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Capt. Miunby's Survey of the Norfolk Coast. [Aug. 1, place shifts, and appears to be regulated the shooting down of the cliffs, occaby the tides, as the currents are increased sioned by the springs not being diverted, by winds or other causes; at which which certainly is practicable, and may time the bank is removed to so great a be remedied by persons who have made distance from the land, as to render it a professional study of it, as the late doubtful whether the five and a half inch Mr. Elkington; it is, I must beg to mortar already placed there, would pro- submit, a subject worthy of attention, ject a rope to a vessel driven on it. I the loss of much national territory, indetherefore suggest the propriety of a 42 pendent of the face of a high land being pounder howitzer likewise to be station- so much changed, and the light-house ed here, as no place offers more fatal standing in such awful jeopardy. An testimonies, froin ficers having been acre and a half direc:ly in its front, shot caugiit in the Would by a gale of wind down last winter, and I have no doubt Aying to the N. E. As the most prompt but will speedily increase to the lightand certain method of saving a crew, is house.-For facilitating the means of by hauling a boat, by the rope projected giving assistance, and for using from the over the vessel; and, in order to obviate life-boat at this place, a 6-pounder more a danger that occurred last winter, and tar will be necessary. was nearly fatal ro a boat's crew at this Beston and helling.-These stations place (who went to save the hands of a being at go great a distance from the vessel) from their boat being stove, I sub- shore, the signal officers will therefore mitted to the active people this ques- place the ordnance and stores sent to tion, Which would be the most de- them, the former at Sherringham, the sirable, to have a regular lite boat, or latter at Waybourne, to prevent the reyour own boats simply fitted up with currence of those dread:ul circumstances empty casks, ranged along either side of shipwreck that have so repeatedly below decks? The opinion was in- happened; the shores are steep, and stantaneous and unanimous, that boats the vessels consequently coming close, a thuis fitted up, would be superior to 6-pounder mortar will be sufficient, all the life boats ever invented, and Blakeney.--The dangers of this place, the benefit for saving lives, and going off and the innumerable circumstances to save property, would be infinite. It stated to nie of distress, proceed in a may here be necessary to remark, that I great measure from vessels being caught have made several experiinents on fit- by a hard gale at N. or N. E. Their ting up boats; but this method, from its only hope of safety is, running for the simplicity, readiness of fitting up, less harbour, which would be perfectly safe obstruction to the rowers, and being cal- at the top of high water, had they lights culaied for boats of every description, to steer for it: at the springs ihere is and consequently those in which they plenty of water, but it is at those periods have confidence, and many other ime of the day which in winter is generally portant considerations, has a very de- dark, that is six o'clock. In order to cided preference to all others, and has remedy ibis evil, and recurrence of sireceived the highest approbation of every milar fatal accidents, I suggest two large person to whom it has been exbibited; ship lanthorns should be placed in the thus I hope to establish a system of uni charge of the harbour-master, to be reversal life boats.

gulated by his observation of the shiftTrimingham. The shooting down of ings of the bar, for the guidance of ships immense inasses of cliff has greatly as- in distress; two 6-pounder mortars sisted in creating outer, sands, an evil should likewise be placed, one to give which I find increasing, which makes it assistance on the eastern point of land, necessary to have a five and a half inch where the crews of so many vessels have brass mortar with a 6-pounder mortar, perished, and the other for boats that to be promptly forwarded to Mundley, may go to the assistance of vessels that to prevent a recurrence of the fatal ac- may be driven on the bar. It may be cidents that have occurred from the mor- necessary to add the following informatar as Hasborough not arriving in time, tion given; viz. “ the bar of Blakeney, and may be used from the life boat, although buoyed out tolerably regular, when it cannot pull up to a vessel ground- is a very dangerous one for sirangers to ed on a sand, from the broken and white attempt, as it often shifts. Sometimes water that surrounds it.

there are six or seven feet over it at low Cromer.-In observing with uncom- water, and at other times not more than mon regret, the ravages made along the one or two; bowever, it may be said, coast, but particularly at this place, by that in a heavy gole of wind from the

1814.] Capt. Manby's Survey of the Lincolnshire Coast.

