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from most of the Authors, who have written the Hiftory of this Nation fince the Conquest; for lefore that
Time little or nothing can be said of this Matter. We will therefore proceed, in the first place, to explain all the Several Denominations, under which the Royal Treasury has been supply'd; which cannot be better done than from the above-mention'd Author, who is so knowing in those Affairs, and describes them in the following Manner.
Notable Branches of the Crown Revenue. Mr. Madox's History of the Exchequer, p. 202.
The Demeaneland of the Crown, at the Time of the Conquest, and during some Reigns after, was very considerable, as appears by Doomsday-Book, &c. p. 202.
Escheats were another Part of the Crown Revenue, comprehending not only those Lands which were most properly call’d Escheats, but also those which at sundry times after the Conquest became vested in the Crown, either by Devolution, Forfeiture, Seizure, or perhaps some other Title.
Vacancies of Bishopricks, and fuch Monasteries as were of Royal Foundation and Patronage, yielded fome Revenue to the Crown, the Kings using to seize and enjoy their Temporalities till the Vacancy was fill’d. p. 207.
Trespasses and Misdemeanors likewise were made use of to add to the Royal Revenue, Seizures being made on those Accounts, and the Parties, whose Lands had been so seiz’d, making Fine to the King for Restitution of the same. p. 215.
Feudal and other Profits, viz. Reliefs, Wardships, Marriages, &c. p. 216.
Ferms of the Counties of the Realm (when they were letten to Ferm) or the Issues of the Custody
of them (in case they were put into Custody). p. 223.
Ferms of Towns, Burghs, and Gilds of Merchants. p. 226.
Fines, Oblata and Amerciaments made another Part of the Crown Revenue, which was very considerable, especially during the Reigns of the first Kings after the Conquest. These may be reduc'd to two Classes ; Fines and Amerciaments for the Forest, and Fines and Amerciaments in Civil and Criminal Cases. P: 272.
Manifold Fines were paid for Grants and Confirmations of Liberties and Franchises of fundry Kinds; as, p. 272.
1. Fines to have Justice and Right.
3. For Expedition, or Dispatch of Pleas, Tryals, and Judgment.
4. For Surceasement, or Delay thereof.
5. Fines payable out of Debts to be recover'd. p. 293.
6. Fines for Leave either to hold, or to quit certain Offices, or Bailywicks. p. 315.
Fines for Licences to marry, or that they might not be compell’d to marry, by Tenants in Capite. p. 320.
8. Fines relating to Trade and Merchandize. p. 323
9. Miscellaneous Fines, that cannot be reduc'd under particular Heads. P: 325.
10. Fines for the King's Favour, or good Will, and that the King would remit his Anger and Difpleasure. P: 327
11. Fines for the King's Prote&ion and Aid. p. 329
12. Fines to obtain the King's Mediation, or Iaterpofal in Men's Affairs. p. 332.
Fines to have Seisin, or Restitution of their Lands, or Chattels; and that they might not be difieis'd. p. 333
14. Fines that Men might be discharg'd out of Prison, and replevy'd or bail'd to the Custody of lawful Men. P. 341.
15. Fines for Persons accused to be acquitted in certain Cases. p. 344.
16. Fines about holding of Lands, and several other Cases too long to be here mention'd. 17.
Concurrent Fines, when both parties fined to obtain the fame Thing.
18. Counter-Fines, when two Parties fined, one for a Thing, the other against it.
Note, That all these forts of Fines were generally very inconsiderable, and not so numerous as to amount to a Sum worth speaking of in any one King's Reign. P. 347.
Amerciaments are so much of the Nature of Fines, that it is not worth Time to speak of them apart; for indeed very little Difference will appear between them. Such as desire to be further satisfy'd as to that Point, may have recourse to Madox's History of the Exchequer. P: 365.
Of the Revenue arising by Aids. The Aid payable out of Baronies and Military Fees was an honourable kind of Service, or Duty, render'd by a free Vassal to his Lord. It has been obferv'd by Writers, that in England there were in ancient Time three Sorts of Aid due to the Lords from their immediate Tenants, of common Right, or by reason of Seigniory; to wit, Aid to make his eldest Son a Knight, to marry his eldest Daughter, and to ransom his Person, when taken in War. These Aids were paid by those who held of the King in Capite, which was to hold of him immediately, fine Medio. _Towns and Manors also, which the King held in Demeane, paid Aid to him. p. 396.
In Process of Time, the Word Aid came to be us'd in a large indefinite Sense.
Next succeeded a new Word, Subsidy, not much us'd in ancienter Times. p. 421.
Escuage, or Scutage, was a Duty or Service arifing of Fees holden of the King in Capite, as Baronies and Knights Fees. It denoted Servitium Scuti, the Service of the Shield ; and was wont to be render'd thus, to wit; for every Knight's Fee the Service of one Knight ; for every half a Fee the Service of half a Knight; and so in proportion. Baronies were charg'd with Escuage after the like manner ; to wit, according to the Number of Knights Fees (whether they were more, or fewer) whereof the Barony by its original Enfeofment did consist. This Service of Scutage was perform'd two ways, either personally in the King's Army, or else by pecuniary
Commutation. It is true that the Word Scutagium, when usd in an extensive Senfe, did anciently signify any Payment assess'd upon Knights Fees, whether such Payment was for the Army or not. Thus the Aid arising out of Knights Fees for ranfoming of King Richard I. is call'd Scutagium ad Redemptionem Regis; and other Aids set upon Knights Fees were also sometimes call'd Scutages. p. 431.
Scutage was also render'd for Fees holden of Honours and Escheats,which were in the King's Hands; and for Fees holden of Lands purchased by the King; and for Fees holden of the King's Wards during the Wardship. For the Tenants holding of the King's Wardships and Escheats, were immediate Tenants to the King,whilst the Wardships and Escheats rested in him. p. 447.
There were also some Serjeanties that paid Ef cuage. p. 452.
Escuage was not chargeable upon Lands holden in Frankalmoigne of Royal Foundation, or in Socage. P. 406.
As the Lord who held of the King in Capite by Knight's Service paid Escuage to the King for his Knights Fees ; so the Tenants of such Lord, who held of him the same Fees by Knight's Service, paid Escuage for the same to their Lord, according to the Quantity of their Tenure ; and then the Lord was said habere Scutagia sua, to have his Escuage, to wit, of his Tenants. The Tenants paid Escuage to their Lord, to enable him to pay his Escuage to the King, or to reimburse him when he had paid it. When the Lord holding in Capite did personal Service in the King's Army, or paid or became duly charg'd with his Escuage to the King, he was entitled to have Escuage of his Tenants, for the Fees which they held of him, and which he held of the King in Capite
. In this Case, the Lord might justiciare Tenentes suos, compel them by Distress to pay him Escuage; or if he could not himself justiciare Tenentes suos, he often had a Writ of Aid directed to the Sheriff to assist him. p. 469.
Danegeld was different from either Aid,Escuage, or Tallage. It was first set on foot in the Anglo-Sax= on Times. However, it continu'd for many Years after the Norman Conquest. It is not certain whether it was a settled yearly Revenue. The Author of the Dialogue concerning the Exchequer seems to have thought it was a yearly Revenue in the Times before the Conqueft, but not afterwards. p. 475,
Tallage was of two Sorts, one paid to the King, the other to a subordinate Lord, of which latter it is not of our Purpose here to speak. The Tallage render'd to the King (excluding the Tallage of the