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1814.)

Musical Hints - Nautical Improvements.

123

a square table, on each side of which pillars made of brass, of the same height there shall be sixteen keys, the pipes as a piano-forte stands at present, and corresponding to which shall be in the with the tops turned like a shepherd's centre of the table, on the first side the crook, or nearly like the letter S. These two octaves shall be taken from the prin- must be set upright and connected by cipal stop of an organ, so selected as to small brass rods; and at the same time reach from the lowest to the bigliest pro. so placed as just to inclose the horizonbable notes required in a glee or other tal space of the instrument; after which piece of vocal music in parts. In the the body must be lifted off the common saine manner may be selected two frame, and fitted with brass clamps at octaves of the fifteenth to represent the each corner, each rising about two-thirds treble; then two octaves of another of an inch above the instrument, and stop for the counter-tenor, if the princi- baving a hole so that it may be hooked pal should be adequate to represent the on its correspondent brass pillar. tenor; and perhaps the stopt diapason The instrument will then rest on wold afford the proper pipes for the nothing, but merely hang at an equibass ; I say perhaps, because I only offer poize between the pillars, perfectly at this as an introductory hint for the con- liberty to vibrate in all its parts, yet perstruction of such an instrument. It is feculy at rest with regard to the perforesident that any four individuals, capa mer. ble of perforining on the piano-forte, That a fullness of tone, and length of Inight sit down to this instrument, each vibration yet unknown, must be the nahaving the full score of the piece before tural consequence of this arrangement, them, but each selecting their own part, particularly if executed with skill, I and performing it with the right hand think there can be no doubt; and it may on that set of keys intended to repre, perhaps be an additional consideration, sent the tone and quality of each partie that any degree of ornament and lightcular part.

Dess may be given to the “ pensile By this means any piece of music piano-forte," so as to render it probably might be got up at a cail, or at least after even more elegant, as a piece of furni. half an hour's practice, and an additional cure, than any instrumcut now in use. source of amusement would be afforded Sliould these hints lead any scientific When social or domestic parties should artist to the improvement of “ celestial meet to enliven the sameness or insipi- sounds," it will be a high gratification to dity of rural retirement.

Your obliged Correspondent, It has, I believe, been attempted to London, Aug. 8. AMPUION. set full pieces on barrel organs; but these must be much deficient in effect,

NAUTICAL IMPROVEMENTS. as the same principles exist there as to the Editor of the New Monthly Mugazine. when the instrument is played on with SIR, the finger. I would, therefore, propose I OBSERVE that in last month's numthat an instrument should be formed ber, page 52, you notice a proposed plan with a barrel of such a length as to play of Mr. Cadogan Williains, for the divion sixty-four pipes placed in a row, and sion of ships' holds into several comparte which pipes should be similar to those ments, in order to guard against lea s at of the former instrument. By this means sea : indeed, I have also seen the same any piece of music, whose score did not subject advertised in the newspa, ers, bum consist of more than four staves, might scarcely thought it worthy of attention be played with the same distinct effect until it found a place in your pages. But as if executed by four distinct perfor- the fact is, Sir, that Mr Cadogan Wilmers, or by four singers, thus giving an liams ought to know that there is noexpression and character to the harmony thing novel in his plan, as the juris upon that cannot be produced by any instru- the canals in China have long buen fitted ment now in use.

in that manner. My second plan is to improve the tone On smooth water it, of course, may of any coinmon square piano-forte now answer very well; but that it is applicain ase; and the object is to guard against ble to vessels for seu service is totally a deadness of sound, a deficiency in the another question; on that part of the vibration of the instrument, that must subject, however, I beg leave, through exist from the manner in which the body your medium, to inform Mr. Cadogan is bound by the frame, or even froin the Williams, that the experiment has aleliect of its resting on a solid basis. ready been tried in this country upon

I propose, therefore, to have tour small his Majesty's sloops of war Arrow and

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124 . , Saints of the Romish Calendar. " (Sept. I, Dart, but has not been extended to any pal saints of the Romish Calendar are others.

