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Expediam, et primae revocabo exordia pugnae. 1
Tu vatem, tu, diva, mone.' Dicam horrida bella,
Dicam acies, actosque animis in funera reges,
Tyrrhenamque manum, totamque sub arma coactam
Hesperiam. Maior rerum mihi nascitur ordo,
Maius opus moveo. Rex arva Latinus et urbes
Iam senior longa placidas in pace regebat.
Hunc Fauno et nympha genitum Laurente Marica
Accipimus ;& Fauno Picus pater; isque parentem
Te, Saturne, refert; tu sanguinis ultimus auctor.

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40.] Revocare' of recalling the past, of wars with the narrative of wanderings, Sen. Ben. 5. 25. So“ repeto” v. 123 below. the Iliad with the Odyssey. “Nascitur *Primae exordia pugnae,' a variety for ordo” E. 4. 5. “prima exordia pugnae.”

45–106.7 . Latinus, king of Latium, 41.] ‘Mone,' aid his memory. Comp. had a daughter, Lavinia, whose hand was “monumentuin," and see v. 645, “ Et sought by Turnus, a Rutulian prince: but meministis enim, divae, et memorare po- various portents indicated that she was testis ; Ad nos vix tenuis famae perlabitur destined to have a foreign husband, and aura.” The word is in keeping with at last her father received a distinct ora“revocabo,' and with the functions of cular intimation to that effect.' the Muse as the daughter of Mnemo. 45.] • Moveo'stir, and so commence. syne, E. 7. 19 note. Horrida bella' 6. Comp. v. 641 “cantusque movete,” and 86.

Livy 23. 39, “ movere ac moliri quicquam.” 42.7 Reges. The list of them is For Latinus, the Italian god Faunus, given v. 647 foll. “Actos animis in funera' and the nymph Marica, who was worseems to mean, spurred by their courage to shipped at Minturnae, see Dict. Myth. encounter death, either the risk or the cer- Arva et urbes' 3. 418. tainty of it. The general sense is parallel 46.] *Jam senior' 5. 179., 6. 304. In to 9. 460, “Sed furor ardentem caedisque pace with “regebat :' “placida populos in insana cupido Egit in adversos.” If we pace regebat” 8. 325. take it “in funera inferenda," we may 4 7.] In 8. 314 the Fauns and Nymphs comp. 12. 528 “nunc totis in volnera are the indigenous race that inhabited viribus itur.”

Italy when Saturn came down to civilize 43.] The Tyrrhene force' is naturally it. Laurens' is properly the name of enumerated among the subjects of this that territory and tribe whose capital was part of the poem, as the strife between Laurentum : but Virg. uses it as a synoMezentius and his subjects had an im- nym of “Latinus.” Thus Turnus the portant influence on the struggle. Tyrrhe- Rutulian is called “ Laurens” below v. 650. namque manum’ is not to be taken with Latium in its latest and widest significa

coactam,'any more than acies' v.42 with tion would include Minturnae on the ' actos.' Totam Hesperiam' is of course Liris. not strictly true, but it probably refers to 48.] 'Accipimus' belongs to the his. • Tyrrhenam manum’ and expresses that torian rather than the poet: but the Muse, the war involved other states besides as we have seen (v. 41), inspires him to Latium. Sub arma coactam,' called write history. out together to war. Sub arma'=“sub 4 9.] The present 'refert' may be used armis,” the regular phrase for ‘in arms' either with reference to the actual exist(5. 440 &c.), with an additional notion of ence of Picus as a god, or to his existmotion.

ence in history. For the possible mean44.] 'A grander series of events opens ings of the verb itself here see on 5. 564. before me,' grander, that is, than what he Virg. seems here to treat the Italian has hitherto related, if measured by the divinities as a line of semi-divine earthly standard of importance in the Aeneid, for kings. For Saturn see 8. 319 foll. Ultiotherwise they could hardly be grander mus auctor' like “ultima ex origine” than the fall of Troy. But Virg. may Catull. 4. 15. mean to contrast generally the narrative.

