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"128 Humboldt's View of America and its Native Tribes. (Sept. 1, ber of insulated facts. They found, in and whole species of organic bodies have Ainerica, Chinese and Egyptian colonies, become extinct, to give place to those Celtic dialects, and the alphabet of the which now people the earth, the air, and Phænicians. While we yet remain in the waters. the dark respecting the origin of the No grounds exist for presuming that Osci, the Goths, and the Celts, they pre- America was first peopled by inen at a tended to pronounce decisively on the inuch later period than the other contiorigin of the tribes of the New World. vents. The luxuriant vegetation, the Other writers, on the contrary, amassed breadth of the rivers, and che partial inmaterials, without ever raising thein- undations are powerful obstacles to the selves to any general notions: a pro- migration of nations in tropical coun. ceeding from which the history of nations tries. Extensive tracts of northern Asia can derive as liitle benefit as the different are as thinly peopled as the savannahs branches of the natural sciences. I shall of New Mexico and Paraguay, and we deem myself fortunate if I shall be should by no means presuppose that the thought to have equally avoided both countries first inhabited must necessarily these extremes. A small number of be the most populous. tribes, far distant froin one another, as The question relative to the origin of the Etruscans, the Egyptians, the Tibe- the population of America can no more tians, the Aztekians, cxhibit striking co- belong to the province of bistory, than incidences in their buildings and religious those concerning the origin of plants institutions, in their division of the year, and animals, and on the distribution of in their returning periods of time, and organic germs, to the natural sciences. in their mystical representations. The History, when it goes back to the most historian ought not to overlook these ancient periods, exhibits to us almost all coincidences, for which it is just as ditli- the parts of the globe inhabited by peocult to account as for the resemblance ple who look upon themselves as a boribetween the Sanscrit, Persian, Greck, gines, because their ancestry is unknown and German idioms; but while he sises to them. Amidst a variety of tribes who to general ideas, he should know how to succeeded and intermingled with one stop at the point wliere we are abandone another, it is impossible to decide with ed hy certain facts. Agreeably to thesc certainty from which of them the popuprinciples, I will attempt to state the re- lation first proceeded, and to define the sults deduced from the data which I limits beyond which the empire of coshave been enabled to collect concerning mogonal tradition cominences. the native tribes of America,

The tribes of America, with the exAn attentive examination of the geo- ception of those that are nearest to the logical relations of the New World, and polar circle, belong all to one single a consideration of the equilibrium of the race, which is distinguished by the form waters spread over the surface of the of the skull, complexion, very scanty earth, forbid the assumption that the beard, and straight hair. The American new and the old continents rose at dif- race exhibits striking analogies with that ferent tiines from the bosom of the deep. of the Mongol tribes, which comprehends On both hemispheres we perceive the like the descendants of the Hiong-nu, so iaseries of rocky strata lying one above mous under the denomination of Huns, another, and probably the granite, gyp- the Kalkases, the Calmucks, and the sum, and sand-stone formations in the Burattes. Recent observations have mountains of Peru, had their origin at even demonstrated, that not only the iuthe saine period as the corresponding habitants of Oonalasloka, but several strata in the Alps of Switzerland. The South American tribes also, denote, by whole globe has apparently been visited the osteological characters of the skull, by the same catastrophes. On the sum- a transition from the American to the mits of the Andes, at an elevation ex- Mongol race. If the sable African race, ceeding that of Mont Blanc, are found and ilie nuinberless tribes which inhabit the petrified muscles of the ocean. Fos- the interior of Asia and its north-eastern sile bones of elephants are scattered over regions, and to which systematic geothe equatorial regions, and, what is re- graphers have given the indefinite appelmarkable, they are met with, not only lation of Tartars or Tschoudes, should under the palins in the torrid valleys of ever become better known to us, the thic Oronoko, but on the highest and Caucasian, Mongol, American, Malay, coldest plains of the Cordilleras. In the and Negro races will be less widely new as in the old world, whole creations separated than they have been, and we

1814.)
Answer to the Biblical Query.

