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Baiae, Misenum, Cumae, with the islands of Ischia and Procida. Vesuvius on the left was sending forth its smoke; and Monte S. Angelo closed the view in the distance. I was overlooking the city of Teano and the volcanic hills of Roccamonfina and Sessa. The background was filled with hills clothed with thick groves of oaks and chesnuts. On my return, I proceeded to examine the ancient ruins which lie on lower ground than the modern town, and in the direction of Calvi. The remains quite confirm the statement of Strabo (v. pp. 237,248), that it was the largest and most populous town on the Via Latina, and the most considerable of the inland cities of Campania after Capua. There are considerable remains of the amphitheatre with subterranean vaults, showing that it was intended for a large population; and the theatre, now called Cerchio, must also have been of considerable size. Some pipes discovered here had the inscription
In several other inscriptions the Claudian family is mentioned, and it arises, in all probability, from a fact alluded to by Livy (xxvi. 15) in its history. This town had been selected, B.C. 211, as a place of confinement for a part of the senators of Capua, while they were awaiting their sentence from Rome; but the Consul Fulvius, contrary to the opinion of his colleague, App. Claudius, caused them all to be put to death without waiting for the decree of the senate. This would, no doubt, leave a pleasing impression of the Claudian family on its inhabitants, and induce them to place themselves under its protection. There are remains of many other buildings, but in such a ruinous state that nothing can be decided respecting them. There are several inscriptions built into the wall of the campanile of the cathedral; one more particularly attracted my attention with the name of Catilina. It runs thus: D. M. S. CATWLINAE. RESTITAE. CO NIWGI. INCOMPARABILI.QWAE MECWM WIXIT. ANNIS. XXIIII FELIX . . . . B. M.
There is also a long inscription to the Emperor Adrian, erected in his third consulship, which happened A.D. 119. The interior of the church is adorned with many ancient columns, and before the door lie two sphynxes of red granite; inside is a marble sarcophagus, with its cover and basreliefs, not badly executed.
In my morning's walk I had made acquaintance with a well-informed man, not a whit more friendly to the present government than many others whom I have met in other parts of the country; but as I can place no confidence in such casual friends, and really feel no interest in such matters, I make it a rule to change the conversation, and turn it to some subject of which they may be supposed to have some knowledge. I inquired if there were any old legends connected with the churches of Teano; he confessed that there were, but he was no believer in such nonsense. The following event had happened at the church of S. Antonio, and was believed by the ignorant people. When the festival of this saint is celebrated, his statue is richly decked out with a variety of jewellery,
which is carefully put away during the rest of the year. Two men, who had not the fear of God before their eyes, resolved to divest the saint of his property, and one of them was making off with the booty, when his companion called to him to come back and strip the bambino—Our Saviour in the arms of the saint—of the trinkets around him. While he was so employed, the saint clasped him in his arms, and held him so firmly, that he was not released till he was delivered over to the secular arin. Another story connected with Teano, and which, he said, is recorded in a Latin inscription in one of the churches, refers to their first bishop, named Paris, who came hither in the third century from Athens. He found the inhabitants worshipping a dragon, which he slew, and, in consequence, was exposed by the enraged people to the fury of a lion and bear. These fierce animals threw themselves at the feet of the holy man, and, wagging their tails, licked his feet. The inhabitants could not resist such a miracle, and, being converted to Christianity, appointed him bishop. #old another legend respecting a spring, at one time called Fonte della creature—“fountain of infants”—but now Acqua scommunicata— “excommunicated water.” The inhabitants had the superstitious idea that any child dipped in it before its seventh year, issued forth healed of whatever disease it had been afflicted. The parents, however, were bound to furnish a plentiful repast, and then, having stripped their child of his clothes, left them to be distributed among the poor. A bishop put an end to this superstitious practice, and the spring is now in consequence called “Acqua scommunicata.” The acidulous springs of Teano were well known in ancient times, and still exist. Pliny alludes to them (xxxi. 5, 1): “Et quae vocatur Acidula, ab Teano Sidicino quatuor millibus passuum ; haec frigida.”