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253

1814.) Report on Petitions relating to the Corn Laws.

und. The present expense of cultivation of land still lying waste and unproducincluding the rent.

tive, but also to counteract the spirit of ard. The price necessary to remunerate improveinent in other quarters, and to the grower,

check its progress upon lands already On the first point, it appears to your under tillage. Committee to be established by all the 2. With respect to the second point, evidence, that, within the last twenty " the expense of cultivation, including years, a very rapid and extensive pro- the rent," it is stated by all the evigress has been inade in the agriculture of dence, that within the same period of the united kingdom :--that great addi- twenty years, the money rent of land Lonal capitals have been skilfully and taken upon an average, has been dousuccessfully applied, not only to the im- bled; but if the value of the rent be proved manageinent of lands alrcady measured by the proportion which it in tillage, but also the converting of large bears to the gross produce of the land, it tracts of inferior pasture into productive appears to have very considerably diiniarable, and the reclaiming and inclosiny nished within the period in question: of lens, commons, and wastes, which the landlords' share of the whole produce bave been brought into a state of regu.ar of estates occupied by tenants, having cultivation that inany extensive enter- been twenty years ago about one-third, prises, directed to the same inportant and being now calculated at no more ubjects, are some of them still in their than from one fourth to one-fifth. With mtancy :-chat others, though in a more respect to the amount of capital requiforward state, do not yet make any return site for the stocking of a farm, and the for the large advances which have been general expenses of management and lid out upou them; and that these an- cultivation, there appears to be very sances, in many instances, will be a total little difference in the evidence. They loss to the parties involving also the loss are stated to be at least double what Lg the nation of the produce which, in a they were twenty years ago. Lev years might be expected from such Without pretending to offer to the expensive undertabings) if, from the House any statement by which they want of a suthicient encouragement to might be enabled to form an opinion, continue them, they should be aban. how much of this increase of charge has doned in their present unfinished state. been produced by increased taxation;

It is to the stimulus of this encourage- your committee bave thought it not asent, during the last twenty years, more unconnected with this part of their un to any other cause, that all the inquiry, to call for an account of the witnesses ascribe the great increase total amount of taxes received into the aluch bas taken place in the annual Exchequer, in the several vears ended prociuce of our soil, and the late rapid the 5th of April 1701, 1804, and 1814. extension of the improved system of 3. On the third point, “the price our husbandry; a system which it is necessary to remunerate the grower of slated by them, has originated in, and corn,” it is obvious that it must be alcan only be maintained by, large addie most impossible to arrive at any very tions to the farming capital of the kiny- precise conclusion; and that this price dow. The great source of this encou- will vary according to the variations of ragement, in the judgment of your com- soil, markets, skill, and industry in the mittee, is to be traced to the increasing occupier, and many other circunstances population and growing opulence of the affecting diff'rently not only different United Kingdom; but it is also not to districts, but different farms in the same be concealed, that these causes, which district. At the same time, there can they trust will be of a perinanent and be no doubt that these circumstances progi essive nature, have been inciden- are taken into consideration, both by tally but considerably aided by those those who let, and these who take events, which, during the continuance of farms ; and that their calculations of the war, operated to check the impor- charges and outgoings on the one hand, tation of foreign corn. The sudden and of return on the other, are made rewal of these impediments appears with a reference to some given price, as to have created, among the occupiers that which, upon a fair average crop, of laud, a sudden degree of aların, would be necessary to remunerate the which, if not allaved, would tend, in the grower. It is this price which your opinion of the witnesses examined by committee hare endeavoured to asceryoor committee, not only to prevent the tain. inclosure and culuvation of great tracts One of the witnesses examined by

254

Report of the Conmittee of the House of Commons

[Oct. I,

your committee, states, that, according portion of wheat is now raised; and it to the calculations which he has inade appears by the evidence, that, if such of the expenses and produce of a farm lands were withdrawn from tillage, they which he occupies, he is of opision that would for many years be of very little wheat being at 72s. per quarter, the use as pasture; and that the loss from growers of corn would be able to live; sucti a change, as well to the oc upiers but this calculation, he adds, is inade as to the general stock of national subon the supposition that the property-tax sistence, would be very great. will be taken off, and the price of labour reduced.

