Character of George II.

(Sept. I, period, he survived several of his chil- rapacious act; and secondly, that it nedren. He had the satisfaction to see in ver influenced his conduct on any im. his successor, what is very rare-the portant occasion." most affectionate obedience, the most

ROYAL AVARICE. dutitul acquiescence in bis will; and Parsimony was certainly the leading what is no less rare, contrary to the for- fault of this monarch, of which the foltune of most old kings, he never pos- lowing is a remarkable instance:sessed more perfectly the love of his On the death of his father, the Archsubjects than in the last years of his life. bishop of Canterbury delivered to him, And he died at the very point of time the late king's will in the council chainwhen the terror of his arms, the power ber : he thrust it into his bosom, walked of his kingdom, and the wisdom of his out, and secreted it ever after. It hapgovernment, were all raised to almost as pened that the Duchess of Kendal, mishigh a pitch as they could possibly ar- tress of King George the First, had a rive at; they were indeed at that height duplicate copy of the will, in which was of prosperity and glory as never had a legacy of fifty thousand pounds to her been exceeded in the reign of the most daughter, afterwards married to the fortunate of his predecessors. He was Ear of Chesterfield. This nobleman in his temper sudden and violent; but consulted Mr. Joseph Taylor, an eminent tuis, though it influenced bis behaviour, attorney, and member of the Ilouse of made no impression on his conduct, Commons, on the means of recovering which was always sufficiently delibe- this legacy. Mr. Taylor acted with so rate and attentive to his own interests much spirit, that rather than have the and those of his subjects. He was plain will brought into the ecclesiastical coort, and direct in his intentions; true to his the king thought proper to pay the leword; steady in bis favour and protec. gacy, which he otherwise intended to tion to bis servants, and never changed, have kept for ever in his own pocket, as them willingly; this appeared clearly in he had done till that time. This is an those that served more inmediately on incontestible fact. What other legacies his person, whom he scarce ever re- might have been in the will I pretend moved; but they grew old with him, or not to ascertain. It was said that there died in their places. He has been cene was a sum of money or jewels to the sured as a little too attentive to money; King of Prussia. Be that as it may, and perhaps in some minute things this there never was a greater degree of rancensure was not wholly without foune cour between two persons than the dation. But there are two considera- Kings of England and Prussia; and tions which greatly enervate this objec- neither for many years could speak of tion to his character. First, that this the other but in the most abusive terms. disposition never shewed itself in one

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bit, and applying caustic alkali to the June 30.-A paper by Sir Everard intercostal nerve, the artery began to Home, bart, was read, On the Influence beat violently, and continued to do so of the Nerves on the beating of the Ar- for some time. This fact, in the author's teries. He was led to his opinion of opinion, throws considerable light on the this influence, by the case of an officer action of the arteries in various parts of who had received a ball in the leg. The the animal economy, bitherto but imperball was lodged among the fractured fectly explained. parts of the tibia; and after its extrac Ai the same meeting, a paper by tion, an attempt was made to remove Smithson Tennant, esq., On a Method of some parts by the application of caustic economizing Fuel during Distillation, alkali; but the pain produced was so was read. Dr. Black long ago demongreat that they were obliged to desist. strated, that the quantity of heat requiThe pain was not in the part to which site to raise water from the common temthe alkali was applied, but at some dis- perature to a boiling heat, is only about tance, and seemed to result from the one sixth of what is requisite to convert violent beating of the arteries. Hence it into steam. Hence if the steam be it was ascribed to the action of the alkali made to act on cold water, it speedily on a nerve, and the consequent reaction raises it to the boiling point; but as it of this nerve upon the arteries. Upon cannot make it boil, water heated by laying bare the carotid artery of a rabe steam does not distil over in any consi

Transactions of the Royal Society.