— “The cold acidulous spring is situated four miles from Teano.” My friend said they were found near Francolisi, in the direction of Cales, and were still frequented by those afflicted with stone in the bladder. Vitruvius (viii. 3) alludes to its being used for this purpose in his time about B.o. 20. There are other springs of the same nature close to Teano, at a spot called Caldarelle, and at no great distance are found ruins of brick and marble at Bagno Nuovo. There is a curious story told in connexion with these ancient baths, which shows the pride of the Roman aristocracy, their insolence and cruelty, about the year B.C. 124. It is found in a famous speech of Caius Gracchus, and is given by Aulus Gellius (x. 3, 1). He said: “A consul was lately visiting Teano of the Sidicini, when his wife, who had accompanied him, expressed a wish to bathe in the men's baths. M. Marius, one of the principal inhabitants, gave directions to the quaestor to turn out the men, who were then using them, but as this was done less quickly than suited the fine lady, she complained to her husband of the delay, and of the mean way in which they were furnished. The consul immediately ordered a stake to be fixed in the public square, and that M. Marius should be stripped and publicly whipped.” Such was the treatment that an Italian of rank received from a brutal Roman consul. There is an inscription in the campanile of the cathedral which evi
dently belongs to these baths, and which again refers to the Claudian family: S. BALNEWM CLODIANWM EMPTVM CVM SWIS AEDITICIIS.
These springs abound in this quarter from the hilly nature of the country. I heard of one at Cascamo, which the inhabitants believed to predict whether their crops would be abundant, according to the quantity of its water. Another fine spring, on an eminence, had the appellation, “di cento finestre,” “the hundred windows,” from the magnificence of its views over the plains of Campania. I had now to decide in what direction I should proceed to reach S. Germano—whether I should double back on my steps to Torricelli, on the road to Calvi, and then proceed by the road leading to Venafro, or take the direct course across the hills, making my way as I best could. You know how averse I am to retrace my steps, if it can be avoided, and therefore you will not be surprised that I resolved to take the hilly country, being sure that it could be penetrated, if not by mules at least by one on foot so inured to fatigue as I am. Before I started I walked out to a small chapel, Santa Maria del Trivio, where are some traces of the Via Adriana, leading to Sessa, and to which the name Adriana is still attached. The direction that I took was very much what the Via Latina pursued in ancient times. Ascending the course of a small stream, the banks of which were clothed with fine oak-trees and chesnuts, I passed under Rocca Monfina, which stands on a hill, believed to be of volcanic origin, and reaching the top of a ridge, the water-shed between the Vulturnus and Liris, I descended into a valley to a small village called Conca. Here I passed a very uncomfortable night in a locanda, and in the morning proceeded past Tora, where there is some appearance of an ancient paved road, no doubt the Via Latina, and threading a picturesque ravine, through which flowed a small stream called Peccia, joined the road leading to San Germano. I could scarcely have managed to get on if I had not procured a mule at Conca, which brought me forward with comparative ease. It was even then a long and fatiguing journey, under a broiling sun, at this period of the year. San Germano is a city of some size, containing about four thousand inhabitants, and is situated at the foot of Monte Casino. It lies between the mountain and a river, the rich plain beneath being traversed by a number of rivulets flowing from the hills, which still, as in the days of Silius Italicus, A.D. 60, are the cause of heavy fogs. “Nebulosi rura Casini,” “the country of foggy Casinum,” as he calls it (iv. 227), and again (xii. 527): Nymphis']ue habitata Casini Rura. “The country inhabited by the water-nymphs of Casinum.” The agrarian law of Rullus, B. c. 64, proposed to portion these lands among the Roman citizens (Cic. de Leg. Agr. ii. 25, iii. 4), and this actually took place during the Second Triumvirate, when a military colony was established. - - • San Germano stands partly on the site of the ancient Casinum, which is repeatedly mentioned during the second Punic War, and on one occasion Hannibal encamped in its territory, ravaging the country for two days, though he did not attempt to reduce the town itself. Considerable ruins of the ancient town are scattered over the lower slopes of the hills about a quarter of a mile outside the gate leading to