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Filius huic fato divom prolesque virilis
Nulla fuit, primaque oriens erepta iuventa est.
Sola domum et tantas servabat filia sedes,
Iam matura viro, iam plenis nubilis annis.
Multi illam magno e Latio totaque petebant
Ausonia; petit ante alios pulcherrimus omnis
Turnus, avis atavisque potens, quem regia coniunx
Adiungi generum miro properabat amore;
Sed variis portenta deum terroribus obstant.
Laurus erat tecti medio in penetralibus altis,
Sacra comam, multosque metu servata per annos,
Quam pater inventam, primas cum conderet arces,

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50.] Fato divom,' by the decree of the simply an ennobling epithet. gods, 'fatum’ being used in its primary 55.] ‘Ante' pleonastic after a supersense. Comp. 3. 716 note. The gods lative, as in 1. 347 after a comparative. decreed that Latinus should have no son, in 56.] • Putens,' probably with reference order that Aeneas might obtain bis king- to his claims as a suitor, with the prestige dom with the hand of Lavinia. Possibly of a great line, or with a high lineage to there may be a reference to some specific back his claim;' though Silius (8. 383) oracle which formed part of the legend. has “avis pollens ” merely for high born. • Filius prolesque virilis' can hardly be Comp. “ parvo potentem” 6. 843; also considered as otherwise than a pleonasm, “dives avis ” 10. 201. though 'proles virilis' marks the exact 57.] • Properabat’in the sense and with point more accurately than 'filius.' the construction of “studebat.” Comp.

51.7 Nulla fuit,' was no more, i.e. at otoudá Cerv, and the phrase “nihil mihi est the time when Aeneas landed. Comp. longius,” “there is nothing for which I Virg. (?) Catalect. 14. 7, “sed tu nullus am more impatient," alluded to in Forb.'s eris," Cic. 3 Q. Fr. ep. 4,“ sed vides nullam note. It must be remembered that the esse rempublicam, nullum senatum, nulla infinitive, whether active or passive, is judicia, nullam in ullo nostrum digni. really a noun constructed with the verb. tatem," and the common comic phrase "Amore,' eagerness, as in 2. 10, “si tantus “nullus sum.” Serv, says that Virg. has amor casus cognoscere nostros.” taken the death of Latinus' male offspring 58.] Variis portenta terroribus 'is equifrom “history," which relates that Amata valent to “varia et terrifica portenta," had two sons, whom she killed, or, as though terroribus' might be abl. instr. others said, blinded, for siding with their with obstant.' father in promising Lavinia to Aeneas. 59.] *Tecti medio' should be under

52.7 Servabat domum,' remained in stood, as Heyne says, with reference to the house, as in 6. 402, “ Casta licet the custom of planting trees in the “impatrui servet Proserpina limen,” with pluvium ” of a house, 2. 512, Hor. 3 Od. a further notion of preserving the family. 10. 5. Penetralibus,' the “impluvium " • Domum' perhaps refers rather to her being in the centre of the house. Combeing the hope of his family, 'tantas pared with 2. 514, it illustrates the consedes' to her being the heir of his estate. nexion between the penetralia' and the In the imitation by Stat. Theb. 1. 572, “ Penates." “ Mira decore pio servabat nata penates," 60.] Sacra comam,' “frondibus intacwe are meant also to think of worshipping tis,” Heyne. “Multos servata per annos” the gods.

2. 715 note. Metu,' through fear, 3. 53.7 If any distinction can be drawn 213., 4. 164, between the two parts of this line, it is 61.] · Primas cum conderet arces' is that the first relates to ripeness of person, equivalent to“quum primum arces (urbem) the second to sufficiency of age.

conderet.” Gossrau comp. 3.17, “Moenia 54.] · Petere' of seeking in marriage prima loco.” He finds the bay growing 12. 42. •Magno,' like “magna” v. 4, in the spot where he is going to build.