usually depicted, with just so much of With respect to the Arrow, in parti- their history as will serve to explain the cular, it is a fact, told to me by an offi- reason of it. cer on board that ship, some years ago, St. George is known to every one by when I was exainining her at Ports- the dragon and virgin with which he is mouth, that she sprung a leak in the accompanied; and his history, from the foremost room, as it was called, during Seven Champions of Christendom, is a cruize off the coast of France, when familiar to all. the water rushed in so as completely to St. Christopher is represented as a render her water-logged by the bead, at man of gigantic stature, with a staff in the same time that it acted with such his hand, and carrying our Saviour upon force upon the planking of the deck, as his shoulders through a river or brook. partly to blow it up, an accident that The cause of this representation is in was only avoided by scuttling the other volved in obscurity, as this saint was buik-beads, and thereby permitting the not in existence until more than two water to flow freely through the ship centuries after the death of Jesos Christ. into the pump-well, when it was got St. Catharine is known by her wheel. under by the usual mode of the chain St. Jerome is usually represented in pump.

study, with a clock near him, to indicate Again, Sir, if the thing was even pro- that he did not pass bis time without per, each division of the bold would taking account in what inauner it was require a distinct set of pumys, (a thing spent. totally incoinpatible with the interior I should be glad to see from any of construction of a sbip;) for to allow the your ingenious correspondents a further water of the leak to find a passage elucidation of this subject. through the limbers into the pump-well,

I am, Sir, as at present, would counteract the ob- London, Aug.5. a Constant READER. jects intended by the proposed construction.

SACRIFICES and SENTIMENTS of the RusI will only add further, that the Chi

SIANS in 1812. pese junks being built with flat bottoms, To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine, and being nearly in the shape of a paral- SIR, lelipipedon, or of a long box, there FROM an address of Capt. Ortescaunot be any material breakage in the berg, in the Russian service, co his coudstowngc; but in a man-of-war, or an trymen the Gerinans, dated Moskwa, Indiaman, where stowage is so nicely March 31, 1813, I have extracted the attended to, it would be accompanied following facts, which I doubt not will with such a loss of room, that the usual prove interesting to English readers. freightage would be diminished at least When the French had reached Moskone-ulth, and in many instances much wa, some of their officers immediately more.

went to the Karätnoi Räd, a street ocMr. Williams may, perhaps, not under- cupied on both sides with repositories of stand this—bul let him ask any practical carriages for sale, and looked out a seaman how the hold of a merchant-ship number for their generals, which were is to be stowed with tea-chests or sugar to be fetched away the following day. hogsheads under such circumstances; The same night all these repositories, and then, if the seaman thinks the query with the whole of their contents, amountdeserving of an answer, he will be con- ing in value to several hundred thousand vinced of the impracticability of the rubles, were consumed by fire. “The proposition, as applied to seu shipping, French have not got them at last!" said though it might perbaps answer on the the owners. It is, indeed, impossible Paddington Canal in a voyage to Ux- to convey any idea of the indifference bridge! Yours, &c. PÁLINURUS. with which the Russians bore the incal

culable losses which they sustained on REPRESENTATIONS of the SAINTS of the the taking of that capital. “ If only ROMISU CALENDAR.

that fellow perishes," said they, “we To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. shall feel a pleasure in the sacrifice, and SIR,

Russia will be saved We shall rctrieve, IT may afford some amusement to or at least be able to dispense with your numerous readers if you, or your what we have lost. That'loss is indeed correspondents, will take the trouble to heavy, but he is not the richer for it." inform them in what manner the princi- The roads from Moskwa to Jaroslaw

1814.]

Sacrifices and Sentiments of the Russians in 1812.

1012.