Rome. The amphitheatre, of an elliptical shape, is of no great size, though almost entire. The exterior is of reticulated structure; very different from the amphitheatres of Capua, Pozzuoli, or the Colosseum of Rome. The entrances are formed of large hewn stone, and on the top are seen stones with holes to fasten the coverings, which were hoisted to protect the audience from the rays of the sun. The chambers for the wild beasts, and the canals leading in the water for naumachia, are distinctly seen. Indeed, it is in that perfect state of preservation that it would require little repair to make it suitable for its former uses. Alongside of the amphitheatre is a large piece of ancient wall, supposed to have belonged to a temple, from which there were got many pieces of mosaic pavement and many granite columns which now adorn the monastery of Monte Casino. In 1757 the following inscription, now seen in the monastery, was found here, which shows that the amphitheatre and temple were built at the expense of a Lady Ummidia Quadratilla. It runs thus: WMMIDIA - C - F QWADRATILLA. AMPHITHEATRWM ET. TEMPLWM - CASINATIBWS SWA PECWNIA - FECIT
“Ummidia Quadratilla, daughter of Caius, built this amphitheatre and temple for the inhabitants of Casinum at her own expense.” It is curious that we should have this lady described by Pliny the younger (vii. 24), though under the name of Nummidia, as having just died, about A.D. 90, in her eightieth year. She was fond of a town life and theatrical amusements, retaining a set of pantomimes, and being an encourager of that kind of people to a degree, as Pliny says, inconsistent with her sex and rank. Varro (De R. R. iii. 3) alludes to the family: Philippus cum ad Immidium hospitem Casini divertisset: “When Philip was spending the day with his host Immidius at Casinum.” The family came into notice under the early Roman emperors. It can be traced for about two hundred years moving among the nobles of Rome, and intermarrying with the family of the Emperor Antoninus. The old lady, whom we find mentioned in this inscription, made a very judicious will, as Pliny tells us, though she had been much courted by legacy-hunters, leaving two-thirds of her fortune to her grandson, Ummidius Quadratus, and the other third to her granddaughter. It was probably the son of this Ummidius who married the sister of Antoninus Pius, and his grandson, having been induced by Lucilla to enter into a conspiracy against her brother Commodus, was put to death A.D. 183, and from that time the family disappeared from historical records. The founder of the family seems to have been C. Ummidins Durmius Quadratus, and is interesting to us as having been governor of Syria during the early period of the Christian religion. He was governor from about A.D. 51 till his death,
A.D. 60, being the friend and supporter, as we are told, of Antonius Felix, procurator of Judaea, before whom the Apostle Paul, A.D. 60, preached “ of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come” (Acts xxiv. 25). It was probably the property of this Quadratus that Quadratilla inherited. There is an inscription in the monastery of Monte Casino which gives a detailed account of his.life, in which we find that he was legate of the province of Lusitania, now Portugal, during the reign of Caligula; then of Illyricum, under Claudius; and lastly of Syria, under Nero. It is when we come across names connected with men who have acted an illustrious part in the world's history, that the fatigues of such a journey as I have undertaken are felt to be completely repaid.
B. chapel of the Crucifix, close to the amphitheatre, is remarkable for the solidity of its structure; of a quadrangular shape, it is difficult to say whether it was originally a temple or sepulchre. It has the form of a Greek cross, being built of large square stones placed on each other, without cement or mortar. The pavement, vaults, and cupola are of the same massive materials. The theatre is at no great distance, in a very ruinous state, commanding a magnificent view over the country. In the vicinity of the Cappucini there is a considerable portion of road, paved, like the Via Appia, with large blackish stones, of pentagonal shape, with footpaths running alongside—no doubt a part of the way mentioned in the following inscription:
The only name in this inscription known to history is L. Calpurnius Piso, who was consul with the Emperor Nero, whose name has evidently been at the top, A.D. 57, and whom we know to have been slain, A.D. 70, in Africa, because he was said to have been forming a conspiracy against Vespasian, who had just obtained the empire.
In front of the principal church are large pieces of ancient columns, with their pediments, and a vase of travertino, with the following inscription:
Marullus and Ælianus were consuls, A.D. 184, in the reign of Commodus,