3 eastward, when you cannot clear the land mistaken for the Dungeon, Ilasbro', or upon either tack, it is much better to any other light, when vessels are crosstake it than to run the risk of being ing the sea, I should recommend it being driven on shore."

displayed in the form of a triangle, with Holkham.-In the vicinity of this sta- three large lanthorus, the glass of each tion is the river running to Wells. For to be one of clear glass, another of the effectual preservation of lives at the stained blue, and another of red. entrance of that harbour, and for giving This suggestion baving been commuthe promptest reliet' to vessels driven on nicated to the mayor of Boston, a meetshore on the coast near this place, a 6- ing of the merchants and ship-owners of pounder mortar for each service is ne- that port was held on the 10th Sept. cessary.

1812, to consider of the subject, and REMARK-I have found no altera- they were uuanimously of opinion that tion of currents in the survey of this “ were a foating light to be placed near county; but learn that froin 800 to the Lynn knock, it would very much 1,000 persons have been seen to perish diminish the dangers of this navigation, on the coast, that I have been assured by rendering the roausleads of Lynn would have been saved by the means Deeps a secure retreat froin north eastnow brought into use.

erly gales in dark nights, for all vessels LINCOLNSHIRE.--On commencing the navigating the North Sea, and especially survey of this county I was struck with for all vessels embayed between the the extent of its shoals, and the conse- Spurn and Cromer, and that thereby quent dangers thereby presented; and many ships, cargoes, and lives, would be the more so, when informed that nume- saved." rous unseen shoals and overfalls lie off Skegness.-In my examination of this the coast, some newly created, some part of the coast, it having been stated unnoticed in charts generally in use, to me that it had becu fatal to some and some baving greatly increased and foreign vessels, and was still dangeextended themselves since a survey was rous to ships, by their having mistaken taken.-In minute:y examining the charts the lights at the windows at the bathingof the eastern coast, but particularly off houses and hotel, for the lights placed this part of the county, and comparing as a guide to navigation; in consethem with the information received froni quence, a letter, suggesting the necessity intelligent and experienced pilots on the of blinds or shu ters, to be closed at causes of shipwreck, I was deeply im- night, was addressed by me to the offipressed that a floating light, placed off ciatiog minister of the parish. Lynn Knock, would greatly prevent Judging the harbour and river of future distressing occurrences, and be Waintleei to be too trifling to afford proextremely beneficial to the shipping in- tection to ressels, and learning it was terest of the nation, and general navi- never attempted in a gale of wind, I gation of this part of the North Sca; by have considered it needless to advise enabling vessels when caught in a north- sending a mortar bore, or to Skegness; Fast gale, and that cannot mahe thc as the adoption of a boating light on Ilumber, to run for Lynn Deeps, and Lynn knock, is ample security for the anchos in safety, in from six to (wenty preservation of lives and property to fathom, with good holding ground, or this part of the coast. securely ride under the lee of the Sutton.--In the vicinity of this place, Knock Sand, which is extending N.N.E. I was informed, that troin the extreme and S. S. W., being one mile and a fatness of the shore, it rarely occurhalf in length, and one a half in red when vessels were driven on it, breadth, in from five to ten fathoms that it was attended with the loss of water. It appeared likewise, that it lives; for if the vessel had strength to would be a great preservation to vessels bear the first shock of striking, the tide coming down during the night, wlio dare retiring so very fast would soon leave not take the Deeps or Well in safety, her dry, and the people be enabled to from the causes above-mentioned, and walk from on board; but the property at present are obliged to anchor unul or cargoes were often greatly injured. day-light, tu make out the buoys: the This, however, they assured, according necessity of this has been attended with to suggestion, that if a floating light was the loss of innumerable cables and an- placed off Lynn Knock, ships, when chors, as well as sometimes the loss of meeting with contrary winds, might in the vessels and ebeir crews.

the night put into the Deeps, which In order to prevent this light being they nuw cannot approach with safety,

Capt. Manby's Survey of the Lincolnshire Coast.