125

Nischnei-Novogorod, Räsan, and Tula, pose; but the fellow scizing him by both were for some weeks so thronged with hands, pulled bim into the pond, and carriages coming from the metropolis, there held hiin till he was quite dead, on that they went two or three a-breast. which he mounted liis horse and rode The inhabitants of the villages along away. these roads abused those cowards, as Such was the hatred excited in the ibey called the fugitives, who had quit. bosoms of the Russians by the atrocities led the capital, and cried, “ Why does of the invaders. We are told, for exnet the Emperor take cvery man of us" ample, that in houses forsaken by the The women were still more incensed, owners, the French nailed such servants and shewed the knives which they were as they found there, by their feet to the determined to employ against the french. Hoor, to make them confess where the

The potatoes in the neighbourhood of valuable effects were concealed. They the city sufficed but for a short time to violated females in the very sanctuaries feed the horses belonging to the French of the churches, and there too they were army. Soine tradesmen, who, trust.og accustomed to slaughter the cattle which to the generosity of Buonaparte, had not they had driven together. No part, Hed, cane to entreat him to put an end however, of the plunder which they colo to the horrible pillage. These persons lected in the sacred euifices reached he would have employed to purchase in France. The great silver chandelier, the villages several hundred thousand weighing 2800 pounds, which they car. rubles worth of corn, for which he would ried off from the church of Uspenski, iu probably have paid them in the forged the Kreml, and threw into the Dnieper, Dotes which he brought with him in great because they could convey it no farther, quantity. They declined the commis- was recovered by the Russians, and resion, alleging that the farmers would placed in its former situation. The cross put them to death without mercy, as iaken down by Napoleon's command traitors to their country. They fled the from the steeple of Ivaweliki, in the sme night from the city, leaving behind Kreml, and destined to figure as a trodiein all they possessed. Not a single phy at Paris, was likewise left behind at larmer carried a load of corn or wood Moskwa. to Moskwa, whilst it was in the hands It cannot be surprising that, conscious of the French. The national spirit could of the barbarities exercised upon the not have been more energetically dis- unoffending inhabitants of Moscow, the played. On the levy of the mililia no French should have dreaded a severe reperson excused himself on account of laliation, when the victorious Russian sickness, a numerous family, or any other warriors lately approached their capital. pretext; all went, not only willingly, The forbearance and generosity of the but even cheerfully.

latter are infinitely more glorious than If the Russians neglected no oppor- the most brilliant victories ever achieved funny of cutting off the French, they as by their unprincipled enemies. invariably spared the Spaniards. The

I am, &c. lo Hispanez, and their physiognomy, in Dresden, June 20, 1814. GERMANICU'S. mediately made all the Russians their friends, and such of them as were taken

MR. PRESIDENT WEST. prisoners were treated with the greatest To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine.

SIR, At Preobraschensk, an ancient resi- THE following remarks on the muchdence of the Czars, very near Moskwa, respected Mr. West, president of the where Peter the Great, in his youth, Royal Academy, are extracted from an formed for his amusement the first regi- American paper, called the Connecticut inent of guards Bamed after the place, Mirror, and may prove interesting to Chiefly of boys and foreigners,) a French the readers of your work. dragoon had shot some ducks upon a

“MR. BENJAMIN WEST. pond, and ordered a peasant, who hap- “ Having lately heard and seen some pened to be near, to fetch thein out. ungenerous insinuations thrown out

he mau immediately stripped, plunged against our countrym in, 'Mr. West, rem, and fetched the ducks. On the bank, specting bis famous picture of Christ which was steep, he held up the prize, Healing the Sick in the Temple, which and signified to the dragoon that he was picture was intended at the time he lo come and take them. The French- painted it, as a present to the Academy dan alighted from his horse for the pur- of Philadelphia; it is certainly proper, NEW MONTHLY MAG-No. 8.

VOL. II.

kindness.

126

Mr. West-Error in our Version of the Psalms.'