Your comunittee having briefly stated It is the concurrent opinion of most the principal result of their inquiry into of the other witn(580s, that Os. per the state of our own agricuicure, and the quarier is the lowest price which would circumstancs which affect the growth afford to the British grower an adequate and price of corn in the United King. remuneration. Their evidence is in- doin, it renains for i hein to bring before serted at full length in the minutes; and the liouse, mm a like panner, the subtheir names will be found to include stalice of the evidence which they have many of the mo-t eminent surveyors and procured respecting the trade in foreign land agents from different parts of Great corn, which seems paturally to form the Britaill, as well as some persons who second, and only reinaining branch of have been long and very extersively en- this important subject, as far as it stands gaged in the corn trade, and several referred to the consideration of your occupiers of land, distinguished for committee. their practical knowledge, and the accu. They have, in the first place, to express rate manner in which they have kept their regret at nog baving been able to their farming accounts. On this part of procure any information respecting the the subject, it is very material to bear expense of raising com iu foreign coun. in mind, that many of these wiinesses, tries; but, although their endeavours who are very extensively emploved as have failed in this respect, your consurveyors and land-agents in the letting mittee have collected such evidence, on of estates, all concur in stating, that the other poinis, as appears to them very calculations upon which they have pro- important for the due consideration of ceeded for sorne vears have in no instance the corn laws. been below Sos. a quarter; and that they It appears from the statement of Mr. have frequently exceeded tbat price. Scott, a member of your Committee,

Several other witnesses, equally dis- contirined by the evidence of other wit. tinguished for their knowledge and ex- nesses acquainted with the trade in foc perience in matters connected with the reign corn, that, in the countries borletting of estates, and the agriculture of dering on the Baltic and the North Sea, the country, state, that the price of 80s. wheat is grown, not so much for the a quarter will not afford a sufficient pro- consumption of their own population, rection to the British grower. The which is supplied by rye and other infeevidence and calculations which they rior grain, as for a foreign market; that have given to the cummitteo, will also from Poland, in particular, the greatest be found in the appendix; by a refer- part of the wheat annually produced is ence to which it will appear, that seve- regularly sent down to the shipping ports ral prices, froin 84s. up to 96s. have of the Baltic for exportation, and that been stated by different witnesses, as the these are the only ports of Europe to lowest which, under the present charges which the countries not growing wheat and expense of cultivation, would afford enough for their own consuinption can a fair remuneration to the grower. resort with a certainty of procuring an

It may be proper to observe, that these annual supply. In these ports, it appears latter calculations appear, in most in- from the evidence, that the price of stances, to be furnished by witnesses, wheat is not regulated, as it is in counwhose attention and experience have tries wbere it forms the habitual subsistbeen principally directed to districts con- ence of the people, by the state of the sisting chiefly of cold clay, or waste and home market, but almost entirely by the inferior lands, on which wheat cannot demand in the other countries of Europe, be grown but at an expense exceeding which are in the habit of making large the average charge of its cultivation on purchases in the Baltic; that the market better soils. On lands of this descrip- price of wheat at Dantzic, for instance, tion, however, a very considerable pro- is not so much affected by the abund:

1814.)

On Petitions relating to the Corn Lars.