129 shall recognize, in this great family of dent. In all the three accounts, Mark man, one single original, which has un- xiv. Matthew xxvi. Luke xxii. our Sadergone various modifications from cir- viour is represented as erkorting his cumstances that we shall, perhaps, never disciples to “ watch," previously to his be able to penetrate.

departure from them; a departure, most The native tribes of the new world, trilling in point of distance; Mixion, though all of them are allied by very little way,” according to two of the essential characteristics, yet, on the evangelists; and, according to the third, other hand, present, in their inovcable the specific space of not so much as a features, in their more or less dark com- stone's throw, but “ about a stone's plexion, in their shape and size, varieties throw;" woit adds Bonny After so earnoi less striking than ise difference which nest an exhortation, it is scarcely to be we perceive between the Arabs, Per- conceived that they should fall into so sians, and Slavonians of the Circassian profound a sleep so very suddenly as not race. The lordes, however, wbich rove to hear or attend to what he said at about in the burning plains of the equi- so very short a distance from them; and noctial regions are by no means of a it he continued upon the spot ufterwards, darker colour than the mountaineers, or either in prayer or meditation, it might the inhabitants of the temperate zone; be then, and not before, that they sutierwhether it be that in man, as in inost ed themselves to be overcome with sleep. animals, there is a certain period of lite "That he continued in prayer, might be beyond which the influence of climate collected, perhaps, from Luke Wii. 41 ; and food is insignificant, or that the de- or in meditation, from Mark xiv. 37, or viation from the original mode is not Matthew xxvi. 40; Outws en ? xuosuels MIAN perceptible till the expiration of many SPAN yenvognsat pel que; Whai, could ye centuries. From all that has been ob- hot watch with me one hour?" He served, however, it results, that the Ame- prayed thrice, at least, and thrice turned ricans, like the Mongol tribes, have a less to look upon thein, UTOSE Las; this must flexible organization than the other have occupied some space of time. Asiatic and European nations.

That his disciples were witnesses of The Ainerican race, though less nu- his agony, would seem plain from St. merous than any other, is dispersed Luke's account, who particularly tells over the greatest portion of the globe. us, they slept " for sorrow." It was It extends, through both hemispheres, their grief at the sight of bis sufferings from 680 N. L. to 55° S. L. It is the that overcame them; no unnatural effect only one that, at the same time, inbabits of extreme distress of mind. Ot'the strug. the scorching vallies bounded by the gle they underwent, sone notice seems gcean, and the ridges of mountains ele- to be taken, in the use of the word vated more than 200 fathoms abore the ama-In, Luke xxii. 41, which, in the Peak of Teneritfe.

active form, at least, would imply some (To be continued.)

violence, and has been thought to signify

that our Lord was obliged to tear himANSWER to the BIBLICAL QUERY in the self from them to vent his grief. The

three disciples he specially selected on To the Editor of the New Hionthly Magazinc. this occasion, were those who bebeld his SIR,

glory in the transfiguration, Luke ix. THE Biblical Query, in your last and were, probably, on that very acnumber, p. 19, signed Inquisitor, is not, count, as Dr. Priestley has observed, altogether, an unreasonable one; thoughi, selected here to behold him in his lowest I think, it admits or an easy answer. It state of humiliation. Then they slept is not qnite unreasonable, because, in through awe and astonishment, Luke ix. the relation of the evangelist, the two 32; and bere, again, through “ sorrow" circumstances of our Lord's Prayer, and and concern. the somnolency of the disciples, are No commentator, whom I have been brought so near together, that they may, able to consult, appears to have been undoubtedly, on a cursory perusal, ap- struck with the difficulty that has starpear to be co-incident; but, upon a tled Inquisitor, and which, in fact, is, I more close examination, not of St. think, no difficulty when only examined Mark's account only, but of the corre- and considered in the way I have suge spondent narratives of Matthew and gested. I am, sir, Luke, it would appear more than proba

Your obedient servant, ble that they were by no means coincia . August 4, 1814.

N.

SEVENTH NUMBER.

