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1814.) On the Conversion of the Natives of India. ing an intended mission. After he had Auently in the short space of six months, aaswered all their questions, they rose but that the greatest linguist of his age, to take leave, when he requested that Sir William Jones, after a residence of they would answer one or two questions many years, had not acquired such from him :-“ Are the intended mission- knowledge! He has been intimate with aries young men ?” “Yes.” “ Are they the better class of natives; therefire he married?" "No." Then, gentlemen, knows that Mussulmans are not Theists you run a great risk of their conduct be- though they believe in the unity of God; lieing their doctrine; for the South Sea nor Fatalists, though they are firm beladies are very enticiny !” “Oh, sir, lievers in absolute predestination; and there can be no danger; for these are all that charity, in the christian extent of pious Chriscans !" " Then, gentlemen," the word, is equally the doctrine and replied the judicious tar, “ I have only practice of Hindoos and Mussulinans;" one word to say, they must be more or for, “ by the former, hospitals are supless than men! Good morning !” ported for animals of all sorts labouring

At a future day, Mr. Editor, I may, under sickness, and the infirmities of perhaps, enter more fully into the sub- age.” Such is the true extent of chrisject. At present I remain yours, tian charity! I have been accustomed

CHRISTIANUS, to think this a country eminent for London, Aug. 12, 1814,

christian charity; but, alas! we have

been all deceived, for we have no hospiREMARKS ON A PAPER entitledREFLEC

tals for either cats or dogs, horses or TIONS on the CONVERSION of the Na- asses, fish or fowl. Had we had such TIVES of India to CHRISTIANITY." am hospital, the poor goose, which lately To the Editor of the New Monthly Magazine died, in the neighbourhood of Kendal, SIR,

prematurely, at the advanced age of 83, IN your number for the present month, might, possibly, have survived a few (August,) you have inserted a paper with years longer. Our hospitals, which we the abovementioned title, by J. R. Who thought proper expressions of Christian J. R. is I know not. This, however, is charity, are only for the human animal. of no consequence, for neither facts nor For this animal we have many; but, for arguments are either better or worse for any information communicated by J.R.; the person who states them. Thus the Hindoos have none. much I know, on his own testimony, Nevertheless, J. R.“ esteems himself that he has passed twenty years in the competent to offer an opinion" on the Company's service at Bengal; that he conversion of the natives of India. He kad much and intimate intercourse with seems to think it practicable; but speaks the better class of natives; that he has with so much coldness and caution on practised a popular profession; that he the subject, that we cannot absolutely steems himself competent to offer an opic infer that he really thinks it so. “I nion on the subject on which he writes ; think some good may be done." Some and that he and every other person persed good! What is this some, this little, in East India matters deprecate the in- this inconsiderable good? Tlie converterference of ignorant missionaries with sion of some of the natives of India.

lae religious tenets, laws, or customs of Some persons are so fanatical as to be· citer Hindoos or Mussulmans. Froin lieve that a single soul outweighs a

which the inference is obvious, that world in value, and that the conversion J.R.'s ipse dirit on this subject is oracu- of a sinner is a good which exceeds all lar, and that none but ignorant mis- human calculation. But then, by colle sionaries, bigots, and fanatics, will con- version, they do not mean a mere change trovert it. And yet, sir, in the very face of name; the substitution of Christian of this most obvious inference, I feel for Hindoo or Mohammedan, accompakepticism, like a spectre, haunting me, nied by a renunciation of the distinctive and whispering, Perhaps his knowledge is peculiarities of the two latter, and an not so profound as he pretends, for some adoption of the institutious of the formen of popular profession are a little mer; but a being “ turned from darke warped by prejudice; therefore, cau. ness to light, and the power of Satan to tiously erumine evidence. yeramine evidence.