255

ance or deficiency of the crop in Poland, event of our own growth being any thing where, be the quantity more or less, it below an average crop?"_" Certainly is grown for exportation, as it is by the not." price in the markets of London or Lis- “ On the other hand, were a large bon. It is therefore obvious, that, if importation to take place, such as you the prices in these and the other im- have stated under circumstances may porting markets should be very low, the lappen, when the price is at or below price in the ports of the Billic musi Pall 63s., would not the effect be to discogto meet them; consequently there is rage the growth of wheat in this kingscarcely any price in our own market, dom?"-" Certainly it would." which, under circumstances of a general The evidence of Mr. Charles Fredeabundance in the other parts of Europe, rick Hennings, a natire of Elbing, locally would be sufficiently low to prevent an acquainted with the districts of Poland, importation of corn from those foreign rom which the corn is sent to the ports ports at which a considerable supply is of the Baltic for exportation, and himannually accumulated for exportation self a corp-factor of considerable expeonly. The evidence of Mr. Scott, on rience in London, is in substance the this point, appears to your comınittee to same as that of Mr. Scott on this imbe so material, and his knowledge and portant part of the trade in foreign corn. eiperience give so much weight to that Two obvious, but very important inevidence, that they cannot forbear in- ferences, are to be derived from this Serting it. It is as follows:

evidence: 1st, That in the event of the " Sopposing the gröweh of wheat in price at which foreign corn should be this kingdom to be below an average adinitred to importation duty-free being crop, do you think that any iinportation raised from 63s. to 80s. per quarter, (asthat could be reckoned upon from the suming, for the sake of argument, the Baltic would prevent the price of wheat latter to be the price necessary for the in the home market froin rising above protection of the British grower,) this 80s, a quarter?"_" I think not,"

alteration would in no degree check the "Do you think that importations importation of corn from foreign counfrom other quarters, aiding that from the tries, whenever the quantity grown in Baltic, would produce that effect."- this kingdom should be below an average "Unless under circumstances of a gene- crop. And 2nd, That, under certain ral abundance in the countries not habis circumstances, a price in the bome mare tually exporting corn, I think not." ket, already so low as to be altogether

“ Sopposing the price in England to inadequate to the remuneration of the I be 63 s. a quarter, and a general abund- British grower, miglit be still further de. ance in Europe, do you think that a pressed by an importation of foreign Considerable importation could take place corn, if the law should not interfere tu llo this country?"_“I do."

check such importations. “ Do you think it could at any price In France, it appears by the evidence, below 635., supposing the duty not to the growth of wheat is, in common years, counteract such importation?"_" It is fully adequate to her consuniption; and d.hcult to state what price would be that it is only occasionally, when her lüfficiently low to prevent an importa- own harvest is very deficient, that any tra fröin those parts that annually have considerable purchases are made on her a considerable quantity to spare.” account in the Baltic. This country, on

“ Under the circumstances above the contrary, having been for many years lated, would not such an importation habitually and extensively dependent on tead matcrially to depress the bonne a foreign supply, our demand bas borne fearket, even though the prices were as so large a proportion to that of other law as 63s. per quarter.”_"Undoubts countries, that the Baltic prices are prin

cipally governed by those of the British "You have stated, that no importa- market. That this is the case, even ini tion that could be reckoned upon would the present year, is in sume degree core present the price of corn, in the home roborated by a paper furnished to your tartet, from rising above 80s., in the committee by Mr. John Wilson ; by which event of our own growth being below an it appears, that on the 17th of May last,

rerage crop; now do you think that, in the price of wheat at Dautzic was from de event of the protecting price against 350f. to 380f. per last, making at the importation being raised from 63s, to then exchange upon London of 14-15, a

s., the quantity of corn imported would price of about 21. 9s. 10d. per quarter; * diminished one single bushel, in the but that on the 3d of June, when the

256

Report on Petitions relating to the Corn Laus.

(Oct. 1,

exchange upon London had risen to state, in which nothing but a discourage18-12, the price of Dantzic wheat im- ment and consequent falling off of var mediately followed it; so that, notwithio own agriculture can again drive us to the standing this great improvement of the necessity of trusting to large importations exchange in favour of this country, the of foreign corn, except in unfortunate prices at which wheat could be pur- seasons, when it may be necessary to rechased by a bill upon London, remained sort to this resource, to supply the denearly the same, viz. f. 970 to f. 590 per ficiency of our own harvest. last, or 21. 10s. 8d. per quarter.