139 derable quantity. Mr. Tennant's im- with the compound base of prussic acid, provement consists in this. The worm Thus sulphur combines with it, and of a common still is made to pass as forms what the author calls sulphureted usual through a vessel containing water. chyazic acid, which has the curious proThis vessel is made air-tight, and is perty of precipitating peroxide of iron made in the shape of a still and receiver, blood red. As soon as the cominon still is made to A paper, written by Mr. Houghson, boil, the steam is conveyed into the res on the formation of bones, was also ceiver by means of pipes, and allowed read. From his observations made on to pass till it expels the air; then the fostuses, the author concludes, that the stop cocks are shut, and the steam passes first commencement of bone is an exuthrough the worm as usual. It speedily dation on the perosteum, then the car. heats the water surrounding the worm, tilage is formed in which the bony mate which in consequence of the vacuum ter is gradually deposited. The deposidistils over in considerable quantity. tion is reticulated, owing to the nature

Part of a paper by Mr. Porrett, On of the substance in which it takes place. the Salts commonly called triple Prus- The society adjourned to Thursday sales, was also read. Mr. Porrett be- the 10th of November, gao by stating clearly and concisely the

WERNERIAN SOCIETY. striking differences between the com- On the 21st of January, Professor mon prussiates, made by uniting prussic Jameson read the first part of a mineraacid directly to the bases, and the triple logical description of the county of Fife. prussiate, made by boiling the base upon In this communication, he confined his Prussian blue. The triple prussiates observations and remarks to the country coutain in all cases the black oxide of around Burntisland. The whole of this Fon; yet its presence cannot be de- small but curious tract of country is tected by any re-agent. The reason is, composed of foetz and alluvial strata, » Mr. Porrett has ascertained, that the and affords an admirable study for the triple prussiates are not in reality triple mineralogist. Although the strata, upon salt, por do they contain any prussic the whole, are well exposed, yet their nod. They consist of an acid bitherto structure, extent, magnitude, position, Loigown, combined with the base, and and alternation, are not to be obtained tatralized by it. This acid he calls by a rapid examination or cursory view, Jertreted chyazic acid, (a name com- but will occupy even the experienced posed of the first letters of the words naturalist for weeks. The fiotiz rocks Carbon, hydrogen, and azote, with the are sand-stone, lime-stone, slate-clay, syllable ic added,) because it is com- bitumous sliale, clay-ironstone, basalt, posed of black oxide of iron, carbon, greenstone, wacke, arnygdaloid, and traphydrogen, and azote. When the triple tuff. The lower and iniddle parts of the prussiate of soda is dissolved in water, district are composed of an alternation atid the solution acted upon by the gal- of green-stone, sand-stone, lime-stone, Panic battery, the soda appears at the slate-clay, &c. : the upper part is comtugative extreinity, while the oxide of posed of trap-tuff, wacke, amygdaloid, Iron and prussic acid are evolved at the and basalt. The sand-stone rocks conpositive extremity, and, uniting, consti- tain vegetable impressions and coal; tute Prussian blue. Had not the iron and show a transition from pure quartz constituted a part of the acid, had it to sand-stone ;-a fact which, in conleen a base, it would have been evolved nexion with others stated by Mr. Jame. at the negatire extremity of the battery, son, illustrates the chemical nature of Nr. Porrett dissolved a quantity of triple sand-stone. The slate-clay presents a prussiate of barytes in water, and added curious connexion with felspar,—an apto it a quantity of sulphuric acid exactly pearance in favour of the chemical na. sutricient to separate all the baryies. ture of slate-clay, and of the connexion

be consequence was, that the sulphate of slate-clay as a member of the felspar of barytes, separating the acid of the series, In the lime-stone strata are siinple prussiate, remained in solution in tuated the well-known lime quarries of water. It had a vellow colour, and no Dalgetty. The trap rocks contaiu veins Imell. When slightly heated it was de- of trap; also of sand-stone, lime-stone, composed, the white prussiate of iron and slate-clay, and portions of slate-clay talling down, which speedily became and lime-stone resembling fragments : blue by absorbing oxygen. Other acids all of which appearances Professor Jamemay be obtained by the combination of con considers as chemical cotempoother substances besides oxide of iron raneous formations; and he concluded