God;" or as St. Paul elsewhere expresses J. R. has been twenty years in Ben- it, “ Being renewed in the spirit of their gal. What then? Therefore he knows mind, and putting on the new man, that an ordinary « writer or cadet" can which aster God is created in righteous

qure so perfect a knowledge of the ness and true holiness" Ladestany as to be able to speak is “Some good may be done." J. R. seems

204 Remarks on the proposed Means of Conversion. (Oct. 1, to think it within the limits of pos• people? That such an establishment, if sibility. It may be done, though the proper persons be appointed, will be probability is much against it; for wbyuseful, I most sincerely hope ; but may should they becoine Christians, seeing not other ministers, who have no more they are already so virtuous, and espe connexion with it than St. Paul had be cially considering that the chief of the equally so? Instead of confining usefulcardiual virtues is practised by them to ness to the “ church of England," would an extent to which we have never carried it not be much more commendable to it, even to the establishment of “ hospi- imbibe tbe liberal spirit of the amiable tals for animals.” Who does not see bishop of Llandaff, who, in bis letter that they would change for the worse? to Dr. Buchanan, even the fanarical At least, such appears to be the opinion Buchanan, has said, “ I shall be most of some writers; and such, no doubt, ready to exert inyself in forwarding a lie would be the opinion of animals. beral ecclesiastical establishment in Bri

“ Some good may be done, and re- tish India; because I heartily wish that spectable concerts made." By respectable every christian should be at liberty to converts we are, doubtless, to under. worship God according to his conscience, stand persons of opulence, learning, and and be assisted therein by a teacher, at influence. The conversion of these is the public expense, of bis own persuacertainly much to be desired, for no one sion." This would at least have less will doubt but the soul of a Brahmin is the appearance of bigotry. as valuable as one of the most degraded The second way to convert Indians is, casts. But those who understand cbrise according to J. R., to sbew them ibat tianity, and are well acquainted with the christianity and hindooism are radically history of the church, will not expect the same, and that their Buddha and our many respectable converts in the begin- Jesus Christ are the same person under ning. From the least to the greatest, different names; and that, in fact, their and not from the greatest to the least, whole system is little more than a diffehas been the general process of conver rent modification of christianity. True, sion. We shall not, therefore, think they are idolaters, but this is of no great contemptibly of the success of missiona- consequence, for they are very sincere in ries in the East, should the mass of their their worship, and every body knows converts be from among the lowest of the tbat, in the modern creed of liberal people, and should respectable converts minded men, “ Jehovah, Juve, and be as scarce as comets in our system. Lord,” are identically the same being,

But bow is their conversion to be ef- and, consequently, that tbe worship fected ? J. R. seems to think this must which is offered to Jove, or Jaggernaut, be done, not, as the apostles used to do, is equally acceptable with that which is by “ warning every man and teaching paid to Jehovah. What J. R. means by every man in all wisdom,” lor persuasion the true doctrine of the Trinity, Incarmust not even be attempted ; much less nation, and Atonement, being " typified must they say, in the language of the in the life and death of our Blessed Saapostolical commission, “ He that be- viour," I do not pretend to understand, lieveth not shall be damned. No, nope unless it be tbatine union of the divine but“ ignorant inissionaries," “ Dr. Bu- and human natures in Christ was a type cbanan and his fanatical coadjutors," of the Incarnation, and that his death would ever dream of converting them in was a type of the Atonement; that is, this way. The only way to convert In- they were typical of themselves! dians is, first, “ By ibc pious and moral I begin to suspect, Sir, that even a examples of a regular church of England twenty years' residence in India, an inestablishment." Yes, the sight of an timate intercourse with the better class archbishop, bishops, deans, archdeacons, of natives, and the practice of a popular rectors, curates, &c. in their various re- profession, do not in all cases quality a ligious habiliments, performing their de. man to write well on the introduction of votions in cathedrals and churches, is to Christianity into a bealheu land--a land carry all before it “ A regular church of darkness--the region of the shadow of England establishment" is the only of death. For, after all that J. R. would instrument! Who does not see thai, insinuate to the contrary, such is the prior to the time of Edward the Sixth, present religious and moral state of their conversion was impossible; and India, that the labours of the apostles, not be. He, indeed, pours contempt on the ing menibers of the“ church of England,” statements of Dr. Buchanan, and one would have been thrown away upon this whom he politely calls George Burdeta

1814.)

Burning of Widows in India.