Should this expectation be confirmed, If this country, either froin policy or as they trust it will, by the experience of necessity, should continue to depend on future years, it will be highly gratifying the import of foreign corn for the sub- to the view which your cominittee iake sistence of a portion of its population, of this important national concern. They it is obvious, from all the evidence, that are convinced that a reliance on foreign the Baltic is the only part of Europe importation, to a large amount, is neither upon which we can rely for a steady and salutary nor safe for this country to look regular supply; that Spain and Portugal to as a permanent system; and that are more or less our habitual competi- many of the sacrifices and privations to tors in that market; and that France which the people have been obliged to resorts to it occasionally, when her own submit, during the late long and arduous harvest is deficient. Occasionally also, contest, would have been materially allethe government of France appears to viated if their means of subsistence had permit the exportation of a part of her been less dependent on foreigo growth. own produce, but only for a limited time, If, compelled by the frequent recurrence and when her own markets are very of those sacrifices and privations, the much depressed. This, therefore, is a country has at last made exertions which resource which cannot be reckoned upon will enable us, under ordinary circumby an habitually importing country. It stances, to hold ourselves independent inay be forthcoming when least wanted, of the precarious aid of foreign supply, and withheld at the moment of our your committee, without venturing to greatest need.

suggest the mode, cannot doubt that it It is a fact not undeserving the atten- will become the wisdom, and will consetion of the house, that a considerable quently be the policy of parliament, on duty appears to be levied on all corn ex- the one hand, ty protecting British agriported from the Baltic. Your committee culture, to maintain, it not to extend, the bave reason to believe, that this duty present scale of its exertions and prohas been greatly increased on some oc- duce; and on the other, consistently oasions, when the wants of this country with this first object, to afford the were most pressing. Indeed it cannot greatest possible facility and inducement escape observation, that revenue being to the import of foreign corn, whenever, the object for which a duty is imposed, from adverse seasons, the stock of our and the prices in the Baltic being go- own growth shall be found inadequate verned by price here, the scale of such a to the consumption of the united King. duty admits of being increased in propor- dom. tion to the degree of scarcity and conse As connected with the general intequent high price existing in this country. rests of trade, even independent of the

From a consideration of this and the great object of occasionally supplying many other inconveviences, both do- our own wants, it is evident that the nestic and political, which, in a country country possesses peculiar advantages like this, cannot fail to grow out of a for becoming a deposit for foreign corn. state of habitual and extensive depen- It can only be made sɔ hy our allowing dence on a supply of foreign corn, your the free import of grain, to be bonded comunittee have great satisfaction in ob- and warehoused free from all duty, and serving, that of late the export of corn as much as possible from local charges from Great Britain and Ireland has or harassing regulations; and by the nearly, if not fully balanced the im- owners of grain so bonded being permitportation. Looking to this important ted, at all times, and under all circumchange in our situation; to the abu- stances, to take out of the warehouses, dance which we now enjoy; and to the either for exportation or home consumpgreat and extensive improvement made tion ; subject, in the latter case, only to ia cultivation both here and in Ireland, the same rules and duties as may be apa your committee cannot but indulge a plicable to any oiher corn immediately hope, that we have ncarly arrived at that entered for that purpose. Your cond

1814.]

Review of New Musical Publications.

257

mittee are so forcibly impressed with the Mr. James Buxton, of Essex, farmer. importance of this measure, that they John Bennett, of Wiltshire, esq. farmer camiot conclude this report without and landbolder. staring their orinion,--that any elicou- Mr. Richard Crabtree, of Oakingham, ragem at which could ensure to this Berkshire, valuer of lands. country the benefit of becoming the place

George Davis Carr, esq. proprietor and ocoltermediate deposit in the trade of cupier of land in the county of Essex.

William Gillies, esq. corn-factor, corn from the north to the south of

Mr. John Wilson, corn-f ctor. Europe, would, in addition to other very

Arthur Foung, esq. secretary to the Board instant aivintages, bare at all timesa of As

of Agriculture, teljuicy tu cep th3; rice more steady M. Kennet Kingsforit. of Becligh, near in the bone market, a!!! to afford to the Maldon, in Essex, four-manufacturer. couni yi seviy, tie best periar's that, Samuel Scoti, esq. a member of the comin the present icre sed state of our po- mittee.

pulauen, can be divised, igainst the de- Mr. Charles Mant, importer of corn. i fects of a deficient harvest.

