Encyclopædia metropolitana; or, Universal dictionary of knowledge, ed. by E. Smedley, Hugh J. Rose and Henry J. Rose. [With] Plates, 第 3 巻


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374 ページ - I saw, that the perfection of telescopes was hitherto limited, not so much for want of glasses truly figured according to the prescriptions of optic authors, (which all men have hitherto imagined,) as because that light itself is a heterogeneous mixture of differently refrangible rays. So that, were a glass so exactly figured, as to collect any one sort of rays into one point, it could not collect those also into the same point, which having the same incidence upon the same medium are apt to suffer...
375 ページ - The species of colour, and degree of refrangibility proper to any particular sort of rays, is not mutable by refraction, nor by reflection from natural bodies, nor by any other cause, that I could yet observe. When any one sort of rays has been well parted from those of other kinds, it has afterwards obstinately retained its colour, notwithstanding my utmost endeavours to change it.
274 ページ - One vessel of water rarefied by fire driveth up forty of cold water ; and a man that tends the work is but to turn two cocks, that, one vessel of water being consumed, another begins to force and refill with cold water, and so successively, the fire being tended and kept constant, which the selfsame person may likewise abundantly perform in the interim, between the necessity of turning the said cocks.
375 ページ - Yet seeming transmutations of colours may be made, where there is any mixture of divers sorts of rays. For in such mixtures, the component colours appear not, but, by their mutual allaying each other, constitute a midling colour.
376 ページ - Hence therefore it comes to pass, that whiteness is the usual colour of light; for, light is a confused aggregate of rays indued with all sorts of colours, as they are promiscuously darted from the various parts of luminous bodies.
255 ページ - The buckets have a lateral orifice, to receive and to discharge the water. The axis of this wheel is embraced by four small beams, crossing each other at right angles, tapering at the extremities, and forming eight little arms. This wheel is near the centre of the horse-walk, contiguous to the vertical axis, into the top of which the...
334 ページ - The load at the maximum is nearly, but somewhat less than, as the square of the velocity of the wind, the shape and position of the sails being the same.
377 ページ - Its breadth %y2 or 3 inches. SF one of the straight lines, in which difform rays may be conceived to flow successively from the sun. FP and FR two of those rays unequally refracted, which the lens makes to converge towards Q, and after decussation to diverge again. And HI the paper, at divers distances, on which the colours are projected; which in Q...
375 ページ - I told you, that light is not similar, or homogeneal, but consists of difform rays, some of which are more refrangible than others: so that of those, which are alike incident on the same medium, some shall be more refracted than others, and that not by any virtue of the glass, or other external cause, but from a predisposition, which every particular ray has to suffer a particular degree of refraction.
374 ページ - And so the true cause of the length of that image was detected to be no other, than that light consists of rays differently refrangible, which, without any respect to a difference in their incidence, were, according to their degrees of refrangibility, transmitted towards divers parts of the wall.