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1814.)

Capt. Manby's Survey of the Durham Coast.

Redcar and Cortham are so notorious clergyman in a parish or the coast for the numerous cases of destruction, would imitate such a plan of charity that it was truly distressing to hear their and patriotism. Thus sanctioned and recital. At the former place, four pa- patronized, it would excite the opulent rallel, most dangerous shelves of rocks, to extend their bounty, and induce every called Salt Scars, (seen only at low inhabitant to contribute ; whereby a water,) protrude themselves a great dis- blessing would be diffused, by a parochial fance into the sea : for giving assistance institution for providing the means of to vessels driven on them, it will be re- snatching the shipwrecked mariner from quisite to send a 5} inch mortar, and a a premature death. A whole set of ap$X.pounder. To the latter place, for paratus will not exceed twenty pounds. prelief io vessels when stranded on the The salutary effects of such an exerBran Sand or South Gare, a 54 inch mor- cise of benevolence would soon be extar will be necessary.

perienced, and the universal systen of There being no signal station from preservation promptly established; which Flamborough Head to llartlepool, a dis- would erect a monument of unparaltance of upwards of eighty miles, I found Teled national beneficence. There is not it necessary to provide for, and point a clergyman, I am convinced, will disreour, in whose care the mortars, &c. re- gard this appeal, or be offended at the commended should be placed. For Filey suggestion, when it arises fiom the zealBay, the Rev. Mr. Wrangham, of Hun- ous feeling of an individual who loves manby; Scarborough, the Committee of his country, and is so deeply interested the Life Bont; Robin Hood's Bay, Mr. in the welfare of mankind. Couk; Whitby, the Collector of the Easington has both rocks and sandy Curioms; Sandend Bav, Runswick Bay, bays, and will require a 54 inch mortar and Sraith's Bay, the Earl of Mulgrave, for the preservation of the crews strandfur his lordship to appoint such persons as ed on each side of the Signal Station. he might think proper to direct the same; Sunderland has many dangerous rocks Redcar, for the similar disposal of Lord in front, and extending on each side of Dundas; and ai Coribam, H. Vapsitrart, its pier, running far out, where innume€34. These arrangements I have made, rable vessels have been lost. It will be being fully persuaded that nothing can proper to send to this place, from the contribute so much to proinote the views various natures and requisite methods of of the establishment, is rank, opulence, giving assi- tance, a forty-tivo, twentyand respectability, interesting themselves four, and six-pounder. The life boats in the cause of humanity;

here are particularly worthy of notice, Duriam.— Hartlepool is surrounded having a superior advantage over every by rocks close to its frightful shore, boat I have seen or heard of; four aperwhich extend sorne distance to the north- turcs going through the bottom, that ward : there is likewise a Reef that when the sea breaks over and fills them, stretches leself far into the sea, called these apertures discharge the water to Long Scar. To the south, there are the regular buoyancy of the boat, in a very favourable bays of sand on each very short space of time It is the conside of this place, to insure the safety of trivance of Davison, esq. of this lives by the aid of a if inch mortar, place, and does very bigh credit to his when ressels are driven on them. As [ ingenuity. Attention to a few slight make a point, at every place where a suggestions, such as having the air boxes bie-boat is kept. of inspecting it, to detached from the botom of the boat, suggest whatever I conceive may con- in case of the bottoin being stove in by duce to its utility, I was much gratified rocks, and a projecting rope round the at the admirable appointment and ar- gunwale for men firmly to hold by, until rangement made for i: here. A com- they can be taken into the boat, (should mittee of experienced persons judge the they be obliged to swim from the wreck) merits of any extraordinary case, and would render these boats perfectly adeexertion of the people appointed to it, quate to any service, and give such seand reward accordingly. A fund for curity as to preclude all danger. this purpose is principally supported by On leaving Sunderland, the extensive a sermon, annually preached at the pa- lime-kilns situated on eininences, atrish church.