Transactions of the WVernerian Society... (Sept. 1, by remarking that probably the preva-. tion of the sulphurets of lead, copper, lent theory of the mechanical formation and iron, in the following proportions : of Averz rock would be found to be less Sulphuret of lead ... 57.269 consonant to nature than the hypothesis Sulphuret of copper .. 40.850 of their chemical formation now pro Sulphuret of iron ... 2.190 posed. On the 12th of February, Dr. Mac

100.309 knight read a paper on the Cartlane This ore, supposing the iron to be acCraig: a vast chasın in sandstone rocks cidental, consists of one integrant partiabove Lanark, formed by the lower part cle of sulphuret of lead combined with or projecting shoulder of a great moun- two integrant particles of sulphurct of tain-mass, detached from the body or copper; and hence the Doctor was inupper part, and extending more than clined to consider it as a new species of three quarters of a mile in a cursed line lead-ore, of little value, however, in a from S. W. to N. E., with a depth of metallurgic point of view. several hundred feet. To ascertain how At this meeting, also, there was prethis enormous and striking fissure has sented to the society a branch of mimosa been produced is a curious geological decurrens, containing sereral bunches of problem; the more interesting, as the flowers, the first time they have been phenomena of the Cartlane Craig are produoed in this country. The plant is such as to furnish a remarkable test for in the fine conservatory at Milburn trying the merits of the two theories Tower, the seat of the Ambassador which now divide the geological world. Liston; it is fifteen feet high, and was According to the principles of the igneous thrown into a flowering state by the theory, a vein of trap, which traverses judicious management of Mr. Joseph the strata in a direction almost perpen- Smaill, the gardener, who checked its dicular to the course of the chasm near growth, by cutting some of the roots, its centre, renders it an example on a and by substituting a proportion of sand great scale of disruption and dislocation for rich earth. by explosion from below. On the other On the 5th of March was read an inhand, the Cartlane Craig evidently pose teresting paper on the middle granite sesses all the data requisite to form a district of Galloway, by Dr. Grierson. case of what is called in the aqueous It appears, from the Doctor's observatheory, subsidence; an explanation which tions, that this granite extends from eight Dr. Macknight is inclined to prefer, be- to nine miles in one direction, and from cause the trap, from the smallness of its three to four in another. It is coarse mass, seems totally inadequate, as a granular, sometimes porphyritic, but mechanical power, to the effect pro- does not appear to be stratified. It is duced ; because the direction of the rent, situate in the midst of distinctly stratiinstead of following the course of the fied rocks, which on the east side of the vein, which it must have done bad it granite mass dip easterly, on the west owed its existence to this cause, is very side westerly, or in both cases away nearly at right angles to that course; from the granite; but on the north and and because it appears on examination souch ends of the mass, the ends of the that the trap itself had been originally strata run directly towards it. The rock a part of the formation or mountain mass, which rests immediately on the granite previous to the time when the rent took is a particular variety of compact fine place. The Cartlane sandstone belongs granular gneiss, and cotemporaneous to the oldest of the floetz rocks. In the veins of the granite are to be observed under part of this formation, it alteroates shooting from the granite into this va with grey wacke, and contains lime in riety of gneiss. The gneiss seems to be calc-spar veins. Some varieties are connected with greywacke and greygood specimens of what Mr. Jameson wacke slate, which are by far the most considers as chemical depositions. The frequent of the stratified rocks in this trap consists of compact greenstone; tract of country. Limestone, hitherto basalt including olivin and augit; and a a desideratum in the transition rocks of substance intermediate between basalt Galloway, was discovered by Dr. Grier and clinkstone.

son, in greywacke, near to Dalmelling At the same meeting, the secretary ton; and it is highly probable that work read a communication from Dr. Thom- able beds of limestone will be found son, containing a description and analy- among the stratified transition rocks of sis of a specimen of lead ore from India. Galloway. The Doctor also described It appeared to be a chemical combina- several beds of felspar-porphry, which be 141


Westall's Exhibition. noticed in the greywacke of this part of servations, that there is an almost unioScotland.

