo pulchrior alter
Non fuit, excepto Laurentis corpore Turni..
Lausus, equum domitor debellatorque ferarum,
Ducit Agyllina nequiquam ex urbe secutos
Mille viros, dignus, patriis qui laetior esset
Inperiis, et cui pater haud Mezentius esset.

Post hos insignem palma per gramina currum
Victoresque ostentat equos satus Hercule pulchro
Pulcher Aventinus, clipeoque insigne paternum


nected with außXv6OOELV : Casaubon conj. valent quam in filio obsequium.” It might “ablepsiam”) “nefas est dicere.”

also mean that Lausus was worthy to have 648.] “ Contemptorque deum Mezen- fought under a commander more accepttius” 8. 7. •Armat, arrays, much as able to the gods : comp. 11. 347 (of Owphooel is used in Hom., II. 2. 11, 83., Turnus), “ Cuius ob auspicium infaustum 16. 155. There was a legend that Me- ... Limina tot cecidisse ducum.” zentius claimed for himself the first-fruits 6 54.] . Haud' is used loosely for “non.” due to the gods, Cato ap. Macrob. Sat. Hand, Turs. 3. p. 13, wishes to connect 3. 5.

haud Mezentius,' as we might say “ a non649.] Iuxta’ adverbial. Med. (first Mezentius,” which seems most unlikely. reading) and one or two others have 'hunc Pal. reads "Medientius,' which Ribbeck iuxta,' which is supported by an erasure in adopts, a form also found in Non. p. 272, Rom. “Quo iustior alter Nec pietate fuit where 10. 762 is quoted : but though the nec bello maior et armis ” 1. 544.

form is doubtless a legitimate one, di' 650.7 Corpore Turni,' periphrastic, but and óz' being frequently interchanged in intended to enforce the notion of personal pronunciation (see Corssen, Ueber Ausbeauty. Comp. 2. 18 note. It matters sprache &c. der Lateinischen Sprache, vol. little whether we make this and the pre- 1. pp. 77 foll.), it does not seem likely that ceding line a complete sentence, as is gene- Virg. should have used the two indifrally done, or with Ribbeck carry on the ferently. The recurrence of esset' is sense to what follows.

inartificial. 651.] Equum domitor' v. 189 above. 655–669.] 'Aventinus, son of Hercules, “Feraruin vastatorem” 9.771. For the joins them with a force.' fondness of the Tyrrhenians for hunting 655.] Serv. speaks of an Aventinus, comp. 11. 686. Lausus is represented as king of the Aborigines, who was killed and trained for war by horse-breaking and buried on the Aventine. The name also hunting. Heyne comp. Il. 5. 49 foll. appears, as he says, in the list of Alban

652.) ' Agyllina ex urbe,' 8. 479. • Se- kings. Virg. seems to have invented the cutos' seems to include the two notions account he gives of this person. Heyne of following to battle and following into remarks that the victorious chariot is exile. Nequiquam,' because he was des. Homeric, and not altogether consistent tined to death, and they to defeat.

with the lion's skin, which belongs to a 653.] It may be doubted whether these different state of society. See on vv. 664, thousand men are the same as the “agmina” 666. “Palma, gained in some race like in v. 648, or whether the words there refer that in Il. 23. Per gramina :' “tu curto other musters raised by Mezentius rum deserto in gramine versas” 12. 664. (comp. 8. 7). There seems nothing to de- 656.] Serv. explains pulchro' by termine the precise sense of patriis- “forti,” which some inferior MSS. actually in periis. Serv. supposes it to be that give: but Heyne rightly remarks that the Lausus was worthy to have had as father a ancient representations of Hercules (e. g. monarch, not an exile, in other words, the Farnese torso) bear out Virg.'s epi. worthy to have had a throne in prospect. thet. Heyne understands it simply “dignus qui 657.] “Clipei insigne decorum" 2.392 : meliore patre gauderet,” adding “ad comp. 10. 188. patrem declarandum inperia non minus


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