On this occasion every tracted my notice; and I have since due attends, and contributes according been informed that they have been the to his ability, to carry into effect this be- occasion of the loss of inany vessels, by nevolent design. How glorious would it inistaking them for lights intended for be for the cause of humanity, if every navigation. Surely when the remedy to

DAICUS.

case.

wir Wm. Drummond's Edipus Judaicus. (Aug. 1, prevent such evils can be accomplished, To the Committee of the Boat at by having a screen placed before them, North Shields, I made the same observano owner or occupier of such works will tions, and signified my intention of sevdrefuse to have it carried into execution. ing a six-pounder mortar for its use. The same may be said of the fires at (To be concluded in our next.) coal-pits, which may be prevented by a siinilar application.

SIR WILLIAM DRUMMOND'S EDIPUS JUWhitburn.---At the front of this point of land, a most dangerous reef of low To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. rocks runs far into the sea, called the

SIT, Steel: a 54 inch mortar must be placed I HAVE as yet seen only the second at this station, which will also be a pro- pumber of the New Monthly Magazine, tection to the dangers of Marzon Rock (viz. for March, 1814,) and froin its conBay, &c.

A similar piece at Sonth tents am inclined to augur well of your Shields will likewise be necessary to af- undertaking. I must, however, take noford assistance irom Suler Point, French: tice of a passage at p. 143, which much man's, Graham's, Nanbaven Bays, and injures an esteemed friend of mine. It the Upright Rock, under which vessels is there said, that the Edipus Judaicus have so often been driven and instantly was distributed, or rather obtruded, gove to pieces; and it will also serve through an extensive circle." The wrifor the Bay called Hard Sand, (on which ter inust have been misinformed, since such tremendous surfs break) for the aid this to my certain knowledge was not the of vessels stranded on the bar, when I am not going to discuss the running for the harbour, of which there merits or demerits” of the book; but I have been such innumerable instances. must say that the article in the Quarterly A six-pounder mortar for the life boat Review to which your correspondent rewill be required. In examining this fers, was not a fair stateinent of the case. boat, I was attended by several of the The errors into which the reviewer has committee, (under whose directions this fallen are shortly, but well expressed, by boat is vested) together with many per. Vindex, in the " Dedication" prefixed to sons who have repeatedly been employed, his “ Additional Letters." and have been the means of rescuing April, 1814.

ARISTIDES, upwards of 100 lives froin wrecks, In the presence of these persons I submitted HISTORY of the orLEANS' IMPOSTURE. such suggestions as appeared calculated To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. to benefit thie properties, and provide SIR, assistance, of a remedy for the inconve- HAD your correspondent, Mr. Hall, niencies complained of. That is, first, consulted the life of our great lexicothe boat's weight; secondly, having on grapher, he would have spared his resome occasions been obliged 'to relin- flexion on finding that, though the cuquish the object of their endeavours, riosity of Johnson was strongly excited tiom the necessity of returning to balé by the marvellous tale, which then enout the water which had broken over gaged the general attention of the public, and filled the boat; and in consequence yet the fraud was exposed by his powerI bare bad the satisfaction of receiving ful pen, which circumstance is enough the following testimonial, signed by to vindicate his name from the inpothirty-one persons.

tent ribaldries of such writers as Churchill. South Shields, Nov. 10, 1812. With respect to the other story, á much “ We the undersigned pilots and sea- more correci and amusing account of the men, who are used to the lite boat at transaction may be found in Reginald this place, and have been off in her at Scott's “ Discoverie of Witchcraft, the saving of crews from wrecks, do con- wherein the lewde dealing of witches sider Captain Manby's method of apply- and witchmongers is notablie detected," ing casks or kegs filled with air at the quarto, 1584; and as that book is not bottom of the boat, to be a great im- very common, perhaps the narrative may provement for this and other boats of Lear telling again in your entertaining the like description, as it will greatly We beg to assure this correspondent take from the weight, and consequently that, from some cause which we are unable make ber more lively in the sea, by to explain, this communication has but just being much more buoyant. The water been received, otherwise its appearance discharging itself by pipes is likewise ot' should not have been so long delayed.-great consequence."