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Ipse ferebatur Phoebo sacrasse Latinus,
Laurentisque ab ea nomen posuisse colonis.
Huius apes summum densae—mirabile dictu—
Stridore ingentí liquidum trans aethera vectae,
Obsedere apicem,.et, pedibus per mutua nexis,..
Examen subitum ramo frondente pependit.
Continuo vates, Externum cernimus, inquit,
Adventare virum, et partis petere agmen easdem
Partibus ex isdem, et summa dominarier arce.
Praeterea, castis adolet dum altaria taedis
Et iuxta genitorem adstat Lavinia virgo,
Visa, nefas, longis conprendere crinibus ignem,
Atque omnem ornatum flamma crepitante cremari,
Regalisque accensa comas, accensa coronam,

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62.] •Ipse seems simply to add gravity i.e. the “arx. Rom. has 'agmine ? see to the narrative; unless we like to say that on 3. 614. the king assumes the priestly function. 70.] • Partibus ex isdem,'i.e. apparently

63.] For the construction Laurentis' from the quarter of the sea, though we have in apposition with ‘nomen’ see Madv. not been told explicitly whence the bees § 246 obs. 2, who quotes Livy 1. 1, “filium came. Summa dominarier arce’implies cui Ascanium parentes dixere nomen.” that the palace of Latinus was in the “ Mihi ponere nomen” Hor. 1 Ep. 7. 93, arx:' and the expression of course denotes the Greek óvou a Déodar. With quam' complete dominion over the city. followed by ab ea' Wagn. comp. Cic. 71.] · Adolet: see note on E. 8. 65. Orator 3, " species pulchritudinis . . quam "Castis' refers to the rite, as performed intuens in eaque defixus.”

meetly and in order. Comp. 3. 409, “ Hac 65.] Comp. G. 4. 59 (of bees), “Nare casti maneant in religione nepotes.” per aestatem liquidam suspexeris ag. The altar was that in the centre of the men.”

house. Comp. v. 77 and 2. 512. 66.7 “Apicem' answers to summa 72.7 · Et' is the reading of all Ribarcev. 70. “Per mutua' is obviously beck's uncials but Rom., which is apequivalent to “mutuo ” or “vicis- parently illegible, and it is now adopted sim.” But it is not easy to fix the by Wagn. for "ut. Lavinia has been exact sense of the preposition. Perhaps mentioned 6. 764. we may compare such usages as “per73.] • Nefas :' comp. 8. 688, “sequiludum," “per speciem,” &c.—' in the turque, nefas, Aegyptia coniunx." It way of reciprocity. The expression seems seems to express the first feeling of the to be a variation of mutua’ used adver- spectators, who regarded the event with bially by Lucr. e.g. 5. 1100, “Mutua dum horror and alarm, like Aeneas and his inter se rami stirpesque teruntur.”

family in the similar case of Ascanius 67.7 Comp. generally G. 4. 61, 557. 2.680 foll. “Comprendere crinibus ignem :' . Subitum' seems to denote the unexpect the more ordinary expression would be edness of the appearance, as “subitum “ignis crinem comprendit," as in G. 2. monstrum” is frequently used. Heyne 305. Visa,' was seen, not seemed. It remarks that this occurrence was reckoned was a “ visum” or portent. an evil omen, Pliny ii. 17.

74.] • Ornatum’ to be taken after 68.] Continuo' as in v. 120 below. "cremari,' like 'coronam' after 'accensa.' The prophet sees the meaning of the por. “Flamma crepitante crematur” occurs tent at once. Cernimus,' I behold, as a Lucr. 6. 155. seer. Comp. 6. 87 (the Sibyl), “Bella, 75.7 Wagn. considers the repetition of horrida bella, Et Thybrim multo spuman- 'accensa' as equivalent to a second 'que' tem sanguine cerno."