205

who is, no doubt,'to be considered as Brahmins pusb them into the fire with one of the doctor's “ fanatical coadju- their long poles. So much for the voluntors." But will he undertake to disprove: tary part of the case. those statements? Is it not true that But it seems the thing is rare, as well therc has been in India a modern Mo- as voluntary. One would naturally s!ip-* Inch, called Jaggernaut, whose rites were pose from this assertion, as coupled with big with cruelty and obscenity? Is it what precedes it, viz. “ that fewer innot true that infanticide is extensively stances of such victims now occur practised? Is it not true that thousands throughout all India, than many of ourare devoted to the Ganges? Is it not selves can recollect of wives in England true that inultitudes of' widows are burnt being burnt at the stake for the murder on the funeral piles of their husbands? of their husbands, and for coining," that No! says J. R. this is not true. « The it is rare indeed! And yet from certain practice," he says, “ I insist is both co- statements, the truth of which some men buntary and rare." He does not indeed, of “ a popular profession," have affectedthough he resided twenty years in Ben- to question, but which none of them gal, give us any statement from which have yet proved in one instance to be we might forın our own judgment. For incorrect, it appears that the number is this omission he of course best knows awfully great. During six months, in the the reason. Perhaps he thought that I year 1803, the number of women sacrilove been twenty years in India, and ficed within 30 miles rouod Calcutta was kate practised a popular profession, 275.* From an inquiry which was set would be equal to a thousand statements. on foot by Dr. Carey, it was estimated

How voluntury the practice is, the that in all the Bengal provinces no fewer following facts will abundantly illustrate than 10,000 persons were thus in 1803 “The person who witnessed the first consigned to death. Such is the evidence was told that it was the widow's free and that the burning of widows is rare! voluntary act to be placed on the fune. But this is not all; for the burning of ral pile of ber husband. Upon wbich widows, in the judgment of J. R. is a be asked, Why then have you fastened comparatively good thing. It is better her down to the pile? It was very inge- than burning women in this country for neously answered, that if she was not the murder of their husbands! So that fastened down, she would run away."* England is at length proved to be worse Another “ poor wretch, who was des. than India, and Christianity worse than tined to be burnt on the funeral pile with Hindooisin! But how can he prove it the dead body of her husbaud, took oc- better? Nothing is more easy; for here casion to disengage herself from the they are burnt for murder, whilst there corpse, and flee to a neighbouring they are burnt for widowhood; and who chicket; but it being discovered that does not know that of the two sins withere was but one body on the pile, she dowhood is by far the greatest? Were it was sought after, and brought back to the even adınitted, though the above facts renbarbarous sacrifice from which her ago- der it impossible to admit, that they are Dies had driven her; and, dreadful to not compelled to be burnt, but that they teate, her own son was foremost to force burn voluntarily, then the comparison her back to this horrible immolation. would lie between self-murder and the She entreated to be excused; but so infliction of a legal punishment. Acstrong was the influence of cast, that the cording to J. R. the latter is a much very son forced back his mother to the greater evil than the former. Such is pile from which she had escaped, ex- the conclusion to which a twenty years' cairning that he or she shonld die; and residence in Bengal has conducted hiin! aded by the ministers of this pure and I am not surprised at the contemptuholy religion, he bound his own inother ous manner in which J. R. speaks of

kand and foot, aud threw her on the pile, “ Dr. Buchanan and his fanatical coadin which she was burnt to death.”+ Such jutors;" nor at the vile slanders which

19 the spontaneity with which widows he propagates of the late zealous and buro in India! Indeed, so far from its venerable Vanderkemp. Nothing less lting a voluntary act, as J. R. asserts, could be expected from an apologist of the poor wretches are driven to it, by Hindoo superstition. Many a little aniknowing that they must otherwise pass a mal has bayed at the moon, yet the nuson dle of the greatest misery and of the shines, and will continue to shine, atter Geepest degradation. Frequently the these are all dead. The names of Bu• Sce Wilbertoree's Speech.

chanan and Vanderkemp will be remem+ See Ms, Wm. Smith's Speech,

Buchanan's Researches, page 38.