FOITOR

ever.

1814.)

History of the Orleans Imposture. maiscellany, for which purpose I have sent lust? or pride? or want of clarity? To pou a transcript.

which separately were answercd by two " The lady of the mayor of Orleans in knocks in the negative. France, in the year 1534, on her death “ Is it heresy, that damnable sect of bed desired to be buried in a private and Luther for which you are damned i One frural manner, near to her father and knock. Can't you rest in consecrated grandfather, in the church of the Fran- ground? One linock. CIUCNDs. Her husband fulfiled her will, “Would you have your body taken up aud thereby greatly disappointed the ex- and buried in some other place? Oric pectations of the friars, in regard to the knock. Here the friars applied to the advantages arising fro'z a pompous fu- citizens present to attest the truit of this üfral. This disappointment put them pretended spirit, and of the conversation upon a device to be revenged, which was held with it in their sivht and henring.. 10 propagante, by the means of an in- But they, dreading the authority of ihe visible agent, wbich they represented mayor, excused themselves from subz. to be the spirit of the lady deceased, scribing to the veracity of the fact. This that the mayor's wife was dumned for did not discourage the friars, who, pero

sisting in the truit of this transaction, " The actors in this scene of deccp- pronounced their church polluted, while tinn were two doctors of divinity, and a the body of the supposed spirit remained young lad in his noviceship; who being there buried, and removed the host, placed properly, and well instructed and reliques, and their other matters, for the provided with implements, made such a use of the mass, &c. to anorber place. rumbliny noise about joidnight, when “By this time the account of the spirit the triars attended mating in dicir church, was propagated industriously about the that greatly alarmued those who were not city; and the bishop sent liis vicar fones in the secret, and prepared the way for ral to inquire into the affair with strict exorcisms, in which the confidants de- impart:ality. But all his prudence and manded a sign to know whether it was a authority were baffled by the co-jurors, dumb spirit. To whic'ı it was auswered who, driven to any leading circumstance in the affirmative, by a token ayreed on to detect them, either pleaded an exempty the exorcists aud the sus pos: d spirii. tion froin episcopal jurisdiction, or pre

" Having laid this foundation of a tended that the spirit was angry, and method to converse by tokens and noise, ought not to be disturbed with frivolous they called in such of t.e citizens as thry impertinencies. The mayor not able hy could best influence, not telling thein all the acts of prudence, and the assisimmediately what was the matier, but tance of the clergy, to detect the fraud; beseeching them to attend their midnight and the atiair beginning to work greatly ulatins, when they would be witnesses of to his discredit, upon the credulity of

very unfortunate affair that had hap- scveral pious and well meaning penple, pened in their churcii.

carried away by the appearance of tiuth, "The citizens attended pursuant to applied personally to the king for an invitation, and as soon as prayers were extraoptinary conmission to bring the begun, the invisible agent, or counterfeit conspiring friars to justice; which conta spirit began to make a surprising noise; mission was granted to certain alder and the friars who took upon them ille men of Paris, with full and alsolute arra conducting of this exorcism, liaving asked thority to make inquiry of this affair; him what he meant, and who he was, and it was also contirmed by the proper it was significd, that it was not permitted legate, in order to deprive the friars of

any pica of exemption from the king's " Then they commanded him to answer authority, by tokens and signs to such questions as “ These commissions convened all the they should put to him; which at length friars of this convent before them it was agreed to be done by kinacks. Paris, and proceeded agninst them hy

" The first question, Are you the spirit way of interrogatorics, but to no purof one buried in thús church? Ong knick. pose. Then they were committed to

divers prisons, and kept without any " Then having run over many other communication or correspondence with names in the negative; at last it was each other, except the novice, who had demanded, Are you the mayor's wife? .played the spirit under the direction One knock. Are you in a state of dam- above-mentioneil

. One of the alderDation? One knock. What is your 'men, named Fumarus, expecting to sito guilt? is it covetousness? or wanton something out of this youth, to pave the New MONTHLY MAQ.-No.7.