“accensa comasque coronamque"), and 69.] . Easdem, the same as the bees, refers the line to the class of cases noticed

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Insignem gemmis; tum fumida lumine fulvo
Involvi, ac totis Volcanum spargere tectis.
Id vero horrendum ac visu mirabile ferri :
Namque fore inlustrem fama fatisque canebant
Ipsam, sed populo magnum portendere bellum,
At rex sollicitus monstris oracula Fauni,

Fatidici genitoris, adit, lucosque sub alta on E. 4. 6, where see note: 'accensa' bright fortunes, that which spreads from would then be coupled as a participle her over the palace portends the general with visa est cremari.' This seems the conflagration of war over the land of which best way of taking the passage. The she was to be the cause. common method is to take 'accensa' as 80.] Wagn. Q. V. 13. 2 d. remarks on “accensa esse visa est,” which is rather the metrical effect of the initial spondee, clumsy, and involves moreover a tauto- 'ipsam,' followed by a pause. It is diffilogy, inasmuch as 'omnem ornatum' in cult to say whether the subject of 'porcludes 'comas' and 'coronam.' Jahn tendere’ is ‘Lavinia' or some word to be proposes to strike out the semicolon after supplied from id ferri.'

gemmis' and arrange the words : et, 81.] Sollicitus' (originally a partiaccensa comas, accensa coronam, tum ciple) has here the force of “sollicitatus." (i.e. “postquam accensa est,” comp. 5.719) Wakef. read “monstrorum' from a MS. of visa est involvi fumida lumine fulvo. Donatus. But it is more after the manner of Virg. 82.] *Lucosque,' &c. The chief thing to begin a new clause with “tum,' as the with a view to explaining this difficult last point in a description : see 11. 724, passage is to ascertain what and where G. 2. 296. Ribbeck considers v. 74 to Albunea is. Heyne and Forb. take it have been Virg.'s first draught, which he as a spring, and Heyne's ultimate interpreafterwards amplified, intending to retrench tation, given in a review in the Göttingen the superfluity. It is singular that in Gelehrt. Anzeig. for 1804, p. 1672, was descriptions like these (especially in si- “Albunea aqua, quae sonat fonte sacro, miles) Virg. is apt to leave the reader in maxima (aquarum) nemorum, i.e. nedoubt about the exact construction in- moris.” But in the first place it is diffitended. “Regalis' probably refers to the cult to understand the meaning of “lucos tiring and general appearance of the hair, sub Albunea aqua,” and in the second which was worthy of a queen. •Insignem place 'quae maxima nemorum' for “quae gemmis’ proves, as Heyne remarks, that maxima aquarum nemorum," and that for the 'corona' is the royal, not the sacri. “aquarum nemoris," seems hardly adficial crown.

missible. G. 2. 15, “nemorumque Jovi 76.] «Tum,' &c. till at last she became quae maxima frondet Aesculus” is_not wrapped in dusky and smoking flame. nearly so strong. Wagn., following Bon• Fumida' belongs in sense to lumine,' stetten's Voyage sur la scène des six the words being nearly equivalent to “lu- derniers livres de l’Enéide (p. 205), takes mine fulvo et fumoso.” “Fulvus’ is twice Albunea as a wood, which removes some applied to the colour of the eagle, 11. difficulties, but leaves 'lucos sub alta 751., 12. 247. Serv. explains the smoke Albunea' to be explained. It is however grotesquely, as causing and therefore sym- not yet determined where Albunea itself bolizing tears.

is. Serv. places it “in altis montibus 78.] Id vero' implies that this por. Tiburtinis," and Heyne originally identi. tent following and surpassing the other fied it with the fall of the sulphurous brought their fear to its beight. Comp. waters of the Albula into the Anio at the use of “tum vero” 2. 228., 4. 450., Tibur : but Bonstetten thinks he has dis5. 659, 720. “Ferri,' was accounted or covered it in the sulphurous spring of rumoured. Comp. 2. 229, “scelus expen- Altieri near the fane of Anna Perenna on disse merentem Laocoonta ferunt,” Hor. the road to Ardea, and his opinion was 2 Od. 19. 27.

accepted by Heyne, and is adopted by 79.] · Fama fatisque' seems equivalent Mr. Bunbury, Dict. G. ‘Ardea. The former to “claris fatis.” “Comp. 8. 731, “fa- view is confirmed by Hor. 1 Od. 7. 12, mamque et fata nepotum. The fire round where “domus Albuneae resonantis” is the princess herself portends her own coupled with “praeceps Anio et Tiburni