(Sept. 1,

because consistent with justice, 10 state, America has produced the greatest histhat those insinuations, and all others torical ainter of modern times.* injurious to Mr. West's character, as an “ Mr. West is no cosmopolite. Born American, sre void both of truth and in America, he still feels all the attacbcandour. It is true that Mr. West exe- ment to his native country which hecuted tlie painting in question for the comes the patriot. In a conversation purpose of presenting it to the capital with the writer, in June 1813, he e'ne of his native staie; and it is equally true, tered at leugth into the subject. He that it was not so much the pecuniary remarked, that nothing in nature could reward of three thousand guineas, as the grality him so inuch as to land at Boston, gratitude he justly owed the British and to travel thence through the counpublic, which joduced him to part with try to Philadephia. He spoke of the it to the proprietors of the British Insti- scenes of his childhood; of the increase tution, Mr. West means still to do am- of population and wealth of his rising pie justice to the Academy of Philadel- country; of the great in provements in phia. It is well known, that immediately the arts, (which he feared would be much after parting with the above-named retarded by the present unnatural war;) picture, he applier himself to painting a and dweli witb enthusiasın on the grow, copy of it (with considerable additions ing glories of his pative land. Mr. West to the original) which he intends to for- does not, however, ihink it criminal to ward to Pbil.delphia as soon as possible. be grateful to a king, or to the nobility

The writer of this article saw the in- and gevtry of his adopted country, who tended copy at Mr. Wesi's house, the have so greatly fostered and encouraged last summer; it was then in a considere his genius, and sho, by their extensive able state of forwardness. Mr. West patronage, have been in a great inea. slated to the writer of this, bis great sure the authors of his fame and for anxiety to finish the painting as speedily tune." I am, &c. as practicable, and observed, that he Portsnuouth, July 20. ROBERTUS. intended, at all events, to get it finished by Christmas. It would undoubtedly

ERROR in the TRANSLATION of the PSALMS, bave been in this country before this time, had it not been for the interrup

To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine, tion of our intercourse, occasioned by

SIR, the present war.

HAVING observed that your monthly " At the time the writer saw Mr.West. miscellany is open to every literary and (the past summer.) be was giving his last useful discussion, the losertion of the finish to his grand picture of Vir Suvir following would oblic our's Arruignment before Pilate, and

Your constant reader and well-wisher Condemnation. This historical painting

0:20:4099 is pronounced by connoisseurs in Eng

As I was the other day comparing ou! land, to be unrivalled by that of any age

English translation of die Psalms will or nation. The size of it is 22 feet by

the Hebrew, on coming to the 28th verse

of the 105th Psalm, the passage, “ 15 feet, and it contains between ninety and an hundred figures. Mr. Wesi's

sent darkness, and it was dark, and they genius is in this painting fully developed.

were not obedient unto his word, ap He has given a faithful and brilliant re.

ce: peared to me in the !le!'pw to senil presentation of the inspired narrative. quite

e quite the reverse, v!7.91 87), in whici Here the malignant persecuting Jews

I was confirmed by thing to the ver seem to be ac'ually crying out, “Crucify

Forsion of Stormhold and Hybinis, where him! crucify him!" Here Pilate stands

* The Americans may be allowed to con doubting, fearing: impressed with the gratulate theniselves that Ms. W. is an Ame perfect innocence of his divine prisoner. tican; but we believe that the veneraet and at the same time inclined to gratify president will say, that his genius, of the wishes of the blood-thirsty priests

least his knowledge of the fine arts, is purel

British, Is it to be supposed that, had M and angry populace. It would be diffi

West remained to this day in America, 15 cult for so ind fferent a judge as the

m i juuge as the world would have been enriched by his it writer, even to undertake the description valuable productions? The Americans ma of this painting. Its subject, and the as well claim the military genius of the Hu! masterly manner of its execution, make of Maida, Sir John Stewart, because he w it perhaps the most interesting picture born in that country, and left it in his ii ever exhibited to the inspection of man, fancy. and establish the gratifying fact, that + Vide Parkhurst's Hebrew Lexicou.

1814.)