terrupted transition from the gneissy At the next meeting, Professor Jame- rock into greywacke; and that when the son gave an account of overlying primi- felspar of the greywacke increases very tive formations, as the first part of a diso much in quantity, becomes compact, sertation on overlying rocks in general, dark coloured, and slaty, the greywacke From a series of observations which at length passes into clay-slate. were made in the Highlands of Scotland, At the meeting on the 16th of April, it appears that many of the primitive the secretary read a communication Oferlying sienite, granite, and porphyry from the Rev. Dr. Fleming, on the speformations of mineralogists, are not so in cies of mus found in Scotland. The orireality, but are thick conformable beds of ginal genus mus has been subdivided these rocks, which rise more or less into several genera, myorus, arvicolo, and above the surrounding strata. At the mus. The first genus includes only the same meeting Professor Jameson de- dormouse, which was observed in Scutscribed the Criffle district of granite and land by the late Dr. Walker, but is rare. sienite, situate in the county of Gallo- Of the genus arvicola, Dr. Fleming way. These rocks occupy a consider- mentioned three species, agrestis, terable tract of country, and rise to the restris, and amphibius. Of the restricted beight of 1895 feet above the level of the genus, mus, he enumerated six species, sea; they are not distinctly stratified, viz. the common mouse, the field mouse, and exhibit many interesting appear- the harvest mouse, the black rat, M. ruta ances, of apparent fragments, of cotem- tus, the brown or Norway rat, M. derita poraneous veins, and transitions into manus, and the mus niger, which Dr. porphyry. The rocks which rest imme- Fleming procured in Linlithgowshire, diately on the granite or sienite are fine and which he considers as a species granular compact gneiss, slaty sienite, hitherto nondescript. hornblende rock, and compact felspar At the same meeting, the secretary rock. These rocks alternate with each read a communication froin Mr. W. Bulother, and sometimes even with the lock, giving an account of some rare senite or granite; and cotemporaneous birds observed by hiin among the Ork. Feins of granite are to te observed shoot- ney Islands, in the summer of 1812.ing from the granite into the adjacent He found in Hoy all the four species of stratified rocks. At the Needle's Eye on eagle generally accounted British, viz. the west of Galloway, the Professor ob- the golden, the ancreous, the ring-tailed, serred very fine examples of cotempora- and the sea eagle. In North Ronaldsha neous veins and masses of granite, &c. in he observed the large snowy owl; and compact slaty felspar; and the felspar near Passa Westra the great auk. The itself points out a hitherto unsuspected first of these had not before been ascerconnexion of this mineral with certain tained to be British; the latter has kinds of clay-slate. On these rocks rest scarcely been seen on our shores for the greywacke and grcywacke slate, and Jast 50 years. Specimens of both are sometimes transition porphyry; and it now preserved in his museum. would appear, from Mr. Jameson's ob

REVIEW AND REGISTER OF THE FINE ARTS. Publishers and Artists who may be desirous of having their productions impartially noticed, are requested to address copies of them to the Editor, to the care of the Publisher, Mr. Colburn, Conduit-street,

“ L'onore conferito da Grandi à bravi artisti då vita e vigore alle Belle Arti; come il poco incoragimento, e le critiche severe, le fanno languire.”

Condivi, vita di Michel Angiolo Buonarotti.

Erhibition of a Selection of the Works so well known, that it will be needless of RICHARD WESTALL, R. A. at the New to expatiate on them; and on the proGallery in Pull Mall, ncrt door to the priety of exhibiting the works of one British Gallery, including Two Hundred artist collectively, and by themselves, and Forty Pictures and Drawings which there can be but one opinion, as they kate never before been exhibited.-Mr. forin in this way a better whole, than in Westall's reputation and style of art are the motley groupings of pictures of opNew MONTHLY MAG.-No. 8,