130

Miestatement in Rees's Cyclopædia. [Sept. I, CORRECTION of A MIS-STATEMENT in has the principal hand in producing this REES'S CYCLOPÆDIA.

refined quality, so that such have a na. To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine. tive genius and soon refine in taste: but SIR,

where it is the effect of cultivation, it I AM sorry to find in Dr. Rees's re may be many years before brought to spectable Cyclopæilia, a severe and on- maturity. There certainly is a false merited reflection on a very respectable taste, which may be discovered by being body-the royal society of musicians. either affected, coarse, or incorrect, and In the biographical article concerning so may be distinguished from the true, Mr. Pinto, it is there stated that bis which is free from conceit, and in some widow, the once much famed Miss Brent, persons very accurate and delicate. It solicited charity from the musical fund, has been often observed that such as which was refused her. The fact is, that have received a classical education are Mrs. Pinto, Signora Galli, and a long the inost conspicuous for taste in literalist of other vocal and instrumental per- ture and the fine arts; and yet very few formers, not niembers of the society, great linguists are men of taste. Loihave, at various times, experienced its ginus affirms that the united approbation bounty; and chat Mrs. Pinto, in particu- of persons of nice discernment in comlar, enjoyed an annuity from the society position is the test of the true sublime, for many years, and till the time of her and this we may say is the criterion of death. The truth of this statement may taste in literature and the fine arts, be easily proved by applying to the se- Where there is original genius there cretary: The society, with a liberality must be this intellectual quality ; but it which does them honour, have for many is very encouraging to think that where years past made it a rule, after amply there is no inventive faculty, nor deep providing for their own members, to set skill in foreign languages, tliere may be apart an annual sum to be distributed taste; and the following are some of the among the most deserving professors, not best means to attain and improve it. In being members.

G.J.

the first place, read the best modern cuBaker street, Aug. 9.

thors. The style of most old English

authors is so bad, that no person of taste For the New Monthly Magazine. can attentively peruse them; nor is it ON TASTE in LITERATURE and the Fint necessary, because most of their best

sentiments will be found in the producAS so many speak of taste without tions of Addison, Blair, Johnson, Goldunderstanding its nature and properties, smith, More, Thomson, and Pope, it will be proper first to give a definition, These and many more in prose and verse after that shew how it may be improved, are standard authors in the English and then point out its principal advan: tongue, and it is by well studying them tages.. A short and yet comprehensive that a taste for the sublime and beautidefinition is very difficult, but it may be ful, both as to sentiment and language thus defined.--Taste or mental discern- may be attained. But as no one can be ment is a peculiar faculty of quickly per- supposed to read all the works of these ceiving excellencies or defects so as to adinired authors, perhaps a very julia be soon delighted with the former and cious selection of their best pieces may disgusted with the latter. If any thing be most advisable for young persons. may be called the standard of taste it is The most celebrated of these selections Dature, because no one cau be eininent

are :- Murruy's English Reader ard for it who is defective in any natural re. SeguelPinnuck's Explanatory Reader, quisite, especially as it respects poetry and the various pocket numbers of the and music. The memory and intagina- Literary Miscellany. tion lend their assistance to the various the best putterns of art. It is the office operations of this intellectual faculty; of taste in painting and prints quickly in but they would not make it correct with discern the beauties both of design and out a rectified judgment, which is of es. cxecution in the various productions of sential service in exercising taste on all Rubens, Vandyck, Kneller, Reynolds, its objects. Fashion is often agreeable Vertne, Heath, Boydell

, and wanymort: to it, but sometiines not, because fashion In like manner a musical ear will nicely is arbitrary and fluctuating, whereas truc

distinguish, and be charmed with the taste is a permanent principle. And yet fine harmonious parts of the celebrated taste is visible in dress when well adapted

pieces of landel, Haydn, Mozart, Hooke, to the persou, the circumstances, and Dibdin, and others: and as in these two the situation in life. Nature in some polite sciences there is the old and like

ARTS.

Secondly, study

1814.) Rer. Mr. Scroggs or Taste in Literature, gc.