206

Defence of Dr. Vanderkėmp.

[Oct. 1,

bered and revered by posterity, when ever any traveller published. How J. R. their insignificant persecutors and slan- can have the credulity to credit them derers shall be forgotten.

for a moment, or how he could have the Most sincerely wishing great success address (to use a mild terın) to impose to the “ Church of England Establish- them upon the Euglish public, excites ment in India," to Dr. Carey and the one's astonishment. However, as the Baptist Missionaries, and to every other poet says, Christian missionary who is or may be is Now Truth perform thine officc; waft employed in the important and glorious aside work of enlightening the superstitious The curtain drawn by prejudice and pride; and depraved inhabitants of the East, I Reveal the man is dead) to wond'ring eyes remain, Sir, with good wishes for the This more than monster in his proper guisc.". success of every good work,

After Dr. V. had been patronized by Your constant reader, three or four successive governors at the Hunter-street, Liverpool,

J.S. Cape, be at length closed his valuable Aug. 11, 1314.

life in peace at the house of a Christian

friend there, and not with “ an HottenPEPENCE OF DR. VANDERKEMP and the tot Venus!" And now, let your readers AFRICAN MISSIONS.

notice what a Christian society at the To the Editor of the New Alonthly Magazine. Cape say of this extraordinary man :SIR,

“ This loss was severely felt; the instituHASTILY to condemn the conduct or tion at once lost its founder and its pacensure the motives of any one, however tron, and the missionaries a father, a he may appear to be under the doininion brother, a counsellor, and an admirable of prejudice, is a breach of good man- example. The humility of Moses, the ners and of Christian! charity, of which zeal and fortitude of Elias, the piety of I would not knowingly be guilty. But David, and many of the characteristics truly your correspondent, J. R., in your of Paul, shone in him; the reinern brance last number, (for August,) has given your of which often animates our souls, and readers such an account of converting calls forth a holy reverence aud esteem the natives of India, of the Great Paci- for our departed friend. His extensive fic, and of Africa, has dealt his censures knowledge, penetrating views, pleasant 60 generally has calumniated with so and numerous anecdotes, still continue much ignorance and temerity that I to enliven our conrersation, and bring really know not how to characterize his to remembrance his delightful company. performapce. Leaving Dr. Buchanan He was followed to the grave by some of and the Indian missionaries, (wbose vera the first persons at the Cape, the fiscal, city, by the bye, has never been invali- several members of the court of justice, dated before, not even in the House of the ministers of the Reformed and LuCommons, where their respective merits theran church, some military officers, have been severely scrutinized,) I shall vast numbers of the Cape inhabitants; direct the attention of your readers to yea, great part of the Cape made their the two points alluded to at the head of appearance on the occasion." And an this article.

other memorialist adds, “ Few such chaAs to Dr. Vanderkemp, J. R. seems racters as a Vanderkemp adorn the pages ignorant of several interesting particu- of ecclesiastical history. Few men of lars of his life. He was not ordained such talents, learning, and prospects, at Oxford,” but at London. He went to have volunteered their services to the the Cape of Good Hope, not in 1797, heathen; and Christians yet unborn will but in the spring of 1799. But these be excited by his example, and encouerrors are trivial, compared with the raged by his success, to imitate bis et. gross attack, which, with the help of ample." Lichtenstein, J. R. makes on the moral Instead, therefore, of aspersing the character of this most eminent mission character of so great and good a man, ary. To suppose that he went to corro. would advise J. R. to adopt the senti borate his doctrines by miracles--to say ment of the late Bishop Hurd, who, after that be took no trouble to make the Hot- describing such a inissionary as Dr. Vantentots industrious-to assert that he derkernp was, observes, “I confess, when was as filthy in his person and as gross I reflect on all these things, I bumble in his appetites as they--and to insinuate myself before such heroic virtue; or 12 that he fell a victim to concubinage ;- ther, I adore the grace of God in Christ these are some of the most impudent Jesus, which is able to produce such as suppositions and glaring falschoods that amples of it in our degenerate world."