Vol. II.

с

him to speak.

Yes.

10
Origin of Illuminations.

(Aug. 1 wav for a more perfect detection, took what are commonly called illuminations him to his own house. This youth was are so generalıy adopted as expressions often examined and earnestly intreated of public joy, and state the connexion, to speak the trust. But nothing could or the probable affinity, if there te any, beriwn from hiin sufficient to convict between the sign and the thing to be sige the friars of imposture, till the comunis- vified. If I mistake not, fire, in varie. sioners assured 'hin that he should be gated forms, or soine artificial light, is pardoned, and that he should never be used for the same purpose, not only in lelt to the vengeance of the triars, liut European and other civilized states, but provided for in a place of safety. Upon also among many savage nations, ut iliese promises the novice related the whose customs we have any knowledge. whole transaction in the inanner it was Ilistorians say that barbarous and unculcontrired and donc: and, being brought tivated clans, in various parts of the into the presence of the triars, be babitable glohe, are accustomed to light arouched the whole to their faces. large bondires, and dance round them, as

“ The friars still carried it with a bigh demonstrations of joy in times of triumph. band: denied the accusations, and ap- I do not recollect any ancient custoin pealeid from the authority of their judges. that even remotely bears upon the one But the commissioners proceeded to pass in question, excepting the practice used sentence upon them, and condemned among the Jew's in their marriages them to be carried to Orleans, there to and other civil and religious festivals ; be imprisoned for a time, iium thence to put their illuminations were within be cosiddicted to the chief church in the their houses, and those rejoicings being city, and thence to the place of execu- celebrated in the night, they could riuni, where they shoulii make an op. 1) not do without lights; this practice, contession of this imposture, or be put therefore, is not analogous. Neither do to death."

the perpetual fires of Vesta, the goddess Such is the history of this abominable of ihe earth, or nature, apply under imposture, which I have no doubt was whose vame the ancient heathen worread and acied upon hy Parsons, and the shipped the earth and tire, and to whom other managers of the trick played in Numa Pompilius, King of Rome, dedithe parish of St. Sepulchre in 1762. cated an everlasting tire, and appointed

ANCES. the priestesses or vestal virgins to keep it.

As darkness is a sign of sorrow, and INQUIRY respecting the origin of il- lighe an emblem of joy, is the custom of

general illuminations a humble attempt To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. to perpetuate or prolong the day? SIR,

Yours, G. B. IT is a pleasing, and not unfrequently June, 1814. a profitable employment, to trace and ascertain the origin or reason of prevail

For the Neto Jlonthly Magazine. ing public customs.

There are inany

RECOLLECTIONS of the UNPUBLIS11 E D whilges venerally adopted in civil and so- LECTURES of an EMINENT PRUFESSOR, sial life the source or reason of which is

Of ARISTUCRACY. but imperfectly known. It will be come WHERE the sui ereignty is lodged in munly found ihat where a custom uni- a body of nobles possessing hereditary versally obtains, there is generally some power, the government is called aristoassignable reason for its adoption, at cracy.

When this body is numerons, a lease for its commencement or introduc- senale is selected from it, with whom, tion; and though we may not be able properly speaking, the power then realways satisfactorily to elicit the con. sides. The forms of aristocracy differ nexión that subsists, there is, I should imich in their construction, and in their apprehend, some affinity between the influence on the happiuess of the people. manner of expressing it, and the thing That of Venice is preferable to the late intended to be implied. It is true, that aristocracy of Poland, where the petty words are arbitrary signs of ideas, but tyrant exercised oppression without actions are frequently syin bolical, and controul. external sepresentations are otien figura- That of aristocracy, as a simple furon tive. I should think it would be ace of government, is best which excludes ceptable to most of your readers, espe. only the lowest of the people. Indeed, cially at the present period of national no democracy will answer the ends of rejoicing, if any of your learned cor government which does not confine porespondents wwuld assign the reason why litical power to those alone who are ca

LUMIXATIONS.