131 Fise the new school to each, of which the worst passions, cherishes the best ; there are great masters and admirers in and the temper being thus improved, the moleru times it is the province of this mind is more disposed to friendship and discriminatire faculty to find out their virtue. One that has well digested his respective merits. Architecture ikewise knowledge of inen and books, has little affärds a wide scope for taste, either in pleasure but in the company of a few constructing or ornamenting various select companions; and bis affections buildings in each of its five different being thus confined within a narrow cir. orders. Gardening also admics of much cle, no wonder that he carries them surlaste in selecting, arranging, and culti- ther than if they were general and unvating the vast variety of such natural distinguished."-3. It affords very supeproductions as appear in the kitchen, rior intellectual delights. Such as pusfruit

, and Power gardens.--Thirdly, Keep sess this mental relish are ever lamentthe most improving company. An inti- ing that they find so few who have gefpary with sucb as are eminent for lite nuine taste; but Mr. Burke thus actary, scientific, or polire accomplish- counts for it :-" There are some formed ments, will facilitaté mental improve with feelings so blunt, with tempers so mient, and we may learn their elegant cold and phlegmatic, that they can hardly manners. On the contrary, being too be said to be awake !o any thing refined often in the company of those who are during the whole of their lives; upon vncultivated, and have no desire to ex- them the most striking objects of nature cel in literature or the fine arts, will or art make but a faint and obscure imtend to injure a fine taste, especially in pression. There are others, so continuyouth. Indeed, as the younger part of ally in the agitation of sensual pleasures, life is the prime time to form a correct the drudgery of avarice, or heated in the taste, youth should be guarded against chace of honour, that they never pursue whatever is vuigar or mean, and as inuch the calm and elegant enjoyments of the as possible accustomed to every thing mind. Besides these, there are multiwhich is delicate, refined, and elegant. tudes so immerged in business or do

As to the advaniages peculiar to those mestic cares that they have no leisure to non possess this sensibility to beauty, seek after the enjoyments of taste.” and aversion to ineleyance, they are This mental sensibility, it will be acmany, some of which are as follow: knowledged, makes us more susceptible viz. i. It produces a dislike to vulgar of painful sensations from the troubles gratifications. While many, even in of life; yet taste helps the wise and genteel life, for want of taste, are pleased prudent to avoid many of these. But with low sports and pastines, such as the intellectual enjoyments which perpossess this retined principle, employ sons of taste bave in study, in the acquitheir time and talents in a niore rational sition of knowledge, and agreeable conmanner. On this part of the subject versation, are so great and various as Lord Kames thus writes :-"It is scarcely can only be conceived by those who pospossible that persons of taste should be sess this most delightful mental principle. given up to low pursuits, or find their In short, there are no pleasures equal to leisure lours bang heavy on them; for those of a correct and vigorous taste, if they do not excel in painting, poetry, except such as are purely spiritual, and munic, or any of the liberal sciences, where real religion and taste are united, Jet they are deligbeilly employed in such persons, if they have bodily health, cultivating them, and have an aversion may enjoy the greatest carthly felicity. 10 Fulgar or unprotitable amusements. Lastly, it capacitates for much usefülThey bave so many mental enjoyments, ness. Many men of great erudition are that rbey do not seek for improper com- of little benefit to society for want of pany to pass away their ume, io youth taste; whereas, some who have it, or middle age, and when old age comes though very interior to them in learning, on, laste is a remedy against its usual are frequently very useful. This is eviinformities.”—2. It cherishes the best so- dens, because tasie qualities many, with Ciul affections. As persons of taste in only a moderate share of learning, to be general have tender feelings, and more accredited authors, to keep public semisympathy and benevoleoce than others, naries, or engage in private tuition, as so ja common they discharge domestic, well as to sinine in conversation. telause, and friendly duties, in a better I shall finish this essay with the folmanner. Here the remarks of an elea lowing general observations by a mogant writer are very appropriate :-"A dern author, which include some recultivated laste, while it keeps under marks. yot noticed in the foregoing ob

132
Memoir of Professor Griesbach.

(Sept. 1, servations on the subject. “Taste is professes to understand. It is also apo used in a figurative sense, to denote that plied to the elegancies of life, for when faculty of the wind by which we perceive ladies or gentlemen can make themselves and enjoy whatever is beautiful or sub- or what belongs to them appear in a lime in the works of nature or art. modern style to the best advantage, they Like the taste of the palate, this taculty are said to have a taste for those things relishes some things, is disgusted with in particular. The term is very free others, and to many is indifferent; and quently used respecting dress, furniture, from these obvious analogies between it entertainment, and amusemnent. It may and the external sense, it has obtained likewise be added, that it is always an its name.