Humboldt's View of America and its Native Tribes.,

1:27

Suw, “they did not disobey," and which had been inhabited by civilized nations, certainly agrees with the Hebrew, that were shut against foreigners; and when, is, as it appears to me; though perhaps more recently, the Abbé Clavigero pubsome of your correspondents may be lished, in Italy, his work on the ancient enabied to explain it; but certainly one history ui Mexico, doubts were raised of the translations inust be wrong. concerning many facts which were forAlresford, Honis, July 26.

merly confirmed by numerous eye-witP.S. In your last inonth's (No. 6) desses, frequently persons by no means Oxford Intelligence, it should have been amicably dispused towards each other. ** to Mr. J. Leycester Adolphus," noc Celebrated writers, who received less "J.L. Leycester," that the English prize pleasure trom the harinuny of nature "Niobe," was adjudged.

than from her contrasts, have represented

America as one vast swamp, unfavoura For the New Munthly Magazine. able to the propagation of the animal VIEW OF AMERICA and its NATIVE TRIBES. species, and not till of late inhabited by

By ALEXAADER ron HUMBOLDT. races of nicn not surpassing the South Froir the Introduction to the Pic- Sea islauders in civilization. An unlituresque dcius of his Travels not yet mited scepticism had banished sound purdished.

criticisin from the historical disquisitions IT cannot but excile astonishment, on the Americans. The fictions of a that, at the conclusion of the fifteenth Solis and soine other travellers who had century, there should have been found, never quitted Europe, were blended 11 a world which we denonyinate the new, with the faithful and sinple relations of the very same kind of antiquarian re- the earliest visitors of the New World; luains, the same religious notions, and and it was deemed the duty of a philosoforms of architeccure, as seem to belony phic historian to protest, in the first to the earliest ages of civilization in place, against all that the missionaries Asia. It is with the characteristics of had observed. uations, as with the internal structure of Towards the end of the past century, a the plants that are spread over the face happy alteration took place in regard to of the carth. The stamp of the original the opinions entertained respecting the Stock remains indelible, notwithstanding civilisation of nations, and the causes the numberless modifications produced that alternately promote and obstruct its by climate, soil, and various other inci. progress. We became acquainted with dents.

nations whose manners, institutions, and In the first period after the discovery arts, are alınost as different froin those 1 America, the attention of the Euro- of the Greeks and Romans, as the origi. peans was more particularly directed to nal forins of the extinct species of anithe gigantic edifices of Coraco, to the mais from those which at present engage high roads through the midst of the Cor- the attention of naturalisis. The society dilleras, to the lofty graduated pyramids, of Calcutta has thrown a brilliant light in the religious rices, and symbolical over the history of the Asiatie nations. Writings of the Mexicans. Descriptions The monuments of Egypt have, of late, of different provinces of Mexico and been partly described with admirable Peru were then as frequent as are, in our correctness, and partly compared with days, the accounts of the vicinity of Port those of the most distant regions; and Jackson, in New Holland, or the Island my researches concerning the native of Otalicite. It is absolutely necessary tribes of America appear at an epoch, to have been upon the spot, in order to when that which does not approach to appreciate justly the noble siinplicity the style and manner of which the and the character of truth and fidelity Greeks have left us inimitable models, is

ench pervade the narrations of the earn nevertheless deemed well worthy of at. ilest Spanisl travellers: and, in perusing tention. Elkeir works, we lainent only the want of In the description of the historical Paphia illustrations, which would have monuments of America, I have endea. given us more satisfactory ideas of many soured to observe a due mean between lonuments, partly demolished by fana- two roates alternately pursued by those wcism, and partly fallen to decay through literati who have entered into the discusa culpable neglect.

sion of such monuments, languages, and The ardor for those American investi- national traditions. The one adopting rations dipinished after the coinmence- hypotheses which, though brilliant, rest went of the seventeenth century. The on tottering foundations, have deduced Spanish colonies, whose territory alone general conclusions from a small num

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