1614.] Of Aristocracy, Despotism, and Mired Governments. 11 pahle of exercising it: the lowest of the dity and distrust. Spies and informers, people cannot exert power but to their mingling with every private society, owa injury. The distinctions of politi- render the multitude a role of sant: and cal rights founded on birth are culpable, have been deservedly styled by Tiberius, since the field should always be left open the guardians of the scate. Nor is the to the exertions of fair and laustable am- condition of the despot less deplorable bition. Every man ought to have a rea- than that of his subjects: for his reign sonable prospect of elevating himself by commences generally with a civil war, his talents and virtucs to the highest si- and ends in premature death. tuations; but those certainly should be Of MIXED GOVERNMENTS. excluded from power, whose constant Simple governmeots, such as have been labour is incompatible with the talents described, do not in reality exist; they required for its exercise.

are mere abstraccions contrived by poliIn their general conduct an aristrocacy ticians. All governments are mixed, should avoid all invidious distinctions of partaking more or less of one or other of dress, of manners, and whatever relates inc simple forms. In practice, governo totasution-distinctions, which introduce ments frequently differ froin what they laughtiness into the manners of one appear to be in theory. I'rom the indeorder, and servility or disgust into those finite nature of the words employed to of the other. The most favourable view express political notions, and the coinof aristocracy is in the public inammers of plicated and numerous institutions which the higber orders, in their generosity, mutually influence each other, it is littitheir courage, and that frankness which cult to comprehend the precise nature isconnected with high birth and elevated of mode:n governments, of which the rank: on the contrary, the most umfa- mistakes of the French respecting our Fourable riew of it is in their intercourse constitution are a sufficient proof. The with their inferiors. But it should be despotisin of the East differed in many recollected at what price these distinc- respects froin that of ancient Romé. tions are purchased, by the degradation The former bad forgotten even the name of the inore numerous classes of sociсty, of freedom), but the latter coutinued for a in Sparta. Nothing is more absurd ages to feel and recollect, and cxcrcise than distinctions of rank that do not the virtues of their ancestors. In moserve some political purpose. (See dern Europe, also, despotism is restrained, Montesqaicu, &c.)

greatly by the freedoin of public opinion Of DESPOTISM.

resulting from the operation of the press, The next species of government is by the inultitude of states into wbich it despotism, where the people have no is divided, and by the subordination of rights in opposition to those of the rauks arising froin feudal mstitutions.. master, Despots having no concern Honour is said to be the principle of this about their subjects' welfare, and being kind of government. Every inan is ia general miserably educated, find it taught from his infancy to respect the necessary to employ some chief minister adventitious rights of others, to maintain in the character of vizier,' (For a cha. his own rights, and to seek, as the great racter of Despots, see Helvetius.) object of liis life, the advancement of his

As no established law exists under a owu rank. Montesquieu's de:cription despot, every subordinate magistrate of a limited monarchy, by which he esercises a despotic authority over bis means a monarchy restrained by opiniin, dependants; and the worst of all ser- but not by law, is partial, and too t'avitudes is that of scrving under a slave. vourable to this kind of government. The extreme of despotism is where the Perhaps he was swavea by a partiality despot is proprietor of all the lands and for that in which he was educated, or heir to the effects of all his subjects, as perhaps by pruelence; frequently his among the Siainese. This kind of go- praiscs appear ironical, as if he meant verninent defeats its own purpose. indirectly to intimate to his countrymen Without some degree of liberty, men to seek a better systein. Thus we see will never exett industry, nor acquire that all governments are in realty those riches, which it is one of the ob- mixed, but some are so expressiy by jects of despotisın to amass by rapine. their constitution, as the English. We cannot help feeling astonistunent A natural aristocracy in every country, that such a government exists: it is formed from the men of birth, opulence, founded on gencral ignorance, on a talents, and virtues, distinctions which foolish and absurd admiration of the naturally draw the respect of inankind, spleudour of rank, and on general tiini- so disposed as to obtain all the good of

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