(Aug. 1,

and are consequently obliged to keep the pose of going out by Hawke Roads to sea. Near this place, off Thelthorpe, is the assistance of vessels that may be a new shoal or knowl, on which several driven on the Binx, or New Sand, which vessels had grounded, having only six is outward of Spurn Point. I propose feet water on it at low spring tides. It that a 6-pounder mortar should be sent is stretching to the S. E., and is about a for the use of that boat, to aid and quarter of a mile broad; a sail's breadth secure the purposes of her intention. open to the eastward of Half Course, or On finding, as I proceeded along, that Trusthorpe Church, will clear it. llave the coast was totally uninhabited by ing received farther particulars respect- fisherinen aud seataring people, and no ing the shoals of this place, I shall ex- boats whatever kept; and ihat vessels tract observations communicated to me generally wrecked here were upon the by the very intelligent collector of the above-named sauds, which are at a disa custoins at Grimsby. “There are two tance froin the land, and in some inshoals, called Theddlethorpe Knowls: stances the crews had been saved by they run parallel with each other; the pilot vessels, sent out of the port of Hull outward one lying at the distance from by the Trinity-house at that place, to the shore about seven miles, and not laid meet vessels, and navigate them into the down in any chart that I have seen; the Huniber, &c.; I was induced to address inward one lying about four miles from a letter to the elder brethren of that inthe shore, and about a quarter of a mile stitution, accompanied with a book of in levyth: the inward knowl has little instructions and sheets of description, more than one fathom water at low for the various methods of saving shipwater." As the people at this place are wrecked persons. In that appe. I active, and ready with their boats to pointed out the infinite advantage that give assistance, a six-pounder mortar would be derived, by the pilot vessels should be sent for such services. The under their controul carrying a small system of filling up boats by casks was mortar and apparatus, to effect commuhere most highly approved.

nication with vessels when driven QA Saltfieet.-llere is a very dangerous shoals at a distance from the land, or sand, on which vessels often get, called when in distress at sea, when it is both The Rose. It lies about a mile to difficult and dangerous to approach them. the northward of this place; a deep I likewise suggested the advantages of channel or swatchway runs between it the bont of each vessel, when on such and the main, that enables boats to go duty, being fitted up in the manner prooff, but the difficulties of approaching posed by me in the directions, to render then requires other aid; it will there- them efficient life-boats; stating, that if fore be necessary to send a 6-pounder this was carried into effect, the greatest mortar and a 4-pounder, for the relief possible benefit and security would be of vessels when run upon the south end derived to a considerable range of this of the Hale: this latter sand has most part of the coast, superior to any other considerably extended itself to the south- system of protection that could be reward, beyond the representation of any commended. The Trinity-house have chart I have seen, and consequently in- signified their approbation and thanks to creasing its dangers.

me for my suggestions, and “ expressed Cleyness.--As there are not any boats their readiness to promote it as far as near this place, and if one had been here they can recommend and assist." during a gale of wind last winter, threc B ridlington.-Nothing could possibly persone would have been saved, I re- be so conveniently situated for vessels commend a man-of-war's jolly-boat to coasting from the northward, or when be fitted up with casks, according to the employed between Flamborough Head methods I have suggested, and to be and the Spurn Point, as the harbour sent here with a 6-pounder mortar to of Bridlington to take refuge in, and apply from the same. I do not deem it lie sheltered from north-easterly and necessary to recommend any stores be- soutb-easterly gales. In its present ing sent to the remaining part of the state, I regret to observe, it will not Lincolnshire coast, from its more insu- afford such protection: this I feel a duty lar situation.

to point out and declare, that on this YORKSHIRE.-Along the borders of very perilous coast nothiog would so that admirable bay of the Humber, I much conduce to the preservation of found nothing to notice until I reached lives and property, as by that improvethe Spurn, where a life-boat is placed by ment, to render this barbour an asylum the gentlemen of the county, for the pur- for distressed vessels; a work which most

1914.]