When the appellation of a honorable term of distinction; for as man of taste is giv:n to any one, it is reason distinguishes the human race intimated either that he is a proficient in from brutes, so taste does one rational some of the polite sciences, or at least being from another.” that he can quickly distinguish what is Buckingham. G. G. SCRAGGS good or bad in what he has seen, and

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MEMOIRS OF EMINENT PERSONS.

B

BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR of JOIN JACOB was a diligent disciple of the elder. The

GRIESBACH, late PROFESSOR of divi Knapp, Nosselt, and above all of Semler, NITY at JENA, By FREDERIC AU- who distinguished and admitted him into GUSTUS KÖTIE, PROFESSOR at JENA. his more select circle. In October,

Jous JACOB GRIESBACH was born on 1766, he repaired to Leipzig, where he the 4th of January, 1745, at Buzbach, in chiefly improved bimself by the lectures Hesse Darnıstadt. His father, Conrad of Ernesti and Reiske, but likewise atCaspar, minister of the place, and inar- tended those of Crusius and Moras, ried, in 1713, to Julianna Dorothea Ram- Gellert, Emesti, junior, and Schokh. bach, received a call, a few weeks after He had row completed his academic de the birth of his son, to Sachsenhausen, studies, in wbich he had collected an was, two years afterwards, appointed ample and well-arranged store of knowminister of St. Peter's churcii, Frankfort; "ledge in divinity in general, and particuin 1767, became consistorial counsellor larly in criticism and ecclesiastical there, and died in 1977. Young Gries- history, to which he already resolved to bach was early distinguished by rare dedicate his labours. In October, 1767, qualifications and a thirst of knowledge. he returned to Ilalle, where he, the same Haring acquired the rudiments of learn- year, defended his Diss. de fide historica ing from the instruccion of private teach- er ipsa rerum que narrantur natura ers, he pursued his s'udies at the Gym- judicandı, which was his first literary nasium of Frankfort under the rectors performance (4to. 1767.) Oct. 22, 1768, Albrecht, (seyled by Göthe, in his Lile, after defending bis Diss. hist. theol. an original character,) and Purmann, and locos theologicos er Leone M1. Pontifice in particular became thoroughly conver- Romano sistens (Hal. 1768, 410.) he obsant in the learı ed languages. On the tained the degree of M. A. and left Halle 26t1 of April, 1762, he removed to the ou the 25th. He then spent some time university of Tübingen, where he had wiih his parents, in preparing for a course Schutt, Brur, Iloffnann, and Kies, for of travel, the object of which was most teachers in philology and philosophy, intimately connected with his studies. and Reuss, Cotta, and Sartorius, in divi- To obtain a more thorough insight into nity. These he held in high respect, and ecclesiastical history, he deemed it neces. rememlıered with pleasure, even at a late sary to observe various religious sects with period of life, the hours which he had his own eyes, that he might be able to spent especially in the society of Baur, form so inuich the more independent an and the solid instruction which he had opinion respecting thein. For his critical emoved from all. In September, 176, labours, the use of the English libraries, be leti Tübingen, and went the following and of the most celebrated and lease months to Halle, where, besides the sci- known manuscripts was of essential im ence to which his attention was princi- portance; he was desirous of personally pally devoted, he pursued his philoso- examining, comparing, and proving, th phical and philological studies under the correctness of those canons of criticisr direction of Segner, Meier, J. P. Eber. which he had established for himsel hard, and J. L. Schulze. In divinity, he He was likewise solicitous, as the be

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