Groups from Mr. IV'est's last Picture. (Sept. 1, posite or different styles. The pictures drawing that was formerly exhibited in ure arranged on the walls of an elegant Mr. Westall's private gallery. 115, The well-proportioned gallery, according to Last Parting from Shaice'. Monody on the neces-ary distances and height from the Death of his life, belonging to Mr. the eye, and the drawings very properly Sharpe. If it is one of the provinces of by themselves, on divisional screens, and painting to move the passions, and exin small cabinets. Much as we have cite virtuous emutious, the punier of been accustomed to admire the facility this most affecting scene has siiccreded of composition and industry of Mr. to the utmost: the path: uc, feeling, and Westall, we must acknowledge our affectionate regard the dying "ile to astonishment at the number of bis works, her distracted husland is touchingly exwhich, after all, are but a selection, as pressed. The painter, like Timantbes, we well remember many equal to the has concealeit the face of the latter; for generality of those in the room that have what art can adequately depict the grief not found a place in then.

of such a parting, when it takes place Among the most prominent are, in the bloom of youth, from the most No. 11, d Storm in Hurvest, the pro- affecting of all canses, and when nothing perty of R. P. Kniglit, Esq. which is but the true-t love and barmony has subwell known by N!cadows's beautiful print sisted: the curtain must be dropped: it after it. No. 31, Quien Judith reciting is even tvo affecting for recollection. 40 Alfred the Great, when a Child, the We shall jecur to this collection in a Songs of the Burils, describing the Her future number. roic Decds of his ancestors, belonging Select Groups (in five plates) from [o Sir G. P. Turner, Bilt. 32, Din the Grand Historical Picture of Christ sius and Damocles, to Thos. Hope, Esg. Rejecteit, painted by BENJAMIX WEST, which is one of the most splendid, taste- Esg. Historical Painter to the king, and ful, and elegant cabinet pictures of any President of the Royal Academy. Drazon modern master, 38, Chrisi when a Child from the Original Picture, by Henry reasoning with the Ductors, belonging to CORBOLLI), Esg. and engraced by EdMr. We tall himselt. 57, Hclen on the ward SCRIVEN, Historical Engraver to Scaun Gate come to rica the Combat their Royal Highnesses the Prince Re between Paris and Jlencluus, the Earl of gent and the Princess of' ll'ales. This Oxford. This picture must be well re- work is a selection of the beauties of membered in the Royal Academy two or West, extracted from his last and by three years ago, as being one of the some esteemed) bis best historical picmost attractive historical pictures in an ture, to which we have several times exhibition more than usually fruitful in called the attention of our readers. The productions of the class. The distant accuracy of drawing, the strength of exarmy and camp are peculiarly happy. pression, and beauty of detail, particu06, Dionysiusaid Damocles, R. P. Knight, jarly in those mosi difficult and often Esq. a beautiful variation on the same slovened-over portions of the human composition as No.32. 67, Elijah rais- figure, the extremities, for which the ing the Widor's Son, which the gover- illustrious president of our Royal Acanors of the British Institution bave demy is só celebrated, are here trag. stamped with their fiat, by purchasing scribed with abundant fidelity and for their permanent gallery of master. beanty of cirect. pieces of the British school. 71, Jupiter The groupes which Mr. Scriren has disguised as a Swan, pretending to seek selected begin at the (painter's) right the protection of Leda from the attack hand side of the picture, with the centuof an Eagle, the Earl of Aberdeen. It rion and his family, which form the subis not too much to say, that this is one ject of the first plate. The second is the of the most exquisite little productions enrayed multitude, with Joseph of Arimas in the room. 85, A Herd allacked by thea and James the less. The third is Lions-one of the Compartments of the Sajut Peter, with part of the enraged Shield of Achilles, also the property of multitude; the fourth, Barabbas, and the the Eart of Oxford; who, with distin- condemned thieres; and the fifth, Mary, guished taste and knowledge of art, has the wire of Cleopbas, and the proas possessed himself of some of the finest women from Galilee. In this work il 15 pictures in the collection. 108, A Mar- dificult which most to praise, Mr. Scri riage Procession of the Greeks-one of ven, for the singular beauty and effect of the Compartments of the Shield of Achil his engraving; or Mr. Corbould, for the les, R. P. Knight, Esq.; a splendid copy truth and style of his olrawing. The po in oil, of the beautiful and higWy-finished curacy of the several subjects, and the

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