Capt. Manby's Survey of the Yorkshire Coust.

assuredly is practicable, to make it both several fishermen, who were pointed out perfectly secure and commodious.

to me, for their activity in cases of disTo the northern and eastern trade, tress; these being instructed, and printed the most incalculable benefits would be directions left with them, will greatly derived, as vessels are now frequently tend to save the lives of future shipcompelled to anchor in this bay (for the wrecked persons, at a spot where such shelter of the Head and Smithwick Sand) nuinbers are recorded to have perished. in the hope of the weather moderating; From the point of this awful, but truly bat on the gale continuing, they are grand bay, the cliffs rise in every diversiobliged to relinquish their situation by ty of form, and are composed of rugged cutting, (which is generally attended mouldering white stone. from their with the loss of anchors) and not daring looseness much care is required in give to attempt the harbour from the difficul. ing assistance to the shipwrecked, other. ty of its entrance, &c. consequently enwise, in the attempt to save, the loose deavour to proceed to sea, where being stones might fall and destroy the object on a lee suore, they are often wrecked, of our intended preservation; but on with the total loss of their crews.

minute observation, I was happy to disFlamborough,-The number of vessels cover several favourable spots presented lost here, with the perishing of all the themselves, as projecting ledges of firm Crews, previous to the erection of the rock, and little sandy bays. light-house on the Head, exceeds all pos. The high promontory at the southern sible conception : since that period it point of Filey Bay, is Speaton Cliff, stuhas greatly decreased. I was, however, pendous and terrific beyond all possible furnished with still more melancholy conception, exciting every excessive hordetails, proceeding from vessels being ror that can affect the inind: it rises perdriven in by storm, or drawn impercep- pendicular upwards of 400 feet, and has tibly by the influence of suction, which deep water at its foot. At this fatal is extreme in this bay, rendering it al- place an infinite number have perished, Dlost impossible to work out, and from and when here driven, their fate has hithe lights being obscured by fogs and therto been considered inevitable, as the snow storms: on which occasions it was efforts of the inhabitants of the surroundstated to me, as not to be discernible at ing country have been in vain to rescue. 100 yards;-they are consequently, by When vessels are close under the cliff, the indraft of the bay, set upon the ropes have been repeatedly lowered to Mcks, which has proved so fatal. To their assistance; but from the severity prevent similar distresses, it will be ne- of the weather at such times, and the excessary to apprize the unwary navigator treme height of the rock, it has been of his danger, by a bell or gun. In con- found impossible for them to ascend by sequence of making known this sugges- a common rope. I here exhibited and tion, it was pointed out to me, that a submitted my rope-ladder, that is capaplan or working model for a bell to act ble of being projected from a piece of by water, had been made for such pur- ordnance, requiring of the people their pose. I have been to exainine it, which opinion, if such would be useful for was done with ininute observation. It that place, and similar situations? It is the intention of Mr. Milne, the col- gives me infinite gratification to say, lector of the customs, at Bridlington; it was not only approved, but I was asand I can only observe, that a more in- sured it would have saved hundreds at genious contrivance, or one better cal. that spot, for the means it affords of supculated to answer this very important porting both hands and feet, by the purpose, cannot be produced ; and it loops in which they could eccasionally does the highest credit to his mechanical rest, when much exhausted or benuinbgenius.

ed. From the promontory just inentiFlamborough Head to Sunderland. Oued, a bay of sand (on the teach of To give security to the Bay of Flarnbo- which several vessels have been driven) rough lead, it will be necessary to send sweeps round to an extraordinary ridge n six-pounder mortar for the use of the of flat rocks, called Filey Bridge, prvo Bridlington Life Boat, and a brass royal truding themselves upwards of a quarter mortar for the preservation of the crews of a mile into the sea, and covered at of vessels when stranded on the beach; high water. This has been the cause of similar pieces of ordnance should be sent such numerous losses of lives and vege to the Signal Station at Flamborough; sels. To prevent a recurrence, it will hkewise a rope-ladder. I was much be necessary to send a royal mortar and gratified to find there were near the Head a six-pounder, for the advantage of Capi. Manby's Survey of the Yorkshire Coast. [Aug. 1, speedy assistance in certain cases. The prevent a recurrence of distresses, arissame number of, and description of ord. ing from vessels striking on the rocks in nance, should be sent to Scarborough; front of its barbour, a six-pounder morthe former for the preservation of the tar will be required to be applied from a crews of vessels that strike on the back boat, and which from its portability can: of the pier, in attempting to run for the be used with great success. When a harbour; for when this occurs, they are vessel is driven under Sortick Nab and consequintly driven on the beach, where Cliff, a rope-ladder will likewise be of lives have been lost: and for the use of infinite use here, for lowering to persons the Life Boat the latter is recommended. driven under the Nab Cliff. . During my experiments at this place, To give protection to Sandend Bay and instructing the beach-men in the and Shore, a 5* inch mortar will be revarious methods of sating shipwrecked quisite; and similar pieces for Runswick persons, in the presence of many distin- and Staith's Bays. For the sake of buguished, experienced, and scientific per- manity, I had to regret, at Whitby, that sons, I tried a method of conveying di- the life-boat was in total disuse, from a rections to persons on board of stranded general prejudice against it, although vessels, in the following way :--by a certainly this place offers advantages peTriangular Flag of three distinguishable culiar to a boat of this description, by colours, which, by changing its position having a harbour to go from: but they on the staff, would produce six distinct assured me, her size and weight prevented signals. Such a flag I proposed should a possibility of her being forced against accompany each mortar intended for the a violent wind, and over a high raying shore. This exhibited, would at once sea. To impel such a boat by the power indicate to the people on board a dis- of oars from a flat shore, in such weather tressed vessel, that assistance was at as described, when the surfs are broken, hand; this would animate the crew, and or white water, I admitted to be imposencourage them to exert themselves for sible; but urged the advantage here of their own preservation, and that of the going out with the ebb-tide. Finding ship and cargo. On the person in the prejudice so rooted, and that nothing whose charge the flag is left seeing that would induce them to use her again, I a vessel is in great distress, and must submitted the plan of a boat constructed inevitably come for the shore, he will by me in 1808, for the use of the pubwave the flag (to the right or left) to di- lic, and sent to the Island of Anholt, for rect the people on board which way to their benefit. steer the vessel for some favourable part C onceiving that good may arise from of the shore, and by fixing the flag in the a knowledge of its construction and ground, will point out the safest spot for properties, I consider it a duty, for genethe preservation of the crew, and least ral information, to state it thus in my injury to the ship and cargo.

report. It was fitted up with boxes of On leaving Scarborough, not a mile air ; but the method by casks is infidid I travel on this very destructive nitely to be preferred, and particularly coast, but some melancholy tale of dis- when secured to the, lower part of the tress was related to me. At Robin boat: for siouid the bottom of the boat Hood's Bay, one that excited uncommon be stove in, her buoyancy is still preinterest was here detailed, that occurred served, and safety for her crew provided. a few years since: it was a vessel strand. This boat above mentioned i bad the ed in this bay, and all hands perishing, honour of exhibiting before a cominittee amounting to sixteen: the vessel was of naval officers (Admiral Lord Gardner, navigated by a person resident near this president) appointed by the Lords Comspot, and the crew consisted of inhabit- missioners of the Admiralty, whose reants of the village close in its vicinity: port justified the sanguine hope I had they perished within 100 yards of the formed of producing a small portable shore, in the presence of parents, friends boat combining in its construction every and relatives; and I was assured, every principle for security and service, and soul would have been saved, if the me- particularly adapted for the employ, to thod had been known of projecting a bring in safety to the shore, the crew of rope. To prevent future calamities, a a stranded vessel, after communication 54 inch mortar will be necessary. has been effected by a rope; and I flat

Whitby presents every feature of hor- ter myself this plan will, at some future ror to a navigator's mind, from the bro- period, have a distinguished rank in the ken water indicating sunken rocks, rug- various constructions produced for the ged cliffs, and extreme flat shores. To preservation of shipwrecked seamen.

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