Mr. Peter Giles, corn-factor in London. July 20, 1814.

Mr. Morris Birkbeck, of Surrey, farmer.

Mr. Charles Frederick Hennings, importer In the course of the inquiries on this

of corn on commission. important subject, the following wito

Mr. Samuel Kingsford, of Wandsworth,

in the county if Surrey, miller, nesses, whose evidence is very volu

Mr. Joseph Wilks, miller and biscuitannous, were examined:

baker. William Driver, esq. land-surveyor,

Claude Scott, esq. formerly dealer in corn, Mr. John Bailey, formerly land-surveyor, now an agriculturist. now agent.

Mr. William Aitchison, of East Lothian, Me John Claridge, land-agent and sur farmer and distiller.

Mr. John Reilly, mercantile agent. Mr. Robert Harvey, of Dunstal, in the

Mr. John Brodie, of East Lothian, farmer. county of Stafford, lul-agent.

M). Wm. Turnbull, of South Belton, We William Henning, of Dellington, in near Dunbar, farnier. county of Somerset, land-owner, &c.

Mr. John Kendall, corn-inspector. Vi. Josiah Easton, of Bradford, near Mr. John Kingsford, formerly a manufac1.unton, Somerseeshire, farmer, land-sur

turer of flour, and now agent to a miller. Feyor, and steward to several gentlemen.

Mr. Thomas Douglas, corn and flour inMr. Edward Wakefield, of St. Edmunds

spector. bury, in Suffolk, land-agent.

Mr. William Henry Hall, formerly a ba. Mr. Francis Webb, of Salisbury, Wand

ker, now a miller. surveyor and land-arent.

Mr. John Inglis, a merchant in London, George Maxwell, esq. of Flitton, in the

concerned in the Canada and West India Couilty of Huntington, land-occupier.

Trade. Mr. William Clutton, of Ryegate, Surrey, Mr. Edward Ellis, a merchant trading to and-agent and farmer.

Canada.

REVIEW OF NEW MUSICAL PUBLICATIONS. Elements of Musical Composition ; com- far as our limits will permit. The first chapter pichending rules for thorough bass, and the treats of notes, intervals, scales, and keys, with theary of tuning. By William Crotch, Mus. examples of the diatonic, chroinatic, and enhar. Doc. Prof. Mus. Oxon.

monic, scales and intervals. A full explanation of

the different keys ur modes, with the proper Dame 1t 13 a circumstance much to be regretted, that, out of the past number of scientific professors of

of each note in the scale, )according to the plan of hic, so few are capable of expressing their ideas

Raineau) as tonic, supertonic, inediant, subdominant, 13 appropriate language. From this cause the proSead genias of a Baumgarten, and a Dieties

dominant, sub mediant, learling note, or subtonic

6 ster, lase been lost to the public, and only

The mode of chusing do. for the key note throughStors to these few who enjoyed the advautage of the squaintance. We are bappy to find in the

out is the means of avoiding ruci. perplexity.

Clapter II treats of concords, in which copious Fozle before as the excellent innsician and classita scholar anited. To a short, but modest pre

examples in notes are given of diatonic and chro. lep the author observes, that " Originality seldom

matie' successions of trius, both simple and mixed, rom the leading feature of a work of this kind.

mules for avoiding consccative perfect fifths, and Tivatises already published bave been consulted,

octavos, &c, closes or cadences.

In Chapter III. we find the proper mode of pre. esntributed materially to some parts of the Fork. Notwithstanding this much new matter is

paring and resolving discords, whether introduced atraduced, and old ideas are placed in an im

in the way of addition, suspension, tran ition, or prised point of view.

syncopation; this is by far the longest aud most

lcarnea chanter in toe treatise. A short chapter But the hasten to give an accoun: o. the work as SIW MONTHLY Magi-No. 9.

VOL. II. Mm

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