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Consulit Albúnea, nemorum quae maxuma sacro
Fonte sonat, saevamque exhalat opaca mephitim.
Hinc Italae gentes omnisque Oenotria tellus
In dubiis responsa petunt; huc dona sacerdos
Cum tulit et caesarum ovium sub nocte silenti
Pellibus incubuit stratis somnosque petivit,
Multa modis simulacra videt volitantia miris,
Et varias audit voces, fruiturque deorum
Conloquio, atque imis Acheronta adfatur Avernis.
Hic et tum pater ipse petens responsa Latinus
Centum lanigeras mactabat rite bidentis, * 164 **
Atque harum effultus tergo stratisque iacebat
Velleribus : subita ex alto vox reddita luco est :

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lucus," and by Lactant. Inst. 1.6 (quoting was the son of Amphiaraus. This again Varro) “decimam (Sibyllam) Tiburtem, tends to prore that the oracle mentioned by nomine Albuneam, quae Tiburi colitur ut Virg. was at or near Tibur. Serv. observes dea, iuxta ripas amnis Anienis.” “Sonat' that incubare' is the proper term for here and “resonantis” in Hor, seem to this mode of consultation, answering to imply a waterfall. Mr. Long has no doubt êykoluão lai: comp. Plat. Curc. 2. 2. 16, that the Albunea was the sulphur lake (or Cic. Div. 1. 43. Rams were sacrificed, nymph of the lake) from which issues the and the worshipper slept in their skins, canal of the Albula. Virg., he says, has Pausan. 1. 34 (of Amphiaraus), Strabo 6. confused the lake and the woods round p. 284 (of Calchas in Daunia). the lake. The difficulty (be continues) is 89.) Lucr. 4. 127,“ Noscas rerum simu. that the lake is not at Tibur, but at least lacra vagari Multa modis multis," Id. 1. two Roman miles below the heights of 123, “ simulacra modis pallentia miris.” Tibur, where the cascade is.

Comp. also Id. 6. 789, where, though the 83.] “Nemorum quae maxuma” G. 2. verbal similarity is less, the passage may 15 note. Sacro: comp. note on G. 4. 319. have been in Virg.'s mind, as the context

84.] • Mephitin' was the old reading. is all about mephitic vapour. Mephitim' was restored by Heins. from 90.] “Sermone fruuntur” 8. 468. Med. &c. Mephitis was worshipped as a 91.] • Acheronta’ for the powers of hell deity in various parts of Italy, as at v. 312 below, “Flectere si nequeo SuAmsanctus (see v. 564 below), Pliny 2.93, peros, Acheronta movebo.” We may at Cremona, Tac. H. 3. 33. It had a either take ‘imis Avernis' as “ex imis temple and grove at Rome on the Esqui. Avernis” with Heyne (which however line, Varro L. L. 5. 49, Festus s. v. “Septi. would be to press rather far the transferred montis.” Serv. says some made it a male sense of 'Acheronta'), or we may take it as power, connected with Leucothea like Vir- an abl. of place, connecting it closely with bius with Diana, which may possibly ac. 'Acheronta,''the powers of the deepest count for saevum,' the reading of Med. hell.' Comp. generally 6. 240. Saevam’ like 92.] *Et tum,' then too, as in other “saevior pestis” 3. 214. Virg. may have emergencies. Wagn. seems right in rethought of Apoll. R. 599, níuvns eis apo. marking that Latinus himself is here the χοάς πολυβενθέος· και δ' έτι νύν περ Τραύ- priest and takes the oracle alone. But uatos aidouévolo Bapùv åvakykiel åtuóv. the practice seems to have been different 85.] Oenotria :' see 1. 532.

in different places : comp. the passages 86.] There were many oracles of this quoted on v. 86 with Hdt. 1. 182, Strabo kind in Greece, generally in caves, as that 14, pp. 649, 650. Ipse,' not, as Gossrau of Trophonius at Lebadea and that of thinks, contrasted with messengers, but Amphiaraus at Thebes and Oropus. Virg. either in the sense of “also,' or strengthenseems to have transferred the custom to ing 'pater.' Italy. Heyne remarks that Tiburtus, the 94.] • Effultus' 8. 368. founder of Tibur (mentioned below v. 670), 95.) Med. has ‘subito.'

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