1814.] Success of the Mission among the Hottentots. 207

Respecting the African mission, of have some, which makes the whole which Lichtenstein and J. R. speak so amount to upward of one thousand seven contemptuously, the following extracts, hundred, including calves, there are also from well authenticated documents, will about 800 sheep and goats, some horses, sbew how far their opinions are entitled pigs are plentiful, and poultry very nuo to crerlit. “ The settlement at Bethels- merous. Besides wheat, our ground dorp, in the year 1808, contained 60 or produces Indian corn, pumpkins, pease, 70 houses, each having on an average and beans very plentifully. On the about 10 inhabitants, whose industry ap- average our numbers are about 800, peared to be increasing. Dr. Vander- who have about 130 cottages, which kemp had the pleasure of beholding the they inhabit. Respecting the progress increasing fruits of his labour. The of Christianity we have every reason for scbools flourished : the ground was more thankfulness; our church is crowded, productive in consequence of copious especially on the Sunday; about 200 are rains; so that the number of settlers baptized, of which number 80 are adults; much increased, and the corn raised on school is held twice a day for the chiltheir land was more than sufficient for dren, and those more aged persons who their support. The fields (once a bar wish to attend; a vast number have ren wilderness) were covered with cattle, learned to read and write, and some amounting to 1200 head, exclusive of have made proficiency in arithmetic." sheep and goats. In short, a rapid ad In addition to this testimony, Mr. Edirance towards civilization was produced tor, allow me to add that of anotber trą. in the space of six or seven years. In veller in Africa, whose person and esthe year 1810, the number of persons be cellent character are too well known to longing to the settlement amounted need any encomium of inine. If Lichnearly to one thousand Industry con- tenstein could read it, what would he tinually increased. Mats, and baskets think and say? I hope, however, J. R. were made in considerable quantities, will read it, and with that sort of sensaand sold in the country round. The tion and that degree of crimson, which a manufacture of salt was encouraged, man feels who is suddenly surprised, and which was bartered in the neighbour- whose conscience immediately whispers hood for wheat, and other useful articles, “I am detected, and am completely era Soap-boiling, sawing, and wood-cutting posed !" This traveller, who visited for wagyons, became also a source of Bethelsdorp in March, 1813, affirms. support.'

" that he witnessed a greater degree of In a letter, dated Jan. 23, 1812, ad civilization than he was led to expect, dressed to his excellency Sir John He found natives exercising the business Cradock, by Mr. Read, who succeeds of smiths, carpenters, sawyers, basket, Dr. Vanderkemp, is the following state- makers, turners, &c. He saw cultivated ment:-“ It is our maxim from the be- fields extending two miles in length, on ginning to teach the Hottentots the ne- both sides of a river; their catile had cessity of industry, by permitting them increased from 218 to 2,206, from 300 (as they are naturally idle) to suffer to 400 calves were produced in a year, want, and to give them nothing but what The blessed effects of religion were disthey earned, the afflicted and aged ex- played in benevolent institutions formed cepted;) which has gradually produced among them: they had a fund for the the desired effect. We have the hap- support of the poor and sick, whicla piness to see the Hottentots, under our amounted to 256 rixdollars; and they direction, become more industrious; proposed a house for the reception of inany begin to cut and saw wood; some part of the poor. They had also a com. are employed in burning lime, cutting non fund for the purpose of improving bark, soap-boiling, bartering salt among the settlement, amounting to 136 rixo the farmers, burning of charcoal, turn- dollars, and about 30 head of cattle ; ing, smith's work, and repairing waggous; and they have contributed 76 rixdollars and the women in making mats and in aid of the Missionary Society." Such coffee baskets, &c. &c. while others are are the abundant fruits of the seed sown constantly from home in the service of among them by Dr. Vanderkemp, Mr. the farmers; about twenty have pro- Head, and other faithful missionaries. vided themselves with waggons and oxen, Such are the powerful effects of divine by which they are able to transport the truths among the most degraded of our above-mentioned articles for sale to dif- species, in their civilization as well as ferent places. Though none of our peo- the more important concerns of religion. ple are rich in cattle, yet few but what A Christian church